Diabetes is a chronic complicated disease. For that reason, self-care management and education are necessary to control blood glucose levels todecrease mortality and morbidity rate, the risk of complications and adverse medication related events. Lack of knowledge about a diabetic medication and non-adherence contribute to poor glycemic control among diabetes patients. Therefore, this study aims to assess relationship between medication knowledge and medication adherence among T2DM. A cross sectional study was carried out in outpatient's diabetic clinic in University Malaya Medical Centrevia recruiting 250 participants. A set of questionnaires from earlierresearch were used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis is used to analyze the data. The inclusive results indicated that, the mean age of the participants was 57.90 ±13.22 within 56years. More than half of patients (52.5%) had poor medication knowledge, and 47.5% had good knowledge. In terms of medication adherence, most of the participants (87.0%) had medium medication adherence; whereas, only 1.3% showed high medication adherence. However, there was no correlation between medication knowledge and medication adherence (p=0.743). The chi-square results indicated that medication knowledge was associated significantly with gender, educational level, employment status and monthly income (p value < 0.05). In conclusion it can be said that this study provides insight for healthcare professional about medication knowledge and adherence which are important for managing diabetes. Awareness of these factors will allow them to be more effective about medication counseling so that patients can become self-responsible and realize the benefits of prescribed therapies.
Background: Hospital medicine is characterized as a multifaceted team-based activity with a necessity for a high level of accuracy, timely, and reliable communication. Effective communication among healthcare providers is the key to successful collaboration within the healthcare system. Effective communication can improve patient safety, job satisfaction, and reduce burn out syndrome among nurses. The purpose of the study was to identify the factors contributing to the competency gap between and doctors in four private hospitals in Malaysia. Method: The study used a descriptive qualitative design to elicit the experience of 15 doctors from three private hospitals. A semi-structured interview was conducted to collect the data. The data were analyzed using Colaizzi's method for thematic data analysis. Results: The findings of the study suggested three main categories as the factors contributing to the communication gap among nurses and doctors as perceived by specialist doctors. The three categories include nurses training attributes, graduate nurse attributes, and work environment attributes. The nurses training attributes include entry requirements for student's recruitment into the nursing program, undergraduate training process, and assessment of student nurses. The graduate nurse's attributes had nine elements. The elements include a post-registration thirst for knowledge, medical English knowledge, self-confidence, stress management skills, critical thinking, and clinical judgment skills, perceived power on the authority of doctors, passion to work, time management skills as well as stress and personal factors of nurses. The working environment attributes included workload of nurses, teamwork among nurses Preceptorship, and appreciation of nurses by the organization. The informants also suggested measures to overcome the competency gaps among nurses. Conclusion: In conclusion, the nurse's communication competency is a vital factor in determining patient safety and quality of care. The quality of nursing care has a significant impact on the image of any health care organization. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the factors contributing to poor communication among nurses and doctors and to initiate interventions to fill the communication gap.
This quantitative-oriented research was conducted to identify factors that contributed to errors in dispensing medication among nurses and to understand why nurses did not report their errors in dispensing. In this study a total of 284 U29 nurses participated in focusing on factors contributing to medication errors and failure to report the errors. In this study, analysis of the data collected was made in two sections; dispensing errors and failure to report the errors in giving medication. According to Evans et al. (2006) although nurses may not admit directly to such errors, they expressed their perceptions towards situations described in the questionnaire items as contributing to medication errors among nurses. Almost all in the sample of 284 chose not to report medication errors because they could not identify the cause of dispensing errors; other nurses perceived that the individual involved is not competent in performing the task. Other reasons include fear that the action will be exposed by the management, to avoid publicity from the media, and there is no difference in reporting or not reporting the medication errors. This study was done not only for exploring factors of medication errors; it also aspires to identify problems that arise in hospital services and in order to maintain the quality of health care. The management should consider the impact of medication errors and failure to report medication errors on the nursing profession and quality image of the hospital.
The profession of Nursing has taken a huge leap forward both during the time of Florence Nightingale to
today's modern age. This article sheds light on the journey of nursing, from its humble roots to Nightingale's
contributions and the various breakthroughs of the present along with a focus on the pros and cons as well as
the strengths and weaknesses of Nursing in both Nightingale's and today's time. Various aspects in both time
periods are considered in this article along with a note that emphasizes on the contemplation rather than
outperformance in the field of Nursing in both time periods.
Stroke is the most important cause of death and foremost cause for dysfunction around the globe. As a result increase in the numberof elderly population the incidence of stroke has emerged as an important public health problem. Major developments have taken place in the field of medication for the prevention and treatment of stroke during the past decade. In spite of major interventions proposed by several organizations and the government, the present scenario of the stroke management facilities is still not promising. This article intends to investigate the health care facilities present for the elderly individuals with high risk of strokereoccurrence through proper analysis of the health system in Malaysia. The objectives are to find out evidence-based, reasonably priced and endurable measures to control the recurrences of stroke and to evaluate the outcomes of these interventions. It was noticed that in Malaysia though there many amenities for stroke patients are available but reorganizing and strengthening of few aspects such as human resource by multidisciplinary input is necessary for proper management of senior stroke patients. Moreover monitoring is essential to support patients after discharge from the hospital. The ethical variations among patient with stroke recurrence and the risk factor associated with stroke is not fully understood by healthcare workers. So, this study attempts to guide the stroke patient, their families and the health care workers to prevent stroke recurrence.
Keywords: Stroke, Stroke Interventions, Stroke in Malaysia
Background: Consistent with other countries, Malaysia suffers from a shortage of nursing faculty. In several studies it has been seen that job satisfaction has been shown to contribute to retention of nurse educators. The majority of these studies are from developed countries and were conducted over ten years ago. As a result these findings may not be relevant to contemporary Malaysia. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among nurse lecturers in Malaysia.
Methods: A total of 20 nursing colleges throughout Malaysia were selected for random sampling, of which 30% agreed to participate. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire with additional demographic and organizational characteristics questions was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics was used to examine differences in job satisfaction between demographic and organizational variables. Spearman’s rho was used to test the relationship between each of the demographic / organizational characteristics and overall job satisfaction.
Results: A total of 73 nurse lecturers (73% response rate) returned the completed questionnaire. The findings indicated only a moderate level of job satisfaction. There were no significant correlations between demographic or organizational variables and overall job satisfaction levels with the exception of the number of students (p = 0.017).
Conclusions: An understanding of the factors affecting job satisfaction among nursing faculty could enhance retention and recruitment in this profession. Further research using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches is recommended to provide an in-depth understanding of nursing lecturers’ perceptions of job satisfaction.
Keywords: Nurse Job Satisfaction, Nurse Lecturers, Nurse Job
Patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are known as
high-risk groups for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adequate related knowledge among them
helps to increase their awareness towards CKD and adapt healthy attitude and practices for CKD
prevention, which will result in better health outcomes. This study aimed to identify the patients'
knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards the risks for CKD. This cross-sectional study used a selfadministered
survey questionnaire on 103 adult male and female patients at four general surgical and
medical wards in a teaching hospital using convenient sampling method. The data were computed using
STATA version 12. Data on KAP were obtained through the Chronic Kidney Disease Screening Index
questionnaire. The majority of respondents had poor knowledge (69.9%, n=72), but most of them had good
attitude (68.9%, n=71) and good practices (88.3%, n=91) towards the risk of CKD. Significant associations
were indicated between education level, occupation and monthly family income with knowledge (p-value <
0.05). Significant associations were also indicated between age, sex, marital status and occupation with
their attitude (p-value < 0.05). Meanwhile, marital status was found to be significantly associated with the
practices towards the risk for CKD (p-value=0.008).
Poor knowledge on the risk of getting CKD among hospitalized adults in this study implied the need for
improvement in the public understanding towards the risk for CKD.
Introduction: Worldwide, cervical cancer is the fifth most common cause of death caused by cancer
following other types of cancer (Parkin, Louie & Clifford, 2008). In Malaysia, cervical cancer is the third
most common cancer among women and the fourth most prevalent cause of death (Parkin et al., 2010;
Ministry of Health, Malaysia, MOH, 2006). Many studies indicated that knowledge of cervical cancer
would improve screening coverage and preventive practices among women. It is important for young
females to have appropriate knowledge and practices regarding cervical cancer and its prevention, since
they are vulnerable to get this kind of preventable disease.
Methodology: Adescriptive cross-sectional quantitative study design was used to find out the knowledge,
attitude and practices about cervical cancer and its prevention among the university female students in
Malaysia. Self-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. The questionnaire
focused on the demographic characteristics, knowledge on causes, risks, attitude and practice regarding
prevention of cervical cancer.
Findings: In general, the respondents had moderate and low level of knowledge regarding cervical cancer
and risks factors. Majority (76%) of respondents knew that HPV vaccine could prevent occurrences of
cervical cancer. Most of the respondents did not know about the risks and symptoms of cervical cancer.
However, nearly two-third (72%) had positive attitude on cervical cancer whereas approximately one-third
(28%) showed their negative attitude towards cervical cancer. Regarding attitude statements, nearly all
statements were showed positive attitude except the fact that they were examined by male doctors for Pap
smear. Most of respondents (73% Vs 93% respectively) had never been vaccinated against cervical cancer
before, and never experienced the Pap smear test before.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the knowledge and practices regarding cervical cancer among the female
students at the study area were generally insufficient. There is a need for health education program among
them to increase their knowledge, awareness, and practices on cervical cancer and its prevention so as to
enhance the cervical screening rates among them and prevent occurrences of cervical cancer in their later
Background: The prevalence of asthma among children is common. In Malaysia, the clinical observations have demonstrated that many children with asthma were not properly assessed and did not get proper treatment. Hence, poor asthma control could cause disruption to the child's ability to get enough sleep, to pay attention, to participate in school activities and thus affecting their quality of life.nagement
Aim: The objective was to determine the effect of PAEP to change the quality of life of children, parents' mapractice and parents' technique of using an inhaler for their asthmatic children.
Methods: The study design was a one group pre-test-post-test intervention study. The respondents consisted of 78 parents with asthmatic children, aged between 8 to 12 years old. Parents were required to answer the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory Questionnaire, Management Behaviour Survey for Familial Caregivers and skills of inhaler technique using the checklist at the Paediatric Clinic Hospital USM. Following that were given a date to attend PAEP and were assessed two months later for postintervention. The analysis for PedsQL, Management Behaviour Survey for Familial Caregivers and skill of inhaler technique was done by using paired t-test. A total of 70 parents completed the study.
Results: The study showed that the mean age for children with asthma was 9.31 years. PedsQL pre-intervention scores were 75.8%, and post-intervention 82.8%. The Mean of Management Behaviour Surveyfor Familial Caregivers scores increased from 53.16 to 62.33 pre-intervention and post-intervention, respectively. While the mean skill scores for inhaler user had increased from 3.43 to 7.13 for the MDI with a spacer. The findings showed statistical significance with P-values (<0.001) for PedsQL, Management Behaviour Survey for Familial Caregivers and skill scores for inhaler use.
Conclusion: The PAEP had improved the children's quality of life, parents management practice andinhaler skills among parents with asthmatic children.
Keywords : Prevalence, asthma, quality of life
Study site: Paediatric clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
Medication errors could bring serious consequences to patients. Reporting medication error is a strategy to
mitigate such incidence from happening. Unfortunately, some nurses do no report the errors due to certain
factors. Determining the factors influencing unreported medication errors will ensure imperative actions
that are to be taken to curb this issue. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and perceived
causes of unreported medication errors among nurses in a public hospital in Selangor. A descriptive and
cross-sectional study was carried out in 26 wards from various disciplines and the sample involved 234
nurses. The data were gathered through self-reported questionnaires consisting of three sections. The first
section covered demographic characteristics, the second section aimed to obtain information on the
frequency of medication error incidents and the last section aimed to obtain information on nurses'
perceptions of barriers in reporting medication errors. The findings of this study indicated that there was a
significant relationship between level of education and the nurses' perceptions of barriers in reporting
medication errors. The study recommended that providing enough education, initiating a non-punitive
culture may help increase voluntary reporting of medication errors among nurses to strengthen the
reporting system and to avert medication errors in the future.
Clinical posting is the most important part in nursing education, requiring knowledge, skills, and the right
attitude to facilitate the development to be a professional nurse. However, clinical posting was found to be the
most stressful phase for nursing students throughout their education process in most countries. As nursing
students enter the real hospital environment with the lack of knowledge and nursing skills, their health can be
affected. The aim of this study is to assess the level of stress and physio-psycho-social symptoms among
nursing students in a public university during clinical posting. This cross-sectional study design involved 181
undergraduate nursing students who had completed their clinical posting in a government hospital. The
results showed that the nursing students experienced stress most of time especially during their clinical
posting. The most common cause of stress was from the workload and assignment and the most common
response to stress was behavioral symptoms. This study revealed that the residence where these students lived
had significance with the level of stress during their clinical posting (p=0.01). Detecting early stress events,
creating more effective environment and understanding the effectiveness of coping behaviors may help
nursing educators reduce the negative effects of stress which will altogether help students handle stress more
HIV/AIDS is a matter of concern and has become a pandemic disease that threatens the world population. It
has remained one of the priorities in global public health challenges. Caring for people with HIV/AIDS
requires clinical expertise as well as high-quality skills for health care providers. The purpose of the study was
to examine knowledge and attitude on HIV/AIDS patients among nursing students. A cross-sectional study
was conducted in Public University at Wast Cost Malaysia. The 126 respondents of nursing students agreed to
participate in the study using a self-administered questionnaire that was designed and modied after reading
and referring to articles, books, and journals. The results of the research revealed that nursing students, in
general, have a satisfactory knowledge (mean score 30.71), but had a moderate attitude toward HIV/AIDS
patient with total mean score 2.34. Most of the students (89.3%) get the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS
through the internet. The majority of the students knew that blood transfusion (99.4%) and sharing
needles/syringe (99%) were the higher sources HIV/AIDS modes of transmission. Most of the students agreed
that peoples with HIV/AIDS should be treated in society with support from the community (97.0%). Although
the knowledge level of nursing students seems to be satisfactory, but they still showed the moderate attitude
towards HIV/AIDS patients. Thus, structured education programmes should be conducted by nursing faculty
to ensure that nursing students gain the necessary accurate knowledge and an appropriate attitude towards the
care of HIV/AIDS patients.
Background: Standard Precaution (SP) is a very important health issue that has not been well-emphasized. The outcome of not following the SP is a serious problem that can lead to the blood-borne infection.
Methods: A set of self-administered anonymous questionnaire were given to all healthcare personnel in 4 selected Emergency Department (ED), hospital in Kelantan to assess the knowledge and practice of standard precaution.
Results: Almost half of the healthcare personnel were having a good knowledge 115 (57.8%) and good practice 156 (78.4%) towards SP. For those who did not comply with SP, complained oflackoftime as the main reason (38.5%) followed by interference with their work (29.2% ). There was no significant difference between presence of Emergency Physician or not in ED with the compliance towards SP.
Conclusion: Though majority of the healthcare personnel in ED possessed a good level of knowledge and practice towards SP, the staff compliance should be revised regularly wherever necessary to improve the precautions.
Keywords: Standard precaution, Emergency Department, Malaysian Nurse
In Malaysia, women had breast cancer always reported at their late stage. One of the causes is due to the delay in seeking medical attention. Poor knowledge about the breast cancer is one of the factors that cause the delay. Aim: This study was designed to assess the knowledge on breast cancer symptoms and risk factors, screening method, and practice among participants. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done from 1st of March till 15th of March 2016 involving 89 nursing students from School of Nursing Science, Medical Faculty, University Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. Results: Eighty-nine participants responded. Majority of the students (>80.0%) knew the symptoms of breast cancer and common method of screening. Less than 50.0% knew the high risk factor for developing breast carcinoma. Less than 50.0% carried out the breast self-examination. Conclusion: Students had excellent knowledge on symptoms of breast carcinoma and its screening method. Majority (>50%) of the students were still not clear about high risk factors group. Lack of breast self-examination practice among students was noted.
Diabetes Mellitus has become one of the major and rising diseases affecting population all around the world. The most common complication that rises from the Diabetes Mellitus is diabetic foot ulcer. The increasing rate in diabetic foot ulcer among elderly has become a challenge that continues to rise and worsen. This study is conducted to determine the knowledge and practice of foot care and also the relationship between socio demographic data with knowledge of foot care among diabetic elderly in UKM Medical Centre (UKMMC). This is a quantitative cross-sectional descriptive study. A total of 81 respondents are being participated in this study. More than half of the study participants are female and majority of them are 60-74 years old. The result showed a significant relationship between gender and marital status with the knowledge of foot care among elderly diabetic patient in UKMMC. The present study showed that there was no significantly relationship between age, occupation, monthly income, duration of diabetes, body image and level of education with the knowledge and the level of foot care. In conclusion, the result of this study will help the health organization, hospital, nurses and care giver to take more responsibilities of foot care for diabetic elderly individuals.
Study site: Elderly patients from orthopaedicf emale or male ward, surgical ward, medical ward, orthopaedic clinic and medical clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The evolution of nursing profession and education has taken its pace over the past years. Therefore, with the changes in nursing education over the years, the level of professional socialization among the students has become an area of interest. The objectives of this pilot study were to explore and compare the level of professional socialization between the diploma and degree nursing students (ﬁrst year and ﬁnal year) using the measuring tool of NPVS-R as well as to identify the demographic variables related to the level of professional socialization among the nursing students. From this pilot study, it was found that there was no signiﬁcant difference in the level of professional socialization between the diploma and degree nursing students (p = 0.133). With regards to the demographic variables related to the level of professional socialization, signiﬁcant difference was found only for the variable of father's educational level (p = 0 .035).
Keywords: Professional Socialization, Diploma and Degree Nursing Students, Nursing Education
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and even in Malaysia. Hence, the knowledge of adiponectin with regards to gestational diabetes mellitus is a key contributor to disparity in maternal and neonatal morbidities. This study aimed to assess nurses' knowledge of adiponectin and its association with gestational diabetes and obesity in pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was employed. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Ninety one nurses (100%) were aware that obesity increased adverse health outcome among pregnant women, but some confusion exits among nurses about adiponectin with regards to pregnancy. Most of the nurses lack condence in providing care to pregnant women with many (82.4%) addressed the need for education on this topic. In the one-way ANOVA analysis, nurses' knowledge score was significantly associated with education level (p<0.001) and working experience in maternity units (p<0.001). This study demonstrates gaps in the knowledge of adiponectin and its association with obesity and pregnancy. Continuous nursing education for nurses on adiponectin and obesity-related issues in early pregnancy should be strengthened to enhance knowledge and confidence in providing quality antenatal services.
Keywords : Nurses, adiponectin, obesity, pregnancy, gestational diabetes
Aim: This study aims to determine the perception of adult patients towards the importance of prevention of coronary artery diseases (CAD) in order to raise awareness on the risk of CAD.
Method: 80 adults between 18-40 years old were enrolled in the out-patient department at a private hospital. The awareness and perception of the importance of preventing CAD were assessed using a questionnaire.
Result: The level of perception on the importance of prevention of CAD was quite good. 75% of the subjects (n = 60) recorded good level of perception meaning they are aware of the importance of prevention of CAD. 22.5% of the subjects (n = 18) recorded a satisfactory level of perception while only 2.5% of the subjects (n = 2) recorded a poor level of perception towards the importance of prevention of CAD. Majority of the subjects had good perception on importance of a balanced diet, exercise and active lifestyle.
Conclusion: In conclusion it can be said that although people are aware of the risk posed by CAD, recommendations such as proper health teachings and guide lines are still required to ensure that the community is able to understand the risk and take preventive measure in order to reduce the risk of obtaining the risk of heart disease.
Study site: Outpatient clinic, private hospital, Malaysia
Clinical practice is an essential component of the nursing student's training. The practice allows nursing students the opportunity to relate theory into practice during nursing care to the patients. The aim of this project was to determine perceptions of clinical placement experience with respect to clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance among nursing students. A total 254 participants undergoing training at Nursing College Kubang Kerian participated in this project. They were selected using the Raosoft sample size calculator. Survey questionnaires were distributed to 80 participants from ﬁrst year, 88 from second year and 86 participants from third year. The questionnaire consisting of 25 items with 5-point Likert Scale responses was used to measure nursing students' perceptions towards nurses during their clinical placement experience. In addition, demographic factors such as age groups, ethnicity, educational levels and years of training were examined. The items were pilot-tested and the Cronbach Alpha values obtained for clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance consisting of 0.80, 0.80 and 0.83 respectively. The ﬁnal data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Non-parametric Kruskal Wallis was used to make comparisons where sub samples were imbalanced. The level of signiﬁcance was set at 0.05. The results indicate that nursing students perceived their clinical placement positively. Perceptions towards clinical practice were signiﬁcantly different between nurses based on their residential areas and years of training. The results of this study revealed that there were challenges for the nursing educators, clinical instructors and other health providers in achieving a supportive clinical environment for the nursing students.
Keywords: Nursing, Clinical Placement, , Clinical Practice, Enhancement or Hindrance in learning
Pain is a sensation that is difficult to remember. Pain exposure is a stimulus that can damage the development of the baby's brain and contribute to learning disorders and behavior in childhood. Therefore nursing intervention is needed that can reduce the pain response in infants, especially during hospital treatment. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of non-nutritive sucking (NNS) and ASI (Air Susu Ibu or Breast Milk) on oral responses to acute pain in the neonate when invasive actions were performed. The benefits of research as evidence-based practiced about administering NNS and ASI orally to pain responses in neonates when experiencing pain. The research design uses experimental nonequivalent control group before and after design. The population of all neonates admitted to Dr. Soekardjo Tasikmalaya, with a total sample of 30 respondents consisting of 15 ASI respondents and 15 respondents for the NNS group. Pain assessments instruments CRIES (Crying, Requiring an increase in oxygen, Increased vital sign, Expression, Sleeplessness) was applied. Data analysis used non parametric tests Mann Whitney and Wilcoxon. The results of the study showed no significant differences in pain response before and after the intervention (p-value 0.236). It was suggested that nurses can improve health education for parents to be able to provide breastfeeding during treatment, especially when the baby receives invasive action