Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic flavivirus. The epidemiology of this emergent hitherto neglected disease has become a poignant interest in the context of the recent outbreaks in South America. The severe impact of which led World Health Organization (WHO) to declare a Public Health Emergency (PHE) of International concern. Interestingly, two recognized and potential vectors of this virus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, have been prevalent in most of the habitable continents in the world including the Indian sub-continent. In accordance to the earlier apprehension, several cases of ZIKV were reported in 2017 and 2018 from the states of Gujarat and Rajasthan in Western India. Studies indicated that the emerging arboviral infections generally stemmed from an animal reservoir, but there is inadequate information on the natural history of several arboviruses, like ZIKV, specially their methods of survival during the inter-epidemic period. Hence, a sustained vector-virus and vertebrate-host surveillance is an imperative necessity in Zika endemic and non-endemic regions to formulate strategies for the prevention offuture outbreak, if any. This review is an attempt to provide an understanding of the interplay of Zika virus and its vector/s and vertebrate host/s in reference to today's changing environment.
Background: In Africa high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in regions of East Africa (0.3%),
West Africa (0.7%), Central Africa (0.2%), South Africa (3.8%), and North Africa (12.5%).
Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the prevalence of obesity among young adults, aged 18-25 years
from five African countries.
Methods: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were applied to
search published studies. of the 100 studies published as found in scientific databases from 2010 to 2017, only
five were selected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
checklist was used to eliminate other studies.
Outcomes: A total of 22,320 obese young adults were analyzed to be prevalent. The obesity among adults in
SouthAfrica was found to be correlated with less physical activities. In Uganda, the prevalence of obesity is
683 which relates with their sedentary lifestyle and socio-demography. Among 371 young adults in Nigeria, the
prevalence of obesity was 5.1% among male and 10% among female related to diet and other consumptions.
Among 646 adults in Ghana, the prevalence of general obesity was observed to be related to genetics.
Conclusion: Prevalence of the male gender was 9,509 having a p=0.284 (at 95% C.I.±4,440.87845-
8,788.87845) with a mean score of 1,251, and a SD= 61,066. While the prevalence of obesity on females was
10,874 having a p= 0.00019, (at 95% C.I.±3,592.07-6,094.07) with a mean score of 2,174, and SD= 3,375.
Providing training on areas of known social cultural limitation such as sexual and reproductive health (SRH) is challenging and many end up with improper training. Present study aims to explore facilitators' skills and exploring feedback on the SRH program implementation. A training program was conducted based on existing module developed by Ministry of Health Malaysia. The focus of the training is on imparting essential sexual reproductive health knowledge for the teachers and instilling confidence in educating it on children and adolescents particularly those with disabilities. Methods The respondents were enrolled from a training centre for teachers trained for special needs children. The fascilitators of the program were the public health doctors in training. A case studies design was used to explore the themes. Nine focus group discussions comprising 15 participants each were conducted on teachers who had participated in the training. A semi-guided questionnaire was used to guide the discussion. Discussions were audio and video recorded with permission then transcribed verbatim. Transcriptions were analysed using thematic analysis to capture similarities and differences in views expressed by the participants. Results Eight themes were derived. Three related to the facilitators which were personality and characteristics, knowledge and skills. Five were related to the programme implementation – time, input, output, outcome and venue. Conclusion Generally, the programme received positive remarks. Programme input needs further improvement. Based on the participants' feedback, the programme managed to achieve its objectives. Facilitators were able to facilitate the training satisfactorily.
Background: The identification, situation, background, assessment and recommendation (ISBAR) is a handoff tool that plays an important role in transferring responsibility and accountability in patient care from outgoing shifts to incoming shifts. Many researchers believe that handoff is very important among nurses. Nurses had the responsibility to ensure patients' correct information which were shared among themselves during handoff. It also delivers the best patient care by improving the transfer of clinical information globally and systematically. Purpose: The aim of the study is to determine nurse's perception and compliance on ISBAR tool for handoff communication in tertiary hospital, Dammam. Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in oncology unit at tertiary hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Total sample size was 70. Questionnaire was the instrument tool in the study to measure nurse's perception and compliance on ISBAR tools. Result: The overall perception mean score achieved was 38.64±1.455 and compliance score was 7.73±0.588. This showed nurses had good perception and compliance on ISBAR tools and none of them had poor perception and compliance regarding the same. There was statistically significant relationship (P=0.000) between perception and compliance on ISBAR tools. Conclusion: ISBAR is reliable and effective handoff communication tools to promote patient safety. However, continuous education should be maintained to ensure all nurses competent in ISBAR tool. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate relationship between nurses' perception and compliance on ISBAR tool.
Globally, the spread of HIV/AIDS is a major public health challenge because of its pandemic magnitudes. Despite the fact that people of any age are susceptible to HIV, the younger population is more susceptible to be infected because of their lifestyle choices. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of HIV/AIDS knowledge level among health science undergraduate university students as they play a primary role within the health care system of a country. A cross-sectional study was conducted by using a semi structured, self-administered, especially design questionnaire. Out of total one hundred fifty undergraduate university students, there were 96 males (64%) and 54 females (36%) with the age ranging from 19-25 years. All the students were able to write the acronym of HIV (100%) and AIDS (100%). Common routes of transmission and prevention measure were known by majority of the students. Students stated correctly regarding HIV/AIDS transmission from mother to child through pregnancy (18.02%), delivery (15.31%) and breast feeding (11.30%) which was very low level of knowledge. Most of the medical, dental and physiotherapy students had correct knowledge on high risk populace for HIV/AIDS; like singles, intravenous drug user, multiple sex partners and commercial sexual partner. Regarding the preventive measure as hand washing, use of facial mask and sexual abstinent was correctly mentioned by only 31.34%, 34.02% and 28.01% total students respectively. However other safety measure like condom use, effectiveness of condom use, screening of blood was widely known by the students. However, regarding the knowledge on treatment issue of HIV/AIDS, majority of the students (85.30%) correctly knew that HIV/AIDS was not curable, whereas only 15.31% and 20.01% correctly knew that the treatment was very expensive and available respectively. So, this study focus the educational endeavors that could be broadened to emphasis on its general knowledge on HIV/AIDS.
Study site: Medical, Dental and Physiotherapy Faculties at a private university college in Malaysia.