The aim of this project was to determine stress levels and to identify the main stressors that contribute to stress among Kolej Poly-Tech Mara (KPTM) nursing students during their clinical placement in order to help them overcome it. Atotal of 324 respondents undergoing training at KPTM participated in this project. The questionnaire consisting of six common stressors with 30 items using a 5-point Likert Scale was used to measure the level of stress among the respondents during their clinical placement. The data collected was examined for normal distribution, and inferential statistics such as correlations were used to seek relationships. The results indicated that the main stressors that contributed to stress among KPTM nursing students were from both environment, along with assignments and workload. There was moderate level of stress among KPTM nursing students during clinical placement and the factor that contributed to stress was due to the the possibility of making an error. Clinical placement is an essential component for nursing student's training. The practice allows nursing students the opportunity to relate the theory into practice during nursing care towards the patients. Findingsfrom this study will provide the nursing educators, clinical instructors with a meaningful understanding of the importance of clinical placement experience.
Adequate consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids are essential during pregnancy because they play an important role in the development offetal brain and retina. The rate of growth remains high during the first year of life. Omega-3 is converted inside the body into longer chain polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexanoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). DHA and EPA are primarily derived from fish and algae. DHA is essential for the growth and functional development of the brain in infants. DHA is also required for the maintenance of normal brain function in adults. The inclusion of adequate amount of DHA in the diet improved learning ability, whereas deficiencies of DHA are associated with deficits in learning. DHA is readily taken up by the brain in preference to other fatty acids. The turnover of DHA in the brain is very fast, more so than is generally realized. The visual acuity of healthy, full-term, formula-fed infants is increased when their formula includes DHA. However, health professionals and the general public in Malaysia may not be aware about the importance, sources or the quantities required for these essential fat components in foods. This review discusses the benefits of omega-3 consumption with particular emphasis during pregnancy and the first year of life. This review will also attempt to discuss sources of omega-3 fatty acids in Malaysia with the aim to achieve the recommended nutrient intakes foromega-3 fatty acids.
Keywords: Omega 3 fatty acids, Lactation in Pregnancy, Sources of Omega-3 FA
Background: Standard Precaution (SP) is a very important health issue that has not been well-emphasized. The outcome of not following the SP is a serious problem that can lead to the blood-borne infection.
Methods: A set of self-administered anonymous questionnaire were given to all healthcare personnel in 4 selected Emergency Department (ED), hospital in Kelantan to assess the knowledge and practice of standard precaution.
Results: Almost half of the healthcare personnel were having a good knowledge 115 (57.8%) and good practice 156 (78.4%) towards SP. For those who did not comply with SP, complained oflackoftime as the main reason (38.5%) followed by interference with their work (29.2% ). There was no significant difference between presence of Emergency Physician or not in ED with the compliance towards SP.
Conclusion: Though majority of the healthcare personnel in ED possessed a good level of knowledge and practice towards SP, the staff compliance should be revised regularly wherever necessary to improve the precautions.
Keywords: Standard precaution, Emergency Department, Malaysian Nurse
Background: Consistent with other countries, Malaysia suffers from a shortage of nursing faculty. In several studies it has been seen that job satisfaction has been shown to contribute to retention of nurse educators. The majority of these studies are from developed countries and were conducted over ten years ago. As a result these findings may not be relevant to contemporary Malaysia. So, the purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among nurse lecturers in Malaysia.
Methods: A total of 20 nursing colleges throughout Malaysia were selected for random sampling, of which 30% agreed to participate. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire with additional demographic and organizational characteristics questions was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics was used to examine differences in job satisfaction between demographic and organizational variables. Spearman’s rho was used to test the relationship between each of the demographic / organizational characteristics and overall job satisfaction.
Results: A total of 73 nurse lecturers (73% response rate) returned the completed questionnaire. The findings indicated only a moderate level of job satisfaction. There were no significant correlations between demographic or organizational variables and overall job satisfaction levels with the exception of the number of students (p = 0.017).
Conclusions: An understanding of the factors affecting job satisfaction among nursing faculty could enhance retention and recruitment in this profession. Further research using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches is recommended to provide an in-depth understanding of nursing lecturers’ perceptions of job satisfaction.
Keywords: Nurse Job Satisfaction, Nurse Lecturers, Nurse Job
Stroke is the most important cause of death and foremost cause for dysfunction around the globe. As a result increase in the numberof elderly population the incidence of stroke has emerged as an important public health problem. Major developments have taken place in the field of medication for the prevention and treatment of stroke during the past decade. In spite of major interventions proposed by several organizations and the government, the present scenario of the stroke management facilities is still not promising. This article intends to investigate the health care facilities present for the elderly individuals with high risk of strokereoccurrence through proper analysis of the health system in Malaysia. The objectives are to find out evidence-based, reasonably priced and endurable measures to control the recurrences of stroke and to evaluate the outcomes of these interventions. It was noticed that in Malaysia though there many amenities for stroke patients are available but reorganizing and strengthening of few aspects such as human resource by multidisciplinary input is necessary for proper management of senior stroke patients. Moreover monitoring is essential to support patients after discharge from the hospital. The ethical variations among patient with stroke recurrence and the risk factor associated with stroke is not fully understood by healthcare workers. So, this study attempts to guide the stroke patient, their families and the health care workers to prevent stroke recurrence.
Keywords: Stroke, Stroke Interventions, Stroke in Malaysia
Caring behaviours presented by the nurses while providing care is the essence of nursing. However, operation theatre nurses must also adhere to the nursing value in social sciences and humanities to address the patient's needs. The concern of the nurses should not only be for the basic life sustaining needs but also for physiological, psychological, socio cultural and spiritual dimension ofpatient's human responses. The purposes of this study were to determine the perception regarding caring behaviours and the level of caring among the Operation theatre nurses in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. In addition, there were associations when the determination between demographic variables like genders and years of experience of the nurses in relation to their caring behaviours is necessary. It isa quantitative, descriptive survey design and 95 nurses participated in the study. The revised Wolfs Caring Behaviours Inventory was used to measure the dimensions of caring. "Professional knowledge and skill" was identified to be the highest among the five dimensions of caring that was being measured. Findings show that the nurses demonstrated a high level of caring behaviours during their course of work. However, none of the demographic factors studied were significantly associated to their caring behaviours.
Keywords: Caring attitudes, Caring behaviours, Dimensions of caring
Clinical practice is an essential component of the nursing student's training. The practice allows nursing students the opportunity to relate theory into practice during nursing care to the patients. The aim of this project was to determine perceptions of clinical placement experience with respect to clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance among nursing students. A total 254 participants undergoing training at Nursing College Kubang Kerian participated in this project. They were selected using the Raosoft sample size calculator. Survey questionnaires were distributed to 80 participants from ﬁrst year, 88 from second year and 86 participants from third year. The questionnaire consisting of 25 items with 5-point Likert Scale responses was used to measure nursing students' perceptions towards nurses during their clinical placement experience. In addition, demographic factors such as age groups, ethnicity, educational levels and years of training were examined. The items were pilot-tested and the Cronbach Alpha values obtained for clinical practice, enhancement of learning and hindrance consisting of 0.80, 0.80 and 0.83 respectively. The ﬁnal data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Non-parametric Kruskal Wallis was used to make comparisons where sub samples were imbalanced. The level of signiﬁcance was set at 0.05. The results indicate that nursing students perceived their clinical placement positively. Perceptions towards clinical practice were signiﬁcantly different between nurses based on their residential areas and years of training. The results of this study revealed that there were challenges for the nursing educators, clinical instructors and other health providers in achieving a supportive clinical environment for the nursing students.
Keywords: Nursing, Clinical Placement, , Clinical Practice, Enhancement or Hindrance in learning
In Malaysia, women had breast cancer always reported at their late stage. One of the causes is due to the delay in seeking medical attention. Poor knowledge about the breast cancer is one of the factors that cause the delay. Aim: This study was designed to assess the knowledge on breast cancer symptoms and risk factors, screening method, and practice among participants. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional study done from 1st of March till 15th of March 2016 involving 89 nursing students from School of Nursing Science, Medical Faculty, University Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). Data analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) Version 21. Results: Eighty-nine participants responded. Majority of the students (>80.0%) knew the symptoms of breast cancer and common method of screening. Less than 50.0% knew the high risk factor for developing breast carcinoma. Less than 50.0% carried out the breast self-examination. Conclusion: Students had excellent knowledge on symptoms of breast carcinoma and its screening method. Majority (>50%) of the students were still not clear about high risk factors group. Lack of breast self-examination practice among students was noted.
Diabetes is a chronic complicated disease. For that reason, self-care management and education are necessary to control blood glucose levels todecrease mortality and morbidity rate, the risk of complications and adverse medication related events. Lack of knowledge about a diabetic medication and non-adherence contribute to poor glycemic control among diabetes patients. Therefore, this study aims to assess relationship between medication knowledge and medication adherence among T2DM. A cross sectional study was carried out in outpatient's diabetic clinic in University Malaya Medical Centrevia recruiting 250 participants. A set of questionnaires from earlierresearch were used to collect the data. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis is used to analyze the data. The inclusive results indicated that, the mean age of the participants was 57.90 ±13.22 within 56years. More than half of patients (52.5%) had poor medication knowledge, and 47.5% had good knowledge. In terms of medication adherence, most of the participants (87.0%) had medium medication adherence; whereas, only 1.3% showed high medication adherence. However, there was no correlation between medication knowledge and medication adherence (p=0.743). The chi-square results indicated that medication knowledge was associated significantly with gender, educational level, employment status and monthly income (p value < 0.05). In conclusion it can be said that this study provides insight for healthcare professional about medication knowledge and adherence which are important for managing diabetes. Awareness of these factors will allow them to be more effective about medication counseling so that patients can become self-responsible and realize the benefits of prescribed therapies.
Sociocultural contexts of motherhood have been found to have a link with postnatal depression. Malaysia has a wide-range of cultural and ethnic backgrounds that offers a wonderful chance to understand the different role of cultures and postnatal practices in relation to postnatal depression. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the link between the Malaysian healthcare system, social and cultural context, the existing health policy and postnatal depression. This paper highlights that while there are different levels of nurses who work collaboratively to manage pregnant and postnatal mothers in the maternal and child health clinic, the focus of their care is more on physical health. The international guidelines for diagnosing PND were not commonly used within the clinics, although the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) has been widely used within psychiatric setting in Malaysia. There is no formal mechanism or assessment to detect PND in the clinics. There were no guidelines found that specifically focused on the management of PND. It is questionable whether the current approaches to promote and manage maternal mental health in Malaysia have a sense of cultural-based strategies. These significant gaps call for empirical evidence that explicitly focussed on the experiences and perceptions of PND in Malaysia.
LBW infants are at risk not only due to neonatal complications but also by other risk factors (eg. congenital anomalies associated with LBW). This research is motivated by the high incidence of LBW in Tasikmalaya City Hospital each year. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between demographic factors in this case the mother's age, maternal education level, socio-economic level with the incidence of LBW. The research hypothesis has a relationship between maternal age, maternal education level, socioeconomic level, pregnancy with LBW incidence. The benefits of research provide a basis for evidencebased practice to nursing practitioners, that there is a relationship between demographic factors (maternal age, education level and socioeconomic level) with the incidence of LBW. Quantitative research method was used with cross sectional approach. The data was processed using univariate and bivariate analysis. The results of the study show no significant relationship between the factors of maternal age, education level, socioeconomic level with the incidence of LBW in Tasikmalaya City Hospital with p value > 0.05 for all variables. From the present study it is suggested that nurses should improve health education so that people can understand better about the risk of LBW.
Introduction: Ministry of Health (MOH) Malaysia colleges, offer diploma and advanced diploma programmes for nursing, assistant medical officer and other allied health personnel. As academic institutions, the trainers are encouraged to participate and enhance the colleges' research productivity. The aim of this study is to explore the perceived barriers and motivation factors for research in MOH colleges. Method: Aqualitative research design was conducted among MOH colleges trainers. Semi structured questions were used in 11 Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and 13 In-Depth Interview (IDI) among 98 respondents from seven MOH colleges. Thematic analysis was used to identify emerging themes from the interviews. Results: Three institutional factors motivate engagement in research: key performance indicator, research support and research skills. Majority of respondents were aware of the importance of research, but their research productivity is low due to perceived barriers related to human resource, research material, technical and funding support. Conclusion: The findings are useful in understanding research motivation as well as ascertain barriers that can be overcome through better support and recognition. Such understanding will help improve the policy for research across the colleges.
Introduction: Critical thinking is an important element in nursing practice as well as being a vital educational outcome in any nursing curriculum. Critical thinking can influence the outcome of patient care and patient satisfaction. Objective: To determine the level of critical thinking ability among nursing students in two nursing colleges and its differences according to social demographic variables. Method: This was a cross sectional descriptive study design in which Critical Ability Scale for College Students were used to collect data from 158 nursing students in two private nursing colleges in Malaysia. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Results: The mean overall score for critical thinking ability was 70.6±6.98 with scores ranging from 56 to 89. The mean score of the subscales was 3.63±0.50 for intellectual, eagerness and health skepticism abilities, 3.63±0.42 for intellectual honesty ability, 3.61± 0.41 for prudence ability and 2.68±0.64 for objectivity ability. There are no significant differences between the independent variables and level of critical thinking ability. Conclusion: A high critical thinking ability score was reported with intellectual, eagerness and health skepticism being the highest subscale. The way forward requires academicians and clinicians to work together to ensure a transfer of knowledge and skills from the classroom to the clinical environment in order to develop and enhance the ability to think critically in making clinical decision and produce thinking nurses for the future.
Background: Hospital medicine is characterized as a multifaceted team-based activity with a necessity for a high level of accuracy, timely, and reliable communication. Effective communication among healthcare providers is the key to successful collaboration within the healthcare system. Effective communication can improve patient safety, job satisfaction, and reduce burn out syndrome among nurses. The purpose of the study was to identify the factors contributing to the competency gap between and doctors in four private hospitals in Malaysia. Method: The study used a descriptive qualitative design to elicit the experience of 15 doctors from three private hospitals. A semi-structured interview was conducted to collect the data. The data were analyzed using Colaizzi's method for thematic data analysis. Results: The findings of the study suggested three main categories as the factors contributing to the communication gap among nurses and doctors as perceived by specialist doctors. The three categories include nurses training attributes, graduate nurse attributes, and work environment attributes. The nurses training attributes include entry requirements for student's recruitment into the nursing program, undergraduate training process, and assessment of student nurses. The graduate nurse's attributes had nine elements. The elements include a post-registration thirst for knowledge, medical English knowledge, self-confidence, stress management skills, critical thinking, and clinical judgment skills, perceived power on the authority of doctors, passion to work, time management skills as well as stress and personal factors of nurses. The working environment attributes included workload of nurses, teamwork among nurses Preceptorship, and appreciation of nurses by the organization. The informants also suggested measures to overcome the competency gaps among nurses. Conclusion: In conclusion, the nurse's communication competency is a vital factor in determining patient safety and quality of care. The quality of nursing care has a significant impact on the image of any health care organization. Therefore, it is crucial to identify the factors contributing to poor communication among nurses and doctors and to initiate interventions to fill the communication gap.
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the nurses' level of burnout and identify the factors that influence it. Burnout, one such stress-related outcome, has been conceptualised as a multidimensional construct consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalisation and reduced personal accomplishment. Items adapted and translated from Maslach Burnout Inventory were used to collect data from 60 respondents. Among the respondents, 5.0% showed a high level of Emotional Exhaustion while 95.0% were at the moderate and mild level. Respondents with a high level of Depersonalization constitute 3.3% while 96.7% were at a moderate and mild level. Analysis show that 48.2% are at the high and moderate level for Personal Accomplishment while 51.7% is still at the lower level. Mean score for Personal Accomplishment 33.53 as oppose to Emotional Exhaustion 15.90 and Depersonalization 3.60 indicate a low level of burnout characteristic among the staff nurses. Correlation analysis suggest a significant but moderate relationship between Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization r = 0.62, p<0.05. A conducive working environment was suggested as a way of improving quality of health care and to hinder burnout. Keywords: Retirement, Readiness, Financial Capacity, Social Support, Preoccupation
Background: Having multiple kinds of health problems among metabolic syndrome patients may cause
them stress. Life events also may worsen their stress. Negative stress affects not only their physical but also
emotional health. Various coping styles are used in order to deal with their stress. However, not all coping
styles can overcome their stress.
Objectives: This study aims to explore the coping styles that have been employed by the stressed metabolic
syndrome patients in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia.
Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the stressed metabolic syndrome patients in
Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. A purposive sampling was selected among stressed respondents, as
fifteen of them participated in this study after saturation data was reached. The qualitative data was analysed
using content analysis and was categorized into dysfunctional, problem-focused and emotion-focused
Results: The themes that emerged were; self-distraction, venting, behavioural disengagement, denial and
self-blame. These were categorized as dysfunctional coping; acceptance, religion and emotional support as
emotion-focused coping and active coping and instrumental support which were categorized as problemfocused
coping. Other new coping styles identified were physical intervention, avoidance and emotion
Conclusion: Coping styles has direct influence on the feeling of stress. Stressed patients used many
dysfunctional coping styles rather than other categories of coping which lead them to remain in stress. These
data highlighted the need to educate patients about good coping styles to give them additional skills in
managing their stress thus improving their health.
Burnout can be conceptualized in three different aspects consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. It can lead to increment of the turnover rate, absenteeism and low organizational commitment. Stress and job dissatisfaction will lead to psychological distress and burnout. Nurses are one in the health care profession that is susceptible to burnout because they are dealing with patient management and service care delivery. The aim of this study is to determine whether nurses working in Clinical Training Centre (CTC), Faculty of Medicine, University Teknologi MARA (UiTM) are experiencing burnout. A descriptive study design with convenient sampling technique using self-reported questionnaires adapted from Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was conducted involving 120 of nurses in CTC. High levels of burnout were identified in 83.3% of the respondent in the area of depersonalization and 42.5% of the respondent in the area of reduced personal achievement. Marital status was significantly associated with emotional exhaustion (p
HIV/AIDS is a matter of concern and has become a pandemic disease that threatens the world population. It
has remained one of the priorities in global public health challenges. Caring for people with HIV/AIDS
requires clinical expertise as well as high-quality skills for health care providers. The purpose of the study was
to examine knowledge and attitude on HIV/AIDS patients among nursing students. A cross-sectional study
was conducted in Public University at Wast Cost Malaysia. The 126 respondents of nursing students agreed to
participate in the study using a self-administered questionnaire that was designed and modied after reading
and referring to articles, books, and journals. The results of the research revealed that nursing students, in
general, have a satisfactory knowledge (mean score 30.71), but had a moderate attitude toward HIV/AIDS
patient with total mean score 2.34. Most of the students (89.3%) get the knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS
through the internet. The majority of the students knew that blood transfusion (99.4%) and sharing
needles/syringe (99%) were the higher sources HIV/AIDS modes of transmission. Most of the students agreed
that peoples with HIV/AIDS should be treated in society with support from the community (97.0%). Although
the knowledge level of nursing students seems to be satisfactory, but they still showed the moderate attitude
towards HIV/AIDS patients. Thus, structured education programmes should be conducted by nursing faculty
to ensure that nursing students gain the necessary accurate knowledge and an appropriate attitude towards the
care of HIV/AIDS patients.
Patients with chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are known as
high-risk groups for developing chronic kidney disease (CKD). Adequate related knowledge among them
helps to increase their awareness towards CKD and adapt healthy attitude and practices for CKD
prevention, which will result in better health outcomes. This study aimed to identify the patients'
knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) towards the risks for CKD. This cross-sectional study used a selfadministered
survey questionnaire on 103 adult male and female patients at four general surgical and
medical wards in a teaching hospital using convenient sampling method. The data were computed using
STATA version 12. Data on KAP were obtained through the Chronic Kidney Disease Screening Index
questionnaire. The majority of respondents had poor knowledge (69.9%, n=72), but most of them had good
attitude (68.9%, n=71) and good practices (88.3%, n=91) towards the risk of CKD. Significant associations
were indicated between education level, occupation and monthly family income with knowledge (p-value <
0.05). Significant associations were also indicated between age, sex, marital status and occupation with
their attitude (p-value < 0.05). Meanwhile, marital status was found to be significantly associated with the
practices towards the risk for CKD (p-value=0.008).
Poor knowledge on the risk of getting CKD among hospitalized adults in this study implied the need for
improvement in the public understanding towards the risk for CKD.
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide and even in Malaysia. Hence, the knowledge of adiponectin with regards to gestational diabetes mellitus is a key contributor to disparity in maternal and neonatal morbidities. This study aimed to assess nurses' knowledge of adiponectin and its association with gestational diabetes and obesity in pregnancy. A cross-sectional survey was employed. Respondents were selected by purposive sampling using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. Ninety one nurses (100%) were aware that obesity increased adverse health outcome among pregnant women, but some confusion exits among nurses about adiponectin with regards to pregnancy. Most of the nurses lack condence in providing care to pregnant women with many (82.4%) addressed the need for education on this topic. In the one-way ANOVA analysis, nurses' knowledge score was significantly associated with education level (p<0.001) and working experience in maternity units (p<0.001). This study demonstrates gaps in the knowledge of adiponectin and its association with obesity and pregnancy. Continuous nursing education for nurses on adiponectin and obesity-related issues in early pregnancy should be strengthened to enhance knowledge and confidence in providing quality antenatal services.
Keywords : Nurses, adiponectin, obesity, pregnancy, gestational diabetes