BACKGROUND: Antibiotic overuse is driving the emergence of antibiotic resistance worldwide. Good data on prescribing behaviours of healthcare providers are needed to support antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. This study examined the differences in antibiotic prescribing rates of public and private primary care clinics in Malaysia.
METHODS: We used data from the National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a nationwide cluster sample of Malaysian public and private primary care clinics in 2014. NMCS contained demographic, diagnoses and prescribing from 129 public clinics and 416 private clinics. We identified all encounters who were prescribed antibiotic and analyse the prescribing rate, types of antibiotics, and diagnoses that resulted in antibiotic.
RESULTS: Five thousand eight hundred ten encounters were prescribed antibiotics; antibiotic prescribing rate was 21.1 % (public clinics 6.8 %, private clinics 30.8 %). Antibiotic prescribing was higher in private clinics where they contributed almost 87 % of antibiotics prescribed in primary care. Upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) was the most frequent diagnosis in patients receiving antibiotic therapy and accounted for 49.2 % of prescriptions. Of the patients diagnosed with URTI, 46.2 % received antibiotic treatment (public 16.8 %, private 57.7 %). Penicillins, cephalosporins and macrolides were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics and accounted for 30.7, 23.6 and 16.0 % of all antibiotics, respectively. More recently available broad-spectrum antibiotics such as azithromycin and quinolones were more frequently prescribed in private clinics.
CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic prescribing rates are high in both public and private primary care settings in Malaysia, especially in the latter. This study provides evidence of excessive and inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for self-limiting conditions. These data highlights the needs for more concerted interventions targeting both prescribers and public. Improvement strategies should focus on reducing inappropriate prescribing.
BACKGROUND: The world population has become more globalised with increasing number of people residing in another country for work or other reasons. Little is known about the health profiles of foreign population in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by foreigners attending primary care clinics in Malaysia.
METHODS: Data were derived from the 2012 National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a cross sectional survey of primary care encounters from public and private primary care clinics sampled from five regions in Malaysia. Patients with foreign nationality were identified and analysed for demographic profiles, reasons for encounter (RFEs), diagnosis, and provision of care.
RESULTS: Foreigners accounted for 7.7 % (10,830) of all patient encounters from NMCS. Most encounters were from private clinics (90.2 %). Median age was 28 years (IQR: 24.0, 34.8) and 69.9 % were male. Most visits to the primary care clinics were for symptom-based complaints (69.5 %), followed by procedures (23.0 %) and follow-up visit (7.4 %). The commonest diagnosis in public clinics was antenatal care (21.8 %), followed by high risk pregnancies (7.5 %) and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (6.8 %). Private clinics had more cases for general medical examination (13.5 %), URTI (13.1 %) and fever (3.9 %). Medications were prescribed to 76.5 % of these encounters.
CONCLUSIONS: More foreigners were seeking primary medical care from private clinics and the encounters were for general medical examinations and acute minor ailments. Those who sought care from public clinics were for obstetric problems and chronic diseases. Medications were prescribed to two-thirds of the encounters while other interventions: laboratory investigations, medical procedures and follow-up appointment had lower rates in private clinics. Foreigners are generally of young working group and are expected to have mandatory medical checks. The preponderance of obstetrics seen in public clinics suggests a need for improved access to maternal care and pregnancy related care. This has implication on policy and health care provision and access for foreigners and future studies are needed to look into strategies to solve these problems.
Irreducible dislocation of the interphalangeal joint (IPJ) big toe is a rare injury Hitori et al. (2006) . We report a case of the right big toe IPJ dislocation following a trauma. The problem was diagnosed and managed at other medical centers with standard treatment of closed manual reduction and splint. The right big toe was splinted accordingly and the patient was referred to our orthopedic outpatient clinic. At the clinic, a repeat plain radiograph was ordered due to high suspicion of the irreducible IPJ.
Study site: orthopedic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
Introduction Neonatal jaundice occurs in about 60% of newborns. If not managed properly, it can progress to severe neonatal jaundice (SNNJ) leading to death or permanent disability. The incidence of SNNJ in Kuching District increased from 119.3 per 100,000 live births in 2005 to 123.3 per 100,000 live births in 2008, which was above the Standard National QAP Indicator of 100 per 10,000 live births. SNNJ can be prevented by early detection and proper management of neonatal jaundice. The objective is to increase the knowledge and practise of early detection of neonatal jaundice by nurses in Kuching District. Methods This was an interventional study covering a period of six months. The sample comprised 113 nurses of all categories working in urban and rural maternal and child health clinics in Kuching District. Tools used in the study were self-administered questionnaires in English and Bahasa Malaysia. The preintervention survey started in July 2009 while the post-intervention survey was done in January 2010. The interventions were done through Continuing Nursing Education sessions and included new nursing formats and new reporting procedures. New vehicles were also provided for home nursing. Data was collected and analyzed using MS Excel program. Results The pre-intervention survey on nurses showed that only 56.6% were able to identify the risk of factors causing jaundice; 94.6% able to define jaundice; 41.5% able to detect jaundice while 70.8% knew sign of Kernicterus. In term of recommended post natal nursing schedule only 40.7% able to practice the schedule while only 69.0% able to give advice on management of jaundice. Post intervention; 63.2% of nurses were able to identify the risk factors causing jaundice; 97.2% able to define jaundice while 97.2% were able to detect jaundice and 88.6% know sign of Kernicterus. On recommended post natal nursing schedule, 49.9 % practice the recommended schedule while 92.0% were able to give advice to mother on management of jaundice. The incident of jaundice of Severe Neonatal Jaundice dropped to 78 per 100,000 live births in 2010.
Conclusions The study shows that the interventions taken helped to improve the knowledge and practice of recommended measures to detect neonatal jaundice early. Stronger emphasis must be placed on using the new reporting procedures and new nursing sheets. Continuous monitoring through regular nursing audits by clinic supervisors is also essential to reduce the incidence of SNNJ. Provision of vehicles for all busy maternal and child health clinics for home nursing care is highly recommended.
Background. Patient satisfaction influences the outcomes of the patient-physician encounter.
Objective. The objective of this study was to validate the Malay version patient satisfaction
(MISS-21) questionnaire using a confirmatory validity approach.
Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 252 patients attending primary health
clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia. Construct validity (convergent and discriminant) using
confirmatory factor analysis and internal consistency were performed after the translation, content
validity and face validity processes. Criterion validity was assessed using Pearson correlations
with the scale of shared decision making 9-item questionnaire (SDMQ-9). The data was
analysed using Analysis of Moment Structure version 19.
Results. A total of 252 (100%) outpatients responded to this study. The final model that consists
of three domains with 11 items had a good fit; (χ2
(df) = 65.805 (32), P care setting because it is acceptably valid, reliable and simple. The validated Malay version
questionnaire was called as ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11’.
Key words: Confirmatory factor analysis, patient-physician interaction, patient satisfaction, psychometrics, reliability, validity
Questionnaire: ‘Skala Kepuasan Interaksi Perubatan-11; Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale; MISS-21
Study site: Primary health clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
The Malaysian Dengue Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPG) have been developed to provide evidence-based guidance in the management of dengue infections. The use of these guidelines is essential to ensure its recommendations are being practiced. However, the adherence to the guidelines for management of dengue (revised 2nd edition) by healthcare providers still remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion among healthcare providers that adhere to this Dengue CPG. A retrospective cohort study of dengue cases registered from 1 January 2014 to 1 June 2015 was conducted in public hospitals and health clinics in Selangor, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur. Adherence to the CPG recommendations were recorded by reviewing patients' case notes. Overall proportion of adherence in clinical components of the recommendation were (7.1 to 100.0% versus 7.7 to 73.8%) in history taking, (6.7 to 100.0% versus 12.3 to 60.0%) in physical examinations, (18.4 to 100.0% versus 23.1 to 83.2%) in assessment of warning signs, (0.6 to 100.0% versus 12.3 to 87.7%) in assessment of haemodynamic status, (60.0 to 100.0% versus 27.7 to 40.0%) in diagnosis, (46.6 to 80.0% versus 52.3%) in case notifications, (73.2 to 100.0% versus 89.2 to 96.9%) in performing specific laboratory investigations and (7.9 to 100.0% versus 21.5%) in monitoring, for outpatient versus inpatient, respectively. Adherence trends were demonstrated to be higher in hospital settings compared to outpatient settings. Adherence to this Dengue CPG varies widely with overall good clinical outcomes observed.
Study site: public hospitals and health clinics in Selangor, Putrajaya and Kuala Lumpur
AIM: Prolonged depression during the post-partum period is associated with maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Less attention has been given to factors that predict the persistence of depression beyond the first 3 months post-partum.
METHODS: From a longitudinal cohort of 2279 women who attended Mazandaran's primary health centres in 2009, 478 women with an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 12 or greater in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Persistently depressed women (depressed at all three occasions: during pregnancy, and at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum) were compared with those without depression to determine demographic, cultural, obstetric and biopsychosocial predictors for persistence of depression. Data were analysed using chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression models.
RESULTS: The stability of depression was found in 193 (46.2 %) of 418 depressed cases who were followed up over the study period. Of those mothers who scored more than the threshold of 12 during the third trimester of pregnancy, 277 (66.3%) and 221 (52.9%) had high EPDS at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum. Psychological distress (based upon the General Health Questionnaire), low maternal parental self-efficacy (based upon the Parental Expectation Survey) and perceived social isolation (based upon the Network Orientation Scale) were independent predictors of persistent depression.
CONCLUSION: Fewer depressed mothers in this study were found to recover during the first 3 months after giving birth. Psychosocial factors predicted sustained depression from pregnancy to 3 months post-partum. The findings highlight the significance of support in enhancing maternal mental health.
OBJECTIVES: Cultural practices have been found to positively impact the mothering experience. This study sought to identify the relationship between sociocultural practices and postpartum depression (PPD) in a cohort of Iranian women for the first time.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort design, 2279 pregnant women attending primary health centers of Mazandaran province in Iran were recruited using stratified random sampling method. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and researchers developed validated cultural practices questionnaire at 3 months after delivery. Data were analyzed using Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models.
RESULTS: The prevalence of PPD was 19% among 1910 women who were followed postdelivery in this study. Cultural practices were not associated with lower odds of PPD in multiple logistic regression model after adjustment for all sociodemographic factors. The results of this study do not also provide any evidence to support that sex of baby is associated with the greater risk of PPD.
CONCLUSIONS: Cultural practices could not be perceived as protective mechanisms that protect women from PPD in this traditional society. However, health professionals should be familiar with postpartum beliefs and practices that could support mothers in the postpartum period.
KEYWORDS: culture; depression; postpartum; practices
INTRODUCTION: Post-partum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental problem associated with childbirth. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of early PPD and possible relevant risk factors among women attending primary health centers in Mazandaran province, Iran for the first time.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 2279 eligible women during weeks 32-42 of pregnancy to determine bio-psycho-socio-cultural risk factors of depression at 2 weeks post-partum using the Iranian version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Univariate and hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
RESULTS: Among 1,739 mothers whose EPDS scores were ≤ 12 during weeks 32-42 of gestation and at the follow-up study, the cumulative incidence rate of depression was 6.9% (120/1,739) at 2 weeks post-partum. In the multivariate model the factor that predicted depression symptomatology at 2 weeks post-partum was having psychiatric distress in pregnancy based on the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) (OR = 1.06, (95% CI: 1.04-1.09), p = 0.001). The risk of PPD also lower in those with sufficient parenting skills (OR = 0.78 (95% CI: 0.69-0.88), p = 0.001), increased marital satisfaction (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.9-0.99), p = 0.03), increased frequency of practicing rituals (OR = 0.94 (95% CI: 0.89-0.99), p = 0.004) and in those whose husbands had better education (OR = 0.03 (95% CI: 0.88-0.99), p = 0.04).
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that a combination of demographic, sociological, psychological and cultural risk factors can make mothers vulnerable to PPD.
KEYWORDS: depression; incidence; post-partum
BACKGROUND: Provision of post stroke care in developing countries is hampered by discoordination of services and limited access to specialised care. Albeit shortcomings, primary care continues to provide post-stroke services in less than favourable circumstances. This paper aimed to review provision of post-stroke care and related problems among Family Medicine Specialists managing public primary health care services.
METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed to 121 Family Physicians servicing public funded health centres in a pilot survey focused on improving post stroke care provision at community level. The questionnaire assessed respondents background and practice details i.e. estimated stroke care burden, current service provision and opinion on service improvement. Means and frequencies described quantitative data. For qualitative data, constant comparison method was used until saturation of themes was reached.
RESULTS: Response rate of 48.8% was obtained. For every 100 patients seen at public healthcentres each month, 2 patients have stroke. Median number of stroke patients seen per month is 5 (IQR 2-10). 57.6% of respondents estimated total stroke patients treated per year at each centre was less than 40 patients. 72.4% lacked a standard care plan although 96.6% agreed one was needed. Patients seen were: discharged from tertiary care (88.1%), shared care plan with specialists (67.8%) and patients who developed stroke during follow up at primary care (64.4%). Follow-ups were done at 8-12 weekly intervals (60.3%) with 3.4% on 'as needed' basis. Referrals ranked in order of frequency were to physiotherapy services, dietitian and speech and language pathologists in public facilities. The FMS' perceived 4 important 'needs' in managing stroke patients at primary care level; access to rehabilitation services, coordinated care between tertiary centres and primary care using multidisciplinary care approach, a standardized guideline and family and caregiver support.
CONCLUSIONS: Post discharge stroke care guidelines and access to rehabilitation services at primary care is needed for post stroke patients residing at home in the community.
BACKGROUND: Lack of intersectoral collaboration within public health sectors compound efforts to promote effective multidisciplinary post stroke care after discharge following acute phase. A coordinated, primary care-led care pathway to manage post stroke patients residing at home in the community was designed by an expert panel of specialist stroke care providers to help overcome fragmented post stroke care in areas where access is limited or lacking.
METHODS: Expert panel discussions comprising Family Medicine Specialists, Neurologists, Rehabilitation Physicians and Therapists, and Nurse Managers from Ministry of Health and acadaemia were conducted. In Phase One, experts chartered current care processes in public healthcare facilities, from acute stroke till discharge and also patients who presented late with stroke symptoms to public primary care health centres. In Phase Two, modified Delphi technique was employed to obtain consensus on recommendations, based on current evidence and best care practices. Care algorithms were designed around existing work schedules at public health centres.
CONCLUSION: Coordinated post stroke care monitoring service for patients at community level is achievable using the iCaPPS and its components as a guide. The iCaPPS may be used for post stroke care monitoring of patients in similar fragmented healthcare delivery systems or areas with limited access to specialist stroke care services.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: No.: ACTRN12616001322426 (Registration Date: 21st September 2016).
Abdul Aziz AM, Manan MM, Bahri S, Md Yusof FA, Kamarruddin Z, Said S, et al.
Citation: Abdul Aziz AM, et al. Drug Utilization in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus in the Ministry of Health Facilities. Petaling Jaya: Pharmaceutical Services Division, Ministry of Health, Malaysia; 2013
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a costly disease to manage because of its chronic nature and severity of complications. Treatment of DM incurred high healthcare cost in both developed and developing countries. In Malaysia, treatment of DM is provided by all Ministry of Health (MOH) healthcare facilities and treatment may vary according to types of facilities. These differences may be associated with the utilization pattern and patient’s adherence to therapy and it is important to link actual medication therapy and the direct medical cost in the management of Malaysian DM patients. Thus, this study is to describe the utilization of medications in the treatment of DM in the MOH healthcare facilities and DM patient’s adherence towards their medication. This is a cross-sectional study in 94 MOH health facilities from November 2010 to December 2011. The healthcare facilities were categorized as National Referral Hospital, State Hospitals, Hospitals with Specialist, Hospitals without Specialist and Health Clinics. Patients were selected by the method of systematic random sampling and screened based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Face-to-face interview and retrospective data retrieval of patients’ medical record were conducted. The questionnaire and Morisky’s four questions adherence scale were utilized during the interview. A total of 2,509 (88.2%) patients were included in the study. The findings showed that variables for age, gender, race, marital status, household income, and occupation were essential components in examining its impact towards DM care. Most of the patients were between 45 to 55 years old and were burdened with co-morbidities. The observed trend in disease status showed that DM is closely related to co-morbidities such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and hyperlipidaemia; more commonly in patients with more than 5 disease years. A total of 14.6% of DM patients have yet to be initiated with insulin while 84% and 78.9% of patients had poor control of HbA1c and fasting blood glucose. In terms of drug utilization and medication cost, there was no significant difference in the pattern of medication used for the first-line treatment of DM among type of facilities. Biguanides, sulphonamides, urea derivatives, and insulin are the top three DM medications. Insulin usage ranges from 25.6% at Hospitals without Specialist to 57.8% at State Hospitals and this corresponds to 2.5 to 7.0 times increment from National Health and Morbidity Survey (NHMS) III. Use of non-antidiabetic agents (ADA) corresponds with the top 10 co-morbidities. These include platelet aggregating inhibitors, ACE-inhibitors and statins. The pattern of treatment for co-morbidities showed significant differences among facilities and may be due to the degree of severity of DM patients. Also, the policies of categorizing A*/A/KK has led to these medications being less commonly prescribed in Hospitals without Specialist and Health Clinics. Adherence is an issue that DM patients need to improve. This study found that race, household income, and age were significant indicators for poor adherence. The odds ratio (OR) for age showed it contributed to almost one time lower in adherence. The OR for inter-racial differences found that both Chinese and Indian patients were about 0.7 times more likely to be non-adherence than Malays. Household income of less than RM1,000 per month similarly showed a 0.8 times less adherence compared to households earning between RM1,000 to RM3,000 per month. Pharmacists had been giving counselling to patients and the personalized approach by pharmacist had shown positive impact on Diabetic Medication Therapy Adherence Clinic (DMTAC) patients. The study findings, however, showed no improvement in adherence between those who attended DMTAC and those who have not. These findings might not be generalizable since most facilities had a very small percentage of DM patients and they are usually the problematic or difficult patients; this could have led to the rather uneventful findings. Finally, this study showed that there is no significant difference in the utilization of medication among health facilities in the treatment of DM. Adherence is still an area of concern and collaboration between healthcare professionals is vital for better treatment outcome.
The aim of study was to evaluate the level of satisfaction of patients treated in the undergraduate Year 4 and Year 5 of University of Malaya. The subjects were patients treated in the Year 4 periodontology clinic (Polyclinic B) (n=38) and Year 5 periodontology clinic (Polyclinic C) (n=30). Data was gathered using a questionnaire which consisted of 4 components namely appointment facilities, infrastructure and basic facilities, behaviour of students dental clinician, and quality and efficiency of treatment provided. The results showed that for appointment facilities the level of satisfaction was almost 80%; for infrastructure and basic facilities the satisfaction was more than 85%; for behavior of students dental clinician the level of satisfaction was more than 90% and for quality and efficiency of treatment provided the level of satisfaction was more than 60%. When all the components were compared between patients treated in Polyclinic B to patients treated in Polyclinic C, there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, the level of satisfaction of patients treated in the undergraduate Year 4 and Year 5 periodontology clinic of University of Malaya is the same
Aim. Validation of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)
Methods. A validation study was done involving 52 mothers who were at 4-12 weeks post-delivery. The women completed the Malay versions of EPDS and the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). They were then assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Clinical Interview Schedule (CIS). Psychiatric diagnoses were made based on ICD-10 criteria. The validity of EPDS was tested against this clinical diagnosis and the concurrent validity against the Malay version of 30-item GHQ and HDRS scores was also evaluated.
Results. The best cut-off score of the Malay version of EPDS was 11.5 with the sensitivity of 72.7% and specificity of 92.6 %.
Conclusion. The Malay version of EPDS is a valid and reliable screening tool for PND.
Postpartum depression is one of the major depressions experienced by women during three months after giving birth to their babies. The symptoms of this type of depression cannot be taken lightly as it affects not only the women but also the development of the babies, family harmony and functioning and can in fact harm themselves and other individuals in their surrounding. Thus, this research was conducted to identify the influence of parental stress towards postpartum depression. A total of 181 women participated in this study and they were from two groups namely married and unmarried women who just gave birth. Two instruments were used and they were the Postpartum Depression Screening Scale and the Parental Stress Index Short Form. Results obtained showed that parental stress and its dimensions were significantly correlated with postpartum depression. In addition, maternal stress and difficult child characteristics were significant predictors of postpartum depression. Findings also showed that there were significant differences of parental stress and its dimensions between married and unmarried women who just gave birth. These findings imply the importance of coping with parental stress to prevent women from experiencing postpartum depression.
Keywords Postpartum Depression · Parental Stress · Child Characteristics · Regression
Situated learning characterises the learning that takes place in the clinical environment. Learning in the workplace is characterised by transferring classroom knowledge into performing tasks and this may take various forms. In the medical education field, the cognitive apprenticeship instructional model developed by Collins (2016) supported this learning in the workplace setting due to its common characteristics of apprenticeship. This paper analysed two concrete learning situations in a Malaysian undergraduate and an Omani postgraduate learning environment. Both learning situations occurred in the primary healthcare outpatient setting. The cognitive apprenticeship model was used to identify characteristics of the individual learning environments and discusses factors that stimulate learning. Attention was paid to the role of reflection in stimulating learning in the described settings. The paper provided the context in both institutes, described the learning situation and provided an analysis based on the theoretical framework. Based on the analysis of the situations, solutions to problems in the two settings were suggested.
Home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) is gaining popularity among hypertensive patients. This study aimed to explore the influence of self-initiated HBPM on primary care patients with hypertension.
Six in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted, taking into consideration the experiences of 24 primary care patients with hypertension. These patients had been using HBPM as part of their hypertension management. The overriding influences were grouped under themes which emerged from analyzing the data using the grounded theory approach.
There are both positive and negative influences of self-initiated HBPM. Patients used the readings of their HBPM to decide on many aspects of their hypertension management. The HBPM readings both influenced their adherence to diet and exercise and provided certain reassurance when they experienced symptoms. In addition, the act of discussing their HBPM readings with their health care providers resulted in an enhanced doctor-patient therapeutic relationship. Nevertheless, HBPM created confusion at times in some patients, particularly with regard to the target blood pressure level and the need for medication. This led to some patients making their own medical decisions based on their own standards.
HBPM is becoming an integral part of hypertension management. Primary care patients who self-initiated HBPM reported being more self-efficacious, but lack of participation and guidance from their doctors created confusion, and hindered the true benefit of HBPM.
Study site: urban primary care clinic, located within the University Malaya Medical Centre