Introduction: During pregnancy, increased acidity in the mouth increases the risk of antenatal mother to get dental caries. It is worsen if antenatal mother has morning sickness like vomiting during pregnancy. It can aggravate the problem by exposing the teeth to more gastric acid. In addition, antenatal mothers have hormonal changes that they are more susceptible to periodontal problems. Therefore, it is important for antenatal mother to get dental treatment and use oral health service. This study aim is to describe barriers to utilisation of oral health care services among antenatal mothers attending the Klinik Kesihatan Ibu dan Anak around Kuantan. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study which was conducted among purposely selected 296 antenatal mothers aged 18-45 years from Kuantan, Pahang in 18 months duration. Study used validated self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on the variables of interest. Results: Common barriers to utilization of services among antenatal mothers are fear to dental pain (45.6%), time constraints- busy at workplace (36.5%) and feeling of not having any dental problems (36.1%). Meanwhile the least barrier to oral health care services among antenatal mothers is attitude of the dentist (0.7%), followed by attitude of the staff (1.4%) and condition of treatment room (1.7%) Conclusion(s): Fear of dental pain is the main barrier to utilization of service among antenatal mothers and dissatisfaction of the service provided is the least barrier among other factors.
KEYWORDS: barriers, antenatal, pregnant mothers, dental caries, periodontal
Objectives: Implemented in 2010, 1 Malaysia Clinic (1MC) is the latest innovation in public primary healthcare services in Malaysia to serve the urban population. This study aimed to assess the level of satisfaction and its associated factors using the SERVQUAL (SERV-service, QUAL-quality) instrument. We also sought to compare the difference of mean score between expectation and perception of SERVQUAL dimension among patients attending 1MC in Kota Bharu district, Malaysia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included all nine 1MCs in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia, and used the validated SERVQUAL questionnaire from Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The primary data was collected in January 2017. The sample size was proportionate to the average daily patient attendance for each clinic, and a simple random sampling method was applied to reduced selection bias. Satisfaction level was determined by the mean gap score of expectation and perception of the SERVQUAL dimension.
Results: A total of 386 patients were involved in this study (184 male and 202 female). Most were from the low socioeconomic group. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the clinic services. The tangible dimension (service quality (SQ) gap: -0.25) was the most critical dimension among all five SQ dimensions assessed. The factors included low education level (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.67; p = 0.024), monthly household income less than RM 3000 (adj. OR 2.97; 95% CI: 1.72, 5.51; p < 0.001), and frequency 3 3 visits (adj. OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.45; p < 0.001) had significant association with high level of satisfaction.
Conclusion: 1MC has achieved its objective to increase the accessibility of health services among the low-income population in urban settings. However, most patients were not satisfied with certain parts of the services. Thus, proper evaluation of the service gap is required for improvement of the service.
Introduction: Premature ejaculation (PE) is an important sexual problem among men attending health clinic. Impacts of this condition towards quality of life still require further exploration. Aims of the study is to determine the proportion and determinants for PE and its impact on Quality of Life (QOL) among men attending a public health clinic in Kuantan
Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 290 respondents was conducted at a public health clinic over the period of five months (Nov 2015-March 2016). A validated self-administrated questionnaire that consisted of sociodemographic questionnaire, clinical characteristics, premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) and WHO quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) were used.
Results: The proportion of PE was 33.9% with PE 18.1% (49/271) and probable PE 15.8% (43/271). Multivariate analysis showed that level of education (p=0.002, OR 3.281/95% CI 1.183, 9.101) and hypertension (p=0.047, OR 1.788/95% CI 1.008, 3.170) were the only significant predictors for PE after controlling self-reported erectile dysfunction, pulmonary and neurological disorder. PE patients had lower median scores QOL in all four domain namely physical health, psychological, social relationship, environment (all domains with p<0.001).
Conclusions: The proportion of men diagnosed with premature ejaculation in this study is high and possibly associated with level of education and hypertension. Men with PE had lower quality of life in domains of physical health, psychological, social relationship and environment. Hence, it is
recommended for PE screening among male attendees to primary health clinic especially those with hypertension and moderate level of education.
Keywords Premature ejaculation - Quality of life - Sexual dysfunction.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Jaya Gading, Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia
A demographic and obstetric profile of pregnant mothers attending antenatal clinics in Kelantan over period of one year was determined by a retrospective study of 10,032 registered pregnant mothers. The prevalence of risk factors related to the age of the mother, parity, weight, haemoglobin level, bad obstetric history and pregnancy related diseases were determined. Prevalence of teenage pregnancy and primigravida accounted for 4.3 and 17.2 percent respectively. Nearly 3.9 percent of the mothers weighed less than 40 kg and 44.5 percent of mothers were found to be anaemic (Hb less than 11g/d) at the first antenatal visit. Only 3.2 percent of the mothers did not have any designated risk factor. Previous bad obstetric history and pregnancy related disease accounted for 17.1 and 3.5 percent of mothers respectively.
Study site: Antenatal clinics, klinik kesihatan, Kelantan, Malaysia
Introduction: Adherence towards childhood immunization (completeness and timeliness), with consideration of age-dependent-seroconversion, is the basis for children protection. Despite high global and national immunization coverage, vaccine preventable diseases’ are rising. This study aimed to determine adherence (completeness and timeliness) towards different vaccines of childhood immunization and associated factors among mothers of under five children. Methods: Cross-sectional study design was conducted at a health clinic in Seremban. Total of 320 mothers of under five children attending child health clinic selected via systematic random sampling. Data collection was via validated self-administered questionnaires and proforma, analysed using SPSS version 22. Associations between categorical variables determined by chi-square tests. Results: Consented respondents were 314; resulting in response rate of 98.1%. Adherence (completeness) was 98.09% but only 56.5% - 97.1% of respondents adhered in terms of timeliness. Types of transportation was significantly associated with adherence (completeness), p=0.041. Employment status was significantly associated with adherence (timeliness) towards BCG (p=0.008), Hepatitis B dose one (p=0.018) and dose two (p=0.040) vaccines. Education level was significantly associated with adherence (timeliness) towards DTaP/IPV/HiB dose four (p=0.019). Maternal age and usage of government clinic were significantly associated with adherence (timeliness) of MMR dose one, p=0.030 and p=0.017 respectively. Conclusion: Adherence (completeness) was high but varying adherence towards vaccine timeliness. Transportation types associated with completeness. Employment status associated with BCG, first and second doses of Hepatitis B vaccines’ timeliness. Education level associated with fourth dose of DTaP/IPV/HiB. Maternal age and usage of government clinic associated with timeliness of first dose MMR.
Screening for psychiatric disorders in primary care can improve the detection rate and helps in preventing grave consequences of unrecognised and untreated psychiatric morbidity. This is relevant to the Malaysian setting where mental health care is now also being provided at primary care level. The aim of this paper is to report the prevalence of psychiatric illness in a semi-urban primary care setting in Malaysia using the screening tool Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ).
Abdominal obesity (AO), measured by waist circumference (WC), is a stronger predictor of subsequent development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than generalised obesity, which is measured by body mass index (BMI). This study aimed to measure WC and prevalence of AO in Malaysians visiting primary care physicians. 1893 patients between the ages of 18 and 80 attending primary care clinics in Malaysia were recruited over two days for this multi-centre cross-sectional study. Pregnant women were excluded, their medical history, weight, height and WC were examined. The prevalence of co-morbidities were as follows: (1) CVD-4%, lipid disorder-17%, hypertension-26%, diabetes-14% and any of the clinical characteristics of CVD/lipid disorder/hypertension/diabetes-38%. The mean BMI for men and women was 25.62 +/- 4.73 kg/m2 and 26.63 +/- 5.72 kg/m2, respectively. Based on WHO criteria for BMI (overweight, 25-29.9 kg/m2; obese, > 30 kg/m2), 34.2% were overweight and 20.4% were obese. The mean WC for men and women was 89.03 +/- 13.45 cm and 84.26 +/- 12.78 cm, respectively. Overall, 55.6% had AO and there was higher prevalence among women (based on International Diabetes Federation criteria: WC > or = 90 cm for men and > or = 80 cm for women). AO was present in approximately 71% patients with lipid disorder, in 76% with hypertension and in 75% with diabetes. Patients with AO were also at a higher risk of developing co-morbidities. Malaysia has a high prevalence of AO and associated cardiovascular risk factors. This needs to be addressed by public health programs, which should also include routine measurement of WC.
BACKGROUND: Measurement of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among patients with osteoarthritis (OA) helps the health care provider to understand the impact of the disease in the patients' own perspective and make health services more patient-centered. The main aim of this study was to measure the quality of life among patients with symptomatic knee OA attending primary care clinic. We also aimed to ascertain the association between socio-demographic and medical status of patients with knee OA and their quality of life.
METHODS: A clinic based, cross sectional study using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire was conducted in two primary care health clinics in Hulu Langat, Selangor, Malaysia over a period of 8 months. The nurses and medical assistants were involved in recruiting the patients while the family physicians conducted the interview.
RESULTS: A total 151 respondents were recruited. The mean age was 65.6 +/- 10.8 years with females constituted 119 (78.8%) of the patients. The mean duration of knee pain was 4.07 +/- 2.96 years. Half of the patients were overweight and majority, 138 (91.4%), had at least one co-morbidity, the commonest being hypertension. The physical health status showed lower score as compared to mental health component. The domain concerning mental health components showed positive correlation with age. There was a significant negative correlation between age and physical functioning (p < 0.0005) which indicated the deterioration of this domain as patients became older. Male respondents had better scores in most of the QOL dimensions especially in the physical functioning domain (p = 0.03). There was no significant association between QOL with different education levels, employment status and marital status. Patients with higher body mass index (BMI) and existence co-morbidities scored lower in most of the QOL domains.
CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that patients with knee OA attending primary care clinics have relatively poor quality of life pertaining to the physical health components but less impact was seen on the patients' mental health.
Objective: To study the effect of depressive disorders, severity of depression and, sociodemographic factors on drug compliance among hypertensive patients at primary care clinics. Methods: A total of 201 hypertensive patients on treatment for at least 3 months who attended the HUKM Primary Care Clinic and Salak Polyclinic were selected for this study. Patients were screened for depressive disorders using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and those who scored 8 and more were further interviewed to establish a diagnosis using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Patients who were diagnosed to have depressive disorders were further rated for the severity of the illness by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). Drug compliance was assessed during a 2 month follow up using the pill counting method (ratio 0.8 – 1.2 considered as compliant). Results: The prevalence of non-compliance among hypertensive patients was 38.3%. There was no association between the diagnosis of depressive disorders and drug compliance. Among the 12 patients who had depressive disorders, severity of depression as rated by HAMD, showed significant association with drug compliance (Mann-Whitney test z = -2.083, p
BACKGROUND: Insomnia is a common public health problem and the prevalence and impact of insomnia in primary care attendees is not well documented in the Asian population.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of self-reported insomnia symptoms amongst adult primary care attendees and the association with socio-demographic factors; to ascertain the impact of insomnia on daily functioning and to describe the psychological profile of patients with insomnia.
METHODS: In this cross-sectional survey, 2049 adult patients (≥18 year old) attending seven primary care clinics in Peninsular Malaysia, completed the questionnaire asking about symptoms of insomnia (defined according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders and DSM IV criteria) daytime impairment and psychological symptoms (assessed by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale).
RESULTS: The response rate was 86.2%. A total of 60% reported insomnia symptoms, 38.9% had frequent insomnia symptoms (>3 times per week), 30.7% had chronic insomnia without daytime consequences and 28.6% had chronic insomnia with daytime dysfunction. Indian ethnicity (OR 1.79; 95%CI, 1.28-2.49), age ≥ 50 or older (OR 1.82; 95%CI, 1.10-3.01), anxiety symptoms (OR 1.65; 95%CI, 1.21-2.22) and depression symptoms (OR 1.65; 95%CI, 1.21-2.26) were risk factors for chronic insomnia with daytime dysfunction. Amongst those with chronic insomnia with daytime dysfunction, 47.8% had anxiety symptoms (OR, 2.01; 95%CI, 1.57-2.59) and 36.5% had depression symptoms (OR, 2.74; 95%CI, 2.04-3.68) based on HADs score. They also had tendency to doze off while driving and to be involved in road traffic accidents.
CONCLUSIONS: A third of primary care attendees have insomnia symptoms and chronic insomnia, associated with significant daytime dysfunction and psychological morbidity. By identifying those at risk of having chronic insomnia, appropriate interventions can be commenced.
The prevalence of pain complaints as a reason for patient-doctor encounters in the local primary care setting is unknown. We performed a cross-sectional survey of such encounters in one public primary care clinic (KK) and 17 general practice clinics (GP), from the city of Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Reasons for visits were recorded by doctors in KK and medical students in GP using a structured questionnaire. Morbidity data was coded using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2). A total of 2234 encounters were recorded (80.9% from KK, 19.1% from GP). The overall prevalence of pain complaints was 31.9% with a significant difference between the two cohorts (KK 28.7% and GP 45.2%, p<0.001). Musculoskeletal pain complaints were more common in KK than GP (40.9% versus 29.7%, p<0.05). Of the 3 main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malay, Chinese and Indian) the Indian patients at KK had the highest prevalence of pain complaints and the Chinese at the GP had the lowest. Thus pain was a common complaint in the two different primary care settings studied. Some of the differences observed are probably due to the differences in the healthcare seeking behaviour of patients consulting at these two settings as well as differences in the payment systems.
Missed appointments affect patients' health in addition to reducing practice efficiency. This study explored the rate and reasons of non-attendance among patients with chronic illnesses. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in a family practice clinic over a one-month period in 2004. Those who failed turn up for scheduled appointments were interviewed by telephone based on a structured questionnaire. Out of 671 patients, the non-attendance rate was 16.7%. Sixty-seven percent of non-attenders were successfully interviewed. Males (p = 0.01), Indians (p = 0.015), patients with coronary artery disease (p = 0.017), multiple diseases (> 4) (p = 0.036) and shorter appointment intervals (p = 0.001) were more likely to default. The main reasons for non-attendance were: forgot the appointment dates (32.9%), not feeling well (12.3%), administrative errors (19.1%) and work or family commitments (8.2%). The majority would prefer a reminder through telephone (71.4%), followed by letters (41.3%). In conclusion, appropriate intervention could be taken based on the reasons identified in this study.
Study site: Family Practice Clinic of the
Department of Primary Care
Medicine, University of Malaya
Medical Centre, Malaysia
Introduction: With increasing evidence of disease transmission through doctors' white coats, many countries have discouraged doctors from wearing their white coats during consultations. However, there have been limited studies about patients' preferences concerning doctors' attire in Malaysia. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate patients' perceptions of doctors' attire before and after the disclosure of information about the infection risk associated with white coats.
Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted from 1st June 2015 to 31st July 2015 at three different primary care settings (government, private, and university primary care clinics) using a self-administered questionnaire. A 1:5 systematic random sampling method was employed to select the participants. The respondents were shown photographs of male and female doctors in four different types of attire and asked to rate their level of confidence and trust in and ease with doctors in each type of attire. Subsequently, the respondents were informed of the risk of white coat-carried infections, and their responses were reevaluated. Data analysis was completed using SPSS Version 24.0. Associations of categorical data were assessed using the Chi-Square test, while the overall change in perceptions after the disclosure of additional information was examined using the McNemar test. Results with p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.
Results: A total of 299 respondents completed the questionnaire. Most of the respondents had more confidence and trust in the male (62.5%) and female (59.2%) doctors wearing white coats. A high proportion of the respondents from the government clinic (70.5%) felt more confidence in male doctors dressed in white coats (p-value = 0.018). In terms of ethnicity, male doctors in white coats were highly favored by Malays (61.0%), followed by the Chinese (41.2%) and Indians (38%) (p = 0.005). A similar preference was observed for the female doctors, whereby the highest number of Malays (60.3%), followed by the Chinese (41.2%) and Indians (40.0%) (p = 0.006), had a preference for female doctors wearing white coats. Only 21.9% of the initial 71.9% of patients who preferred white coats maintained their preference (p < 0.001) after learning of the risk of microbial contamination associated with white coats.
Conclusion: Most patients preferred that primary care doctors wear white coats. Nevertheless, that perception changed after they were informed about the infection risk associated with white coats.
Aim. Poor sleep quality due to pain has been reported among opioid-dependent male patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) but objective pain data are lacking. This study aimed to investigate the rate of pain-sensitivity using cold pressor test (CPT) and the relationship between pain-sensitivity and sleep quality in this population.
Methods. A total of 168 male participants were included into the study. Objective pain-tolerance was evaluated at 0 h and at 24 h after the first CPT. Malay version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the subjective opiate withdrawal scale (SOWS) questionnaires were administered to evaluate the quality of sleep and withdrawal symptoms, respectively.
Results. The mean age of study participants was 37.22 (SD 6.20) years old. Mean daily methadone dose was 76.64 (SD 37.63) mg/day, mean global PSQI score was 5.47 (SD 2.74) and mean averaged SOWS score was 5.43 (SD 6.91). The averaged pain-tolerance time ranged from 7 to 300 s with a mean time of 32.16 (SE 2.72) s, slightly below the cut-off score of 37.53 s. More specifically, 78.6% (n = 132) of participants were identified as pain-sensitive (averaged pain-tolerance time ≤37.53 s), and 36 (21.4%) participants were pain-tolerant (averaged pain-tolerance time >37.53 s). The pain-sensitive group reported poorer sleep quality with mean (SD) PSQI of 5.78 (2.80) compared with the pain-tolerant group with mean (SD) PSQI of 4.31 (2.18) (p = 0.005). With analysis of covariance, pain-sensitive group was found to have higher global PSQI scores (adjusted mean 5.76, 95% CI 5.29; 6.22) than pain-tolerant participants (adjusted mean 4.42, 95% CI 3.52; 5.32) (p = 0.010).
Conclusions. Majority of opioid-dependent male patients on methadone treatment are pain-sensitive with CPT. Poor sleep quality is associated with cold pressor pain-sensitivity. Pain and sleep complaints in this male population should not be overlooked.
Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) and other MMT clinics (Kota Bharu, Pasir Mas, Pasir Puteh and Bachok), Kelantan, Malaysia
Hyperalgesia is a common clinical phenomenon among opioid dependent patients on methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) and it may be associated with undertreated pain and/or therapeutic failure. This study aimed to investigate association between serum methadone concentration (SMC) and cold pressor pain responses. Cold pressor pain responses in 147 opioid dependent patients on MMT were assessed using cold pressor test (CPT) at 0 h and at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h after the dose intake. Blood samples were collected at 24 h after the dose. Serum methadone concentrations were measured using the Methadone ELISA kit and classified into two categories: < 400 ng/mL and ≥ 400 ng/mL. Eighty-eight patients (59.9%) had trough concentrations of < 400 ng/mL and 40.1% had trough concentrations of ≥ 400 ng/mL. There were significant effects of SMC on the cold pressor pain threshold (p = 0.019). Patients with concentrations < 400 ng/mL had significantly higher (almost 60% higher) cold pressor pain threshold (adjusted mean (95% CI) = 30.15 (24.29, 36.01) s) compared to those with concentrations of ≥ 400 ng/mL (18.93 (11.77, 26.08) seconds). There was also a 20% difference in pain tolerance, and 6% difference in cold pressor pain intensity score, neither of which were significant statistically (p > 0.05). Our results suggest an association of trough methadone concentration with the cold pressor pain threshold among opioid dependent patients on MMT. It would be useful to study the mechanisms underlying this association to help managing pain in such a population.
Study site: Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM); Psychiatric Clinic, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II; and eight other government MMT clinics in Kelantan, Malaysia
OBJECTIVE: Nephrolithiasis is one of the most common disorders of the urinary tract. The aim of this study was to examine a possible relationship between DNase I/II activity and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 in the sera of nephrolithiasis patients to evaluate the possibility of a new biomarker for evaluating kidney damage.
METHODS: Sixty nephrolithiasis patients and 50 control patients were enrolled in a case-control study. Their blood urea, creatinine, protein levels and DNase I/II activity levels were measured by spectrometry. Serum NSMCE2 levels were measured by ELISA. Blood was collected from patients of the government health clinics in Kuantan-Pahang and fulfilled the inclusion criteria.
RESULTS: The result indicated that mean levels of sera NSMCE2 have a significantly increase (P<0.01) in patients compared to control group. Compared with control subjects, activities and specific activities of serum DNase I and II were significantly elevated in nephrolithiasis patients (P$lt;0.01).
CONCLUSION: This study suggests that an increase in serum concentrations of DNase I/II and E3 SUMO-protein ligase NSE2 level can be used as indicators for the diagnosis of kidney injury in patients with nephrolithiasis.
A cross sectional study was carried out to identify and compare factors that contribute to patient satisfaction towards the medical care services provided at the outpatient clinic in government health clinics and private clinics in Mulcim Labu, Sepang, Selangor. Systematic sampling for government clinic and universal sampling for private clinics were done and data was collected via face-to-
face interview based on a validated Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ). A total of 181 patients aged 15 to 75 years old were selected, comprising 90 patients from the government clinics and 91 patients from private clinics. The majority of the patients were males (62.4%), Malay (79.0%), aged between 25 to 34 years with a mean age of 34.6 years and acutely ill (80.7%). Generally, all patients were satisfied with the services provided in both government and private sectors. Patients in private clinics, however, had a significantly higher satisfaction score as compared to the respondents in government clinics. There was signilqcant correlation between patient satisfaction score and household income in government and private clinics. Significant correlation was also found between patient satisfaction score and age in government clinic. Patients in private clinics were more satisfied towards the interpersonal manners, availability and continuity of care of the clinic compared to patienw in government clinics. Whereas patients in government clinics were more satisfied towards the service charges. This study provides important in ormation that could be used by roviders o health care services to monitor and im roved the ualit o medical care in the respective sectors.
Introduction: Cervical cancer ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women in Malaysia. Although a cervical screening program has been introduced since 1960s and is provided free of charge in all government health facilities, the coverage and adherence rate to recommendation among Malaysian women remains low.
Objectives: To determine the proportion of non-adherence to Pap smear screening guidelines and its associated factors among women attending a health clinic in Malaysia.
Method: A cross sectional study involving 316 women aged 20 to 65 years who had undergone a Pap smear. Universal sampling method was applied to select participants among women who attended the selected health clinic from January 2013 to May 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain the socio-demographic characteristics, socio-health data and perceptions about cervical cancer and Pap smear screening. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression.
Result: The proportion of non-adherence to Pap smear screening was 90.5%. Age, marital status, duration of marriage, education level, employment, household income and number of children were not significantly associated with non-adherence. Perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefit, perceived barrier and cues to action did not show significant association with non-adherence to Pap smear screening.
Conclusion: Non-adherence to Pap smear screening was high among Malaysian women. Measures should be taken to increase Pap smear screening coverage in our country. Other factors beyond Health Belief Model that influence Pap smear screening practice among Malaysian women should be explored.
BACKGROUND: Statins are a class of potent drugs that can be used to reduce cholesterol, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, their effectiveness is limited if adherence to treatment is poor. The objectives of the study are to estimate the proportion of diabetic patient who has achieved LDL-C goal and to determine the association of LDL-C achievement with socio demographic factors and statin therapy adherence.
METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 234 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and dyslipidaemia attending an outpatient clinic in a hospital in Kelantan. Interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used to determine their sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Adherence to therapy was assessed using the Medication Compliance Questionnaire (MCQ). The associations between the achievement of LDL targets and sociodemographic/clinical factors, including adherence, were analysed with simple logistic regression.
RESULTS: About 37.6% of patients achieved their LDL-C target. The percentage of patients who adhered to statin use was 98.3%, and 20.5% of these patients reported full adherence. There was no significant association between achievement of LDL-C targets with adherence or any other sociodemographic factors, such as age, gender and educational or economic status (all P-value < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Despite a high level of adherence, the majority of patients failed to achieve LDL-C targets. More concerted efforts are needed to improve this.
Study site: primary
care clinic in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia,
This study aimed to identify the foot sensory status of Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to determine its relation with: demographic factors, glycated haemoglobin level in plasma, and body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 71 Malay women with type 2 diabetes mellitus who attend three health clinics in Hulu Langat District, Selangor. Foot sensation was assessed using the Semmes-Weinstein Monofilament 5.07 in nine locations on the plantar and dorsal of the feet. Loss of protective sensation was defined as inability to sense the monofilament in one or more sites of either foot. This study found that 56.3% of women had loss of protective sensation, with common sites being the heel, fifth metatarsal head, lateral mid-foot and little toe. Duration of diabetes mellitus were significantly related to foot sensation. The age, HbA1C level and body mass index did not show any significant correlation. Loss of protective sensation may lead to serious foot complication and therefore early screening involving multidisciplinary team is essential for prevention.