BACKGROUND: Despite the worldwide circulation of human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and HKU1 (HCoV-HKU1), data on their molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics in the tropical Southeast Asia region is lacking.
METHODS: The study aimed to investigate the genetic diversity, temporal distribution, population history and clinical symptoms of betacoronavirus infections in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia between 2012 and 2013. A total of 2,060 adults presented with acute respiratory symptoms were screened for the presence of betacoronaviruses using multiplex PCR. The spike glycoprotein, nucleocapsid and 1a genes were sequenced for phylogenetic reconstruction and Bayesian coalescent inference.
RESULTS: A total of 48/2060 (2.4 %) specimens were tested positive for HCoV-OC43 (1.3 %) and HCoV-HKU1 (1.1 %). Both HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 were co-circulating throughout the year, with the lowest detection rates reported in the October-January period. Phylogenetic analysis of the spike gene showed that the majority of HCoV-OC43 isolates were grouped into two previously undefined genotypes, provisionally assigned as novel lineage 1 and novel lineage 2. Sign of natural recombination was observed in these potentially novel lineages. Location mapping showed that the novel lineage 1 is currently circulating in Malaysia, Thailand, Japan and China, while novel lineage 2 can be found in Malaysia and China. Molecular dating showed the origin of HCoV-OC43 around late 1950s, before it diverged into genotypes A (1960s), B (1990s), and other genotypes (2000s). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that 27.3 % of the HCoV-HKU1 strains belong to genotype A while 72.7 % belongs to genotype B. The tree root of HCoV-HKU1 was similar to that of HCoV-OC43, with the tMRCA of genotypes A and B estimated around the 1990s and 2000s, respectively. Correlation of HCoV-OC43 and HCoV-HKU1 with the severity of respiratory symptoms was not observed.
CONCLUSIONS: The present study reported the molecular complexity and evolutionary dynamics of human betacoronaviruses among adults with acute respiratory symptoms in a tropical country. Two novel HCoV-OC43 genetic lineages were identified, warranting further investigation on their genotypic and phenotypic characteristics.
Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is established as one of the causative agents of respiratory tract infections. To date, there are limited reports that describe the effect of HMPV genotypes and/or viral load on disease pathogenesis in adults. This study aims to determine the role of HMPV genetic diversity and nasopharyngeal viral load on symptom severity in outpatient adults with acute respiratory tract infections.
METHODS: Severity of common cold symptoms of patients from a teaching hospital was assessed by a four-category scale and summed to obtain the total symptom severity score (TSSS). Association between the fusion and glycoprotein genes diversity, viral load (quantified using an improved RT-qPCR assay), and symptom severity were analyzed using bivariate and linear regression analyses.
RESULTS: Among 81/3706 HMPV-positive patients, there were no significant differences in terms of demographics, number of days elapsed between symptom onset and clinic visit, respiratory symptoms manifestation and severity between different HMPV genotypes/sub-lineages. Surprisingly, elderly patients (≥65 years old) had lower severity of symptoms (indicated by TSSS) than young and middle age adults (p = 0.008). Nasopharyngeal viral load did not correlate with nor predict symptom severity of HMPV infection. Interestingly, at 3-5 days after symptom onset, genotype A-infected patients had higher viral load compared to genotype B (4.4 vs. 3.3 log10 RNA copies/μl) (p = 0.003).
CONCLUSIONS: Overall, HMPV genetic diversity and viral load did not impact symptom severity in adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Differences in viral load dynamics over time between genotypes may have important implications on viral transmission.
Study site: Primary Care Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
BACKGROUND: Anemia is common among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and an independent risk factor for renal disease progression. Health economic evidence is important in Malaysia and yet cost and quality-of-life (QOL) data are scarce.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate prevalence, factors associated with anemia, and cost and QOL among T2DM patients with CKD. Here, we present the estimated 1-year cost and QOL related to anemia in this group.
METHODS: A cross-sectional, observational study was performed at 20 government clinics. Treatment cost was calculated on the basis of resource utilization ascertained through data extracted from medical records and patient recall. QOL was elicited using the short form 36 health survey version 2 questionnaire. Propensity score matching was performed and costs and QOL were analyzed by anemia status and CKD stage.
RESULTS: Data for 816 patients were obtained. The propensity score matching enabled a comparison of 257 patients with and without anemia. Annual treatment costs were significantly higher for patients with anemia (Ringgit Malaysia [RM] 4219 [US $983] vs. RM2705 [US $630]; P = 0.01). QOL scores were lower for patients with anemia but not statistically significant (physical component summary score: 44.8 vs. 46.2; P = 0.052; mental component summary score: 51.3 vs. 51.7; P = 0.562). Costs were higher and QOL lower among CKD stage 5 patients.
CONCLUSIONS: This study was the first to examine anemia in this group of patients. Costs were significantly higher among anemic patients compared with nonanemic patients; patients with higher CKD stage 5 fared less well than did those in lower stages. This information suggests the need to increase detection, prevention, and early treatment of anemia when managing T2DM patients, particularly those with CKD.
BACKGROUND: Systematic anticoagulation management clinic is recommended to manage patients on chronic warfarin therapy. In Malaysia, the service was introduced as warfarin medication therapy adherence clinic (WMTAC), which is managed by pharmacists with a physician advisory.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of WMTAC in comparison with usual medical clinic (UMC), which is managed by medical officers in Kuala Lumpur Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in Malaysia.
METHODS: Data from a 6-month retrospective cohort study comparing the two clinics and the mean percentages of time in the therapeutic range for the patients were used to estimate the cost-effectiveness. The mean clinic costs were estimated using the time-motion study. A Markov model with a 6-monthly cycle was used to simulate lifetime cost-effectiveness from the perspective of the health care service provider. The base-case analysis assumed a cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation, 57 years of age with comorbid illnesses. The transition probabilities of these clinic outcomes were obtained from a literature search. Future costs and effectiveness were discounted by 3% to convert to present values. All costs were in Malaysian ringgit standardized for the year 2007.
RESULTS: The mean 6-month treatment cost was lower for the WMTAC, which was significantly lower (P < 0.001). The UMC was found to be dominated by the WMTAC for both intermediate and lifetime analyses. The sensitivity analysis showed that clinic consultation costs had a major impact on the cost-effectiveness analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: WMTAC is a more cost-effective option than UMC in Kuala Lumpur Hospital.
Study site: Department of General Medicine, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration*
Objectives: Antimicrobial resistance is associated with irrational use of antibiotics in general practice. We aimed to assess the frequency with which patients with Upper Respiratory Tract Infections were prescribed with antibiotics and the patterns of antibiotic prescription at primary healthcare centres in Malaysia.
Methods: The study targeted all primary public healthcare centres in the district of Kota Setar, Kedah, Malaysia. A retrospective prescription analysis was conducted whereby prescriptions from 1st January 2014 to 31st March 2014 were screened and retrieved for antibiotics prescribed for upper respiratory infections. The data was entered into Microsoft Excel spread sheet, and exported to Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 20 for further analysis. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarize the data. The Jonckheere–Terpstra test was used to evaluate the trend of antibiotic prescription. Where significant associations were reported, effect size was calculated by using Kendall tau correlation coefficient. P value of <0.05 was considered to be of statistical significance.
Results: For the period of three months, 123,524 prescriptions were screened and analysed. 2270 (31.8%) prescriptions contained antibiotics prescribed for all URTIs visits. Among all antibiotics, macrolides were the most commonly prescribed antibiotic, constituting of 61% (n=1404) of total antibiotics prescribed for all cases. The Jonckheere–Terpstra test revealed a statistical relationship between prescribers and the diagnosis of the disease (p=0·001). Furthermore, a weak positive trend of association was reported with FMS being more accurate in diagnosis followed by MOs and AMOs (τ=0·122).
Conclusions: Practicing physicians should adhere to the standard treatment practices, as antibiotic use in viral aetiology is ineffective, and encourages the persistence development of resistance. A comprehensive development of national antibiotic stewardship program is recommended to ensure organised and regulated control of antibiotic use in Malaysia.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the association of waist circumference with glycaemic control in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: We utilised data of type 2 diabetes patients followed up in Malaysian public sector primary care clinics contained in the National Diabetes Registry in the year 2012. The variable of interest was poor glycaemic control, defined as HbA1c≥ 6.5%. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the association between glycaemic control and waist circumference, which was adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, use of insulin and other medications.
Results: A total of 98,825 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 59.9 years (SD: 10.9) and 38.9% were males. The mean duration of diabetes was 6.8 years (SD: 5.0) and 76.2% of patients had HbA1c ≥ 6.5%. The mean waist circumference was 94.0 cm (SD: 11.8) for male and 90.7 cm (SD: 11.8) for female; while 78.3% of the patients had waist circumference above the cut-off (≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women). Larger waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with HbA1c≥ 6.5% (adj. OR 1.009; p< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.007–1.011) after adjusting for confounding factors.
Conclusions: Analysis showed that glycaemic control was poorer in patients with higher waist circumference than in patients with lower waist circumference.
Objectives: The aim of the study was to explore the association of waist circumference with microvascular complications in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: We utilised data of type 2 diabetes patients followed up in Malaysian public sector primary care clinics contained in the National Diabetes Registry in the year 2012. Variables of interest were the presence of microvascular complications, namely nephropathy and retinopathy. Multiple logistic regression was used to explore the association between presence of microvascular complications and waist circumference, which was adjusted for age, sex, duration of diabetes, systolic blood pressure, insulin use, total cholesterol and HbA1c.
Results: A total of 114,719 patients with type 2 diabetes were included in the study. The mean age of patients was 59.8 years (SD: 11.2) with mean duration of diabetes of 6.8 years (SD: 5.1). Male
patients comprised 39.9% of the sample population and 83.5% of the patients were overweight with BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2. Nephropathy and retinopathy was present in 9.1% and 7.9% of patients respectively. The mean waist circumference was 94.1 cm (SD: 11.8) for males and 90.8 cm (SD: 11.8) for females; while 78.4% of the patients had waist circumference above the cut off (≥ 90 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women). Larger waist circumference was found to be significantly associated with nephropathy (adj. OR 1.005; p-value< 0.001; 95% CI: 1.003–1.008) after adjusting for confounding factors. However, waist circumference was not significantly associated with retinopathy (adj. OR 0.998; p= 0.209; 95% CI: 0.996–1.001).
Conclusions: Analysis showed that patients with higher waist circumference were more likely to have nephropathy than patients with lower waist circumference. The analysis also showed that waist circumference
was not associated with retinopathy in the study population.
The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors.
Physicians' experiences in providing human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization were assessed by mailed questionnaire. Response rate of 41.4% was achieved. Malay Muslim physicians were more likely to agree that cultural sensitivity is an issue when recommending HPV vaccines. Pediatricians and family physicians were more likely to agree that acceptance is better if vaccines were recommended to prevent cervical cancer than to prevent a sexually transmitted disease. Near 70% rated success of HPV vaccines recommendation in their practice as very poor with the majority patients preferred to postpone immunization. Physicians reported cultural disparities in vaccine uptake and perceived high vaccination cost limits its use.
BACKGROUND: Little is known about how primary care physicians (PCPs) in Asia diagnose and manage prostatitis-like symptoms. This study investigated the clinical diagnosis of and care provided for prostatitis-like symptoms by PCPs in a Malaysian population, and compared these findings to reports from other areas.
METHODS: All members of the Penang Private Medical Practitioners' Society were asked to complete a self-administered survey. Nonresponders were contacted after 3 weeks and received a telephone request after 6 weeks.
RESULTS: Of the 786 practitioners contacted, 669 considered themselves to be PCPs, including 279 (42%) who responded to the survey. Adult males with prostatitis-like symptoms typically constitute <1% of the patients seen by PCPs. Most PCPs (72%) believe that prostatitis-like symptoms are caused by bacterial infection. 61% of PCPs base their diagnosis of prostatitis-like symptoms on clinical history, a physical examination and dipstick urinalysis. Standard management was to prescribe 1 or 2 courses of antimicrobials.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the 8.7% prevalence found in a previous survey in this population, prostatitis remains underdiagnosed in Malaysia. In contrast to many other clinical settings, urologists in Malaysia see a large proportion of newly diagnosed and treatment-naive prostatitis patients, providing an opportunity for clinical diagnostic and treatment studies.
Irreducible dislocation of the interphalangeal joint (IPJ) big toe is a rare injury Hitori et al. (2006) . We report a case of the right big toe IPJ dislocation following a trauma. The problem was diagnosed and managed at other medical centers with standard treatment of closed manual reduction and splint. The right big toe was splinted accordingly and the patient was referred to our orthopedic outpatient clinic. At the clinic, a repeat plain radiograph was ordered due to high suspicion of the irreducible IPJ.
Study site: orthopedic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
Perceptions of how receptive men are to sexual health inquiry may affect Malaysian primary care doctors' decisions to initiate such a discussion with their male patients. This paper quantifies the impact of doctors' perceptions of men's receptivity on male sexual health inquiry. Sexual health inquiry is one of the five areas in a study on determinants of offering preventive health checks to Malaysian men.
BACKGROUND: There is sufficient evidence to conclude that tobacco smoking is strongly linked to tuberculosis (TB) and a large proportion of TB patients may be active smokers. In addition, a previous analysis has suggested that a considerable proportion of the global burden of TB may be attributable to smoking. However, there is paucity of information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among TB patients in Malaysia. Moreover, the tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of TB patients who are smokers have not been previously explored. This study aimed to document the prevalence of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients and to learn about the tobacco use knowledge and attitudes of those who are smokers among this population.
METHODS: Data were generated on prevalence rates of smoking among newly diagnosed TB patients in the State of Penang from January 2008 to December 2008. The data were obtained based on a review of routinely collated data from the quarterly report on TB case registration. The study setting comprised of five healthcare facilities (TB clinics) located within Penang and Wilayah Persekutuan, Kuala Lumpur health districts in Malaysia, which were involved in a larger project, known as SCIDOTS Project. A 58-item questionnaire was used to assess the tobacco use knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of those TB patients who were smokers.
RESULTS: Smoking status was determinant in 817 of 943 new cases of TB from January to December 2008. Of this, it was estimated that the prevalence rates of current- and ex-smoking among the TB patients were 40.27% (329/817) and 13.95% (114/817), respectively. The prevalence of ever-smoking among patients with TB was estimated to be 54,220 per 100,000 population. Of 120 eligible participants for the SCIDOTS Project, 88 responded to the survey (73.3% response rate) and 80 surveys were analyzed (66.7% usable rate). The mean (+/- SD) total score of tobacco use knowledge items was 4.23 +/- 2.66 (maximum possible score=11). More than half of the participants (51.3%) were moderately dependent to nicotine. A moderately large proportion of the respondents (41.2%) reported that they have ever attempted to quit smoking, while more than half (56.3%) have not. Less than half (47.5%) of the study participants had knowledge about the body system on which cigarette smoking has the greatest negative effect. The majority wrongly believed that smokeless tobacco can increase athletic performance (60%) and that it is a safe and harmless product (46.2%). An overwhelming proportion (>80%) of the patients believed that: smoking is a waste of money, tobacco use is very dangerous to health, and that smokers are more likely to die from heart disease when compared with non-smokers. The use of smokeless tobacco was moderately prevalent among the participants with 28.8% reporting ever snuffed, but the use of cigar and pipe was uncommon.
CONCLUSION: Smoking prevalence rate is high among patients with TB in Malaysia. These patients generally had deficiencies in knowledge of tobacco use and its health dangers, but had positive attitudes against tobacco use. Efforts should be geared towards reducing tobacco use among this population due to its negative impact on TB treatment outcomes.
This study examined the associations of diabetes-related distress (DRD), depressive symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence with glycemia, blood pressure (BP), and lipid biomarkers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Malaysian public health clinics in 2012-2013, recruited adult patients (aged ≥30 years) with T2D who had been diagnosed for more than one year, were on active follow-up, and had recent blood test results. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify significant associated factors for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) BP, and lipids. The response rate was 93.1% (700/752). The majority were females (52.8%), Malay (52.4%), and married (78.7%). DRD correlated with systolic BP (r= -0.16); depressive symptoms correlated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.12) and total cholesterol (r=0.13); medication adherence correlated with HbA1c (r= -0.14) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.11); and HRQoL correlated with casual blood glucose (r= -0.11), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r= -0.13), and total cholesterol (r= -0.08). Multivariable analyses showed that HRQoL was significantly associated with casual blood glucose (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.024); DRD was associated with systolic BP (adjusted B= -0.08, P=0.066); depressive symptoms were associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (adjusted B=0.02, P=0.061), and medication adherence was associated with HbA1c (adjusted B= -0.11, P=0.082) and total cholesterol (adjusted B= -0.06, P=0.086). There were significant and distinctive associations of DRD, depressive symptoms, HRQoL, and medication adherence with glycemia, BP, and lipid biomarkers. Unexpected beneficial therapeutic effects of DRD on BP require further study. A multidisciplinary approach may be needed for risk management in adults with T2D at the primary care level.
Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main complication leading to morbidity and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a large amount of evidence to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for the prevention of CVD. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and prescription quality of LLT among T2DM patients and to identify its associated factors.
Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study included 816 T2DM patients from four different primary care centers in Pahang, Malaysia. We involved LLT-eligible T2DM patients as per the national clinical practice guidelines (CPG). The assessment of therapy effectiveness focused on the attainment of target lipid measures stated in the CPG. Evaluation of the prescription quality was classified into appropriate, potentially inappropriate, and inappropriate, based on the compliance with guidelines and existence of potential safety concerns. Binomial logistic regression was employed to identify the predictors of LLT effectiveness and prescription quality.
Results: The overall percentage of T2DM patients receiving statin therapy was 87.6% (715/816). Statin therapy was appropriately prescribed in 71.5% of the cases. About 17.5% of the LLT prescriptions have at least one significant drug interaction with co-prescribed medications. The achievement of the primary target of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels was observed in only 37% of T2DM patients. The LLT indication and appropriateness of prescription were significantly associated with the attainment of LDL-C treatment goals. Primary prevention, Malay race, and hypertension were identified as predictors for appropriate prescribing of LLT among T2DM subjects.
Conclusion: There is a need to enhance the quality of LLT prescribing in the primary care setting to cover all eligible high-risk patients and ensure patient safety. Strategies to improve the achievement of LDL-C goals among patients with T2DM, such as investigating the potential role of the combination therapy and high-intensity statin therapy, are required.
BACKGROUND: Asian slow lorises (Nycticebus spp.) are one of few known venomous mammals, yet until now only one published case report has documented the impact of their venomous bite on humans. We describe the reaction of a patient to the bite of a subadult Nycticebus kayan, which occurred in the Mulu District of Sarawak in 2012.
FINDINGS: Within minutes of the bite, the patient experienced paraesthesia in the right side of the jaw, ear and right foot. By 40 minutes, swelling of the face was pronounced. The patient was admitted to Mulu National Park Health Clinic/Klinik Kesihatan Taman Mulu Tarikh, at which time he was experiencing: swollen mouth, chest pain, mild abdominal pain, nausea, numbness of the lips and mouth, shortness of breath, weakness, agitation and the sensation of pressure in the ears due to swelling. The blood pressure was 110/76, the heart ratio was 116 and oxygen saturation was 96%. The patient was treated intramuscularly with adrenaline (0.5 mL), followed by intravenous injection of hydrocortisone (400 mg) and then intravenous fluid therapy of normal saline (500 mg). By 8 h10 the next day, the patient's condition had significantly improved with no nausea, and with blood pressure and pulse rate stable.
CONCLUSIONS: A handful of anecdotes further support the real danger that slow loris bites pose to humans. As the illegal pet trade is a major factor in the decline of these threatened species, we hope that by reporting on the danger of handling these animals it may help to reduce their desirability as a pet.
INTRODUCTION: Premature ejaculation (PE) is common. However, it has been underreported and undertreated.
AIMS: To determine the prevalence of PE and to investigate possible associated factors of PE.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a primary care clinic over a 3-month period in 2008. Men aged 18-70 years attending the clinic were recruited, and they completed self-administered questionnaires that included the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT), International Index of Erectile Function, sociodemography, lifestyle, and medical illness. The operational definition of PE included PE and probable PE based on the PEDT.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Prevalence of PE.
RESULTS: A total of 207 men were recruited with a response rate of 93.2%. There were 97 (46.9%) Malay, 57 (27.5%) Chinese, and 53 (25.6%) Indian, and their mean age was 46.0 ± 12.7 years. The prevalence of PE was 40.6% (N = 82) (PE: 20.3%, probable PE: 20.3% using PEDT). A significant association was found between ethnicity and PE (Indian 49.1%, Malay 45.4%, and Chinese 24.6%; χ(2) = 8.564, d.f. = 2, P = 0.014). No significant association was found between age and PE. Multivariate analysis showed that erectile dysfunction (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 4.907, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.271, 10.604), circumcision (adjusted OR 4.881, 95% CI 2.346, 10.153), sexual intercourse ≤5 times in 4 weeks (adjusted OR 3.733, 95% CI 1.847, 7.544), and Indian ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.323, 95% CI 1.489, 7.417) were predictors of PE.
CONCLUSION: PE might be frequent in men attending primary care clinics. We found that erectile dysfunction, circumcision, Indian ethnicity, and frequency of sexual intercourse of ≤5 times per month were associated with PE. These associations need further confirmation.
Study site: primary care clinic at the University Malaya
Medical Center (UMMC)
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a highly prevalent sexual health problem but poorly investigated at the primary care level.
AIM: This article examines the prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its possible risk factors associated with women at high risk of FSD in a hospital-based primary practice.
METHODS: A validated Malay version of the Female Sexual Function Index (MVFSFI) was utilized to determine FSD in a cross-sectional study design, involving 163 married women, aged 18-65 years, in a tertiary hospital-based primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Sociodemographic, marital profile, health, and lifestyle for women at high risk of FSD and those who were not at high risk were compared and their risk factors were determined.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of FSD in Malaysian women based on the MVFSFI, and its risk factors for developing FSD.
RESULTS: Some 42 (25.8%) out of 163 women had sexual dysfunction. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction increased significantly with age. Sexual dysfunctions were detected as desire problem (39.3%), arousal problem (25.8%), lubrication problem (21.5%), orgasm problem (16.6%), satisfaction problem (21.5%) and pain problems (16.6%). Women at high risk of FSD were significantly associated with age (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 9.0), husband's age (OR 4.3 95% C.I 1.9 to 9.3), duration of marriage (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.6 to 6.8), medical problems (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.3 to 21.7), menopausal status (OR 6.6, 95% CI 3.1 to 14.3), and frequency of sexual intercourse (OR 10.7, 95% CI 3.6 to 31.7). Multivariate analysis showed that medical problem (adjusted OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 14.0) and frequency of sexual intercourse (adjusted OR 7.2, 95% CI 2.1 to 24.0) were associated with increased risk of having FSD. Those who practiced contraception were less likely to have FSD.
CONCLUSION: Sexual health problems are prevalent in women attending primary care clinic where one in four women were at high risk of FSD. Thus, primary care physician should be trained and prepared to address this issue.
Study site: oss-sectional, clinic-based study conducted at the Primary Care Clinic, University of
Malaya Medical Centre (UMCC)
AIM: Both inadequate and excessive weight gain during pregnancy can have immediate and long-term health risks for women and infants. This study investigated rate of gestational weight gain (GWG) and its associated factors in Malaysian pregnant women.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at maternal and child health clinics in Selangor and Negeri Sembilan between November 2010 and April 2012. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic, obstetric, dietary intake and physical activity information. Current weight and height were measured using standard procedures. GWG rate was calculated as the average weekly weight gain in that particular trimester of pregnancy and further categorized according to the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations.
RESULTS: Mean GWG rate for all pre-pregnancy BMI categories in the second and third trimesters was higher than the IOM recommendations. Overweight women (adjusted OR, 4.26; 95%CI: 1.92-9.44) and women <153 cm tall (adjusted OR, 1.96; 95%CI: 1.21-3.18) tend to have inadequate GWG rate. Women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI; ≥25.0 kg/m(2) ; overweight: adjusted OR, 3.88; 95%CI: 2.12-7.09; obese: adjusted OR, 2.34; 95%CI: 1.28-4.29) and low physical activity (adjusted OR, 1.74; 95%CI: 0.77-3.97) were two-threefold more likely to have excessive GWG.
CONCLUSION: Both inadequate and excessive GWG can have detrimental effects on the health of mothers and infants. Pre-pregnancy BMI, height and physical activity should be emphasized in prenatal care to ensure that women have adequate GWG rate.
Study site: maternal and child health clinics (Klinik Kesihatan), Selangor and Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
OBJECTIVES: To determine the health related quality of life and its predictive factors among older people with non-communicable diseases attending primary care clinics.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.
SETTING: Three public primary care clinics in a district in Selangor, Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Registered patients aged 55 years and above.
MEASUREMENTS: A face-to-face interview was conducted using a validated questionnaire of Medical Outcome Study 36-item short form health survey (SF-36). The outcome measure was the health related quality of life (HRQoL) and other factors measured were socio demography, physical activity, social support (Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire), and presence of non-communicable diseases.
RESULTS: A total of 347 participants had non-communicable diseases which included hypertension (41.8%), type 2 diabetes (33.7%), asthma (4.8%), hyperlipidaemia (1.7%), coronary heart disease (1.2%), and osteoarthritis (0.2%). Age ≥ 65 years old (OR =2.23; 95%CI=1.42, 3.50), single (OR=1.75; 95%CI=1.06,2.90), presence of co-morbid condition (OR=1.66; 95%CI=1.06, 2.61), and poorer social support (OR=2.11; 95%CI=1.27, 3.51; p=0.002) were significant predictors of poorer physical component of HRQoL . In predicting lower mental health component of HRQoL, the significant predictors were women (OR=2.28; 95%CI=1.44, 3.62), Indian ethnicity (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.08, 3.21) and poorer social support (OR=2.71; 95%CI=1.63, 4.51). No interactions existed between these predictors.
CONCLUSION: Older people with non-communicable diseases were susceptible to lower health related quality of life. Increasing age, single, presence of co-morbid conditions, and poorer social support were predictors of lower physical health component of HRQoL. While the older women, Indian ethnicity and poorer social support reported lower mental health component of HRQoL.