Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 700 in total

  1. Md Bohari NF, Kruger E, John J, Tennant M
    Int Dent J, 2019 Jun;69(3):223-229.
    PMID: 30565655 DOI: 10.1111/idj.12454
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse, in detail, the distribution of primary dental clinics in relation to the Malaysian population and relative population wealth, to test the hypothesis that an uneven distribution of dental services exists in Malaysia.

    METHOD: This 2016 study located every dental practice in Malaysia (private and public) and mapped these practices against population, using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) tools. Population clusters within 5, 10 and 20 km of a dental clinic were identified, and clinic-to-population ratios were ascertained. Population data were obtained from the Population and Housing Census of Malaysia 2010. Population relative wealth was obtained from the 2014 Report on Household Income and Basic Amenities Survey for Malaysia. The physical address for each dental practice in Malaysia was gathered from the Official Portal of Ministry of Health Malaysia. All data for analysis were extracted from the integrated database in Quantum GIS (QGIS) into Microsoft Excel.

    RESULT: The population of Malaysia (24.9 million) was distributed across 127 districts, with 119 (94%) having at least one dental clinic. Sixty-four districts had fewer than 10 dental clinics, and 11.3% of Malaysians did not reside in the catchment of 20 km from any dental clinic. The total dental clinic-to-population ratio was 1:9,000: for public dental clinics it was 1:38,000 and for private clinics it was 1:13,000.

    CONCLUSION: Dental services were distributed relative to high population density, were unevenly distributed across Malaysia and the majority of people with the highest inaccessibility to a dental service resided in Malaysian Borneo.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  2. Nik Adib NA, Ibrahim MI, Ab Rahman A, Bakar RS, Yahaya NA, Hussin S, et al.
    PMID: 31027225 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16081468
    BACKGROUND: Caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased stress and more significant negative caregiving consequences than those with typically developing children. There is a lack of studies specifically focusing on stress among caregivers with ASD children in Asian countries. The current study examines levels of perceived stress and factors associated with it among caregivers in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered to 227 caregivers of children with ASD. The caregivers were recruited from ASD databases in four tertiary hospitals in Kelantan and a meeting was set up during the child's follow-up in the clinic. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress.

    RESULTS: The mean total perceived stress score was 20.84 (4.72). This was considered higher than average. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers who live far from the health institution, caregivers who do not own transportation to bring the child to the treatment center, and caregivers who have an ASD child with a learning disability.

    CONCLUSION: Caregivers of an ASD child perceived significant stress while taking care of their children. Institutions should alleviate the factors that were predicted to increase the caregivers' perceived stress to improve the quality of the lives of children and ASD families as a whole.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  3. Yaacob LH, Abdul Mokti S, Muhammad J
    J Women Aging, 2019 Apr 09.
    PMID: 30967095 DOI: 10.1080/08952841.2019.1593799
    Urinary incontinence (UI) is common in women in postmenopausal age, but many women delay seeking treatment. The objective of this study is to determine health-seeking behavior of postmenopausal women with UI and its associated factors. This is a cross-sectional study involving 348 postmenopausal women from the outpatient clinic using personal data forms and a validated UI questionnaire. A total of 348 menopausal women were involved in the study. Only 13.17% of patients with UI sought treatment. Factors associated with seeking treatment were age of menopause and severity of UI. More health education needs to be done among these patients.
    Study site: Primary care clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  4. Tay CL, Myint PK, Mohazmi M, Soiza RL, Tan MP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Apr;74(2):121-127.
    PMID: 31079122
    INTRODUCTION: Hyponatraemia is the commonest electrolyte abnormality and has major clinical implications. However, few studies of hyponatraemia in the primary care setting has been published to date.
    OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence, potential causes and management of hyponatraemia and to identify factors associated with severity of hyponatraemia among older persons in a primary care setting.
    METHODS: Electronic records were searched to identify all cases aged ≥60 years with a serum sodium <135mmol/l, attending outpatient clinic in 2014. Patients' medical records with the available blood test results of glucose, potassium, urea and creatinine were reviewed.
    RESULTS: Of the 21,544 elderly, 5873 patients (27.3%) had electrolyte profile tests. 403 (6.9%) had hyponatraemia in at least one blood test. Medical records were available for 253, mean age 72.9±7.3 years, 178 (70.4%) had mild hyponatraemia, 75 (29.6%) had moderate to severe hyponatraemia. Potential causes were documented in 101 (40%). Patients with moderate to severe hyponatraemia were five times more likely to have a cause of hyponatraemia documented (p<0.01). Medications were the commonest documented cause of hyponatraemia (31.7%). Hydrochlorothiazide use was attributed in 25 (78.1%) of 32 with medication-associated hyponatraemia. Repeat renal profile (89%) was the commonest management of hypotonic hyponatraemia.
    CONCLUSION: Whilst hyponatraemia was common in the clinic setting, many cases were not acknowledged and had no clear management strategies. In view of mild hyponatraemia has deleterious consequences, future studies should determine whether appropriate management of mild hyponatraemia will lead to clinical improvement.
    Study site: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  5. Cahir C, Wallace E, Cummins A, Teljeur C, Byrne C, Bennett K, et al.
    Ann Fam Med, 2019 Mar;17(2):133-140.
    PMID: 30858256 DOI: 10.1370/afm.2359
    PURPOSE: To evaluate a patient-report instrument for identifying adverse drug events (ADEs) in older populations with multimorbidity in the community setting.
    METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 859 community-dwelling patients aged ≥70 years treated at 15 primary care practices. Patients were asked if they had experienced any of a list of 74 symptoms classified by physiologic system in the previous 6 months and if (1) they believed the symptom to be related to their medication, (2) the symptom had bothered them, (3) they had discussed it with their family physician, and (4) they required hospital care due to the symptom. Self-reported symptoms were independently reviewed by 2 clinicians who determined the likelihood that the symptom was an ADE. Family physician medical records were also reviewed for any report of an ADE.
    RESULTS: The ADE instrument had an accuracy of 75% (95% CI, 77%-79%), a sensitivity of 29% (95% CI, 27%-31%), and a specificity of 93% (95% CI, 92%-94%). Older people who reported a symptom had an increased likelihood of an ADE (positive likelihood ratio [LR+]: 4.22; 95% CI, 3.78-4.72). Antithrombotic agents were the drugs most commonly associated with ADEs. Patients were most bothered by muscle pain or weakness (75%), dizziness or lightheadedness (61%), cough (53%), and unsteadiness while standing (52%). On average, patients reported 39% of ADEs to their physician. Twenty-six (3%) patients attended a hospital outpatient clinic, and 32 (4%) attended an emergency department due to ADEs.
    CONCLUSION: Older community-dwelling patients were often not correct in recognizing ADEs. The ADE instrument demonstrated good predictive value and could be used to differentiate between symptoms of ADEs and chronic disease in the community setting.
    Study site: primary care practices, Ireland
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  6. Pannir Selvam SB, Khoo EM, Chow SY, Wong PF, Mohsin SS, Abdullah A, et al.
    Sex Transm Dis, 2019 Feb;46(2):143-145.
    PMID: 30278029 DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000918
    Management of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus is challenging due to the social stigma attached. We describe the development of a client-friendly sexually transmitted disease service in a primary care clinic in Malaysia with a special focus on key populations. Challenges and key lessons learnt from its development and implementation are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  7. Lim MT, Lim YMF, Teh XR, Lee YL, Ismail SA, Sivasampu S
    PMID: 30608582 DOI: 10.1093/intqhc/mzy252
    Objective: To determine the extent of self-management support (SMS) provided to primary care patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension and its associated factors.
    Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted between April and May 2017.
    Setting: Forty public clinics in Malaysia.
    Participants: A total of 956 adult patients with T2D and/or hypertension were interviewed.
    Main Outcome Measures: Patient experience on SMS was evaluated using a structured questionnaire of the short version Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care instrument, PACIC-M11. Linear regression analysis adjusting for complex survey design was used to determine the association of patient and clinic factors with PACIC-M11 scores.
    Results: The overall PACIC-M11 mean was 2.3(SD,0.8) out of maximum of 5. The subscales' mean scores were lowest for patient activation (2.1(SD,1.1)) and highest for delivery system design/decision support (2.9(SD,0.9)). Overall PACIC-M11 score was associated with age, educational level and ethnicity. Higher overall PACIC-M11 ratings was observed with increasing difference between actual and expected consultation duration [β = 0.01; 95% CI (0.001, 0.03)]. Better scores were also observed among patients who would recommend the clinic to friends and family [β = 0.19; 95% CI (0.03, 0.36)], when health providers were able to explain things in ways that were easy to understand [β = 0.34; 95% CI (0.10, 0.59)] and knew about patients' living conditions [β = 0.31; 95% CI (0.15, 0.47)].
    Conclusions: Our findings indicated patients received low levels of SMS. PACIC-M11 ratings were associated with age, ethnicity, educational level, difference between actual and expected consultation length, willingness to recommend the clinic and provider communication skills.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  8. Nordin RB, Soni T, Kaur A, Loh KP, Miranda S
    Singapore Med J, 2019 Jan;60(1):40-47.
    PMID: 29774359 DOI: 10.11622/smedj.2018049
    INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a serious global burden that affects men as well as their partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of ED among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor, Malaysia.
    METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Malaysian men aged ≥ 18 years attending two major outpatient clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat in Johor, Malaysia, between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2016. Subjects were chosen via simple random sampling and 400 patients were recruited. The study instrument was a survey form that consisted of three sections: sociodemographic and comorbid profile, validated English and Malay versions of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function, and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of self-reported ED was 81.5%. The prevalence of ED according to severity was as follows: mild (17.0%), mild to moderate (23.8%), moderate (11.3%) and severe (29.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 4.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.633-9.913), Indian as compared to Malay ethnicity (OR 3.252, 95% CI 1.280-8.262), secondary as compared to tertiary education (OR 2.171, 95% CI 1.203-3.919), single as compared to married status (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.542-14.734) and stress (OR 4.259, 95% CI 1.793-10.114).
    CONCLUSION: ED has significant prevalence and severity among adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Increasing age, Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, singlehood and stress were significant predictors of ED.
    Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Mahmoodiah, Johor Bahru; outpatient department, Hospital Besar Segamat, Johor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  9. Devaraj NK
    Ethiop J Health Sci, 2019 Jan;29(1):957-958.
    PMID: 30700964 DOI: 10.4314/ejhs.v29i1.18
    The diagnosis of rheumatologic problem can be difficult, especially if not all the diagnostic criteria or typical clinical features are seen. This includes conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis which needs early diagnosis to start disease modifying drugs (DMARDs) which can improve the prognosis and prevent further joint erosion and organ damage. This case report focused on a similar scenario in an elderly woman initially thought to have osteoarthritis but was diagnosed later with rheumatoid arthritis which brought much relief to her current predicament.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  10. Elnaem MH, Mohamed MHN, Huri HZ, Shah ASM
    Ther Clin Risk Manag, 2019;15:137-145.
    PMID: 30705590 DOI: 10.2147/TCRM.S182716
    Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main complication leading to morbidity and mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There is a large amount of evidence to support the use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) for the prevention of CVD. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and prescription quality of LLT among T2DM patients and to identify its associated factors.

    Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study included 816 T2DM patients from four different primary care centers in Pahang, Malaysia. We involved LLT-eligible T2DM patients as per the national clinical practice guidelines (CPG). The assessment of therapy effectiveness focused on the attainment of target lipid measures stated in the CPG. Evaluation of the prescription quality was classified into appropriate, potentially inappropriate, and inappropriate, based on the compliance with guidelines and existence of potential safety concerns. Binomial logistic regression was employed to identify the predictors of LLT effectiveness and prescription quality.

    Results: The overall percentage of T2DM patients receiving statin therapy was 87.6% (715/816). Statin therapy was appropriately prescribed in 71.5% of the cases. About 17.5% of the LLT prescriptions have at least one significant drug interaction with co-prescribed medications. The achievement of the primary target of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels was observed in only 37% of T2DM patients. The LLT indication and appropriateness of prescription were significantly associated with the attainment of LDL-C treatment goals. Primary prevention, Malay race, and hypertension were identified as predictors for appropriate prescribing of LLT among T2DM subjects.

    Conclusion: There is a need to enhance the quality of LLT prescribing in the primary care setting to cover all eligible high-risk patients and ensure patient safety. Strategies to improve the achievement of LDL-C goals among patients with T2DM, such as investigating the potential role of the combination therapy and high-intensity statin therapy, are required.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  11. Idris I, Tohid H, Muhammad NA, A Rashid MR, Mohd Ahad A, Ali N, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2018 Dec 22;8(12):e025125.
    PMID: 30580276 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-025125
    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at primary care settings and its associated factors.
    DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study involved 808 adult patients with T2DM and CKD who were recruited via systematic sampling from 20 public primary care clinics in Peninsular Malaysia. Their sociodemographic, clinical and biomedical profiles were collected through interviews, examination of medical records and blood testing.
    RESULTS: The prevalence of anaemia was 31.7% (256/808). The anaemia was mainly mild (61.5%) and normocytic normochromic (58.7%). About 88.7% of the patients with anaemia were not known to have anaemia prior to the study. Among 36 patients with documented history of anaemia, 80.6% were still anaemic, and only a half received iron therapy. Multivariate regression analysis showed that women (adjusted odd ratio (AOR): 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.21, p=0.009) and those with older age (AOR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06, p<0.001), CKD stage 3a (AOR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.25 to 4.87, p=0.009), CKD stage 3b (AOR: 4.36; 95% CI: 2.14 to 8.85, p<0.001), CKD stage 4 (AOR: 10.12; 95% CI: 4.36 to 23.47, p<0.001), CKD stage 5 (AOR: 10.80; 95% CI: 3.32 to 35.11, p<0.001) and foot complication (AOR 3.12, 95% CI: 1.51 to 6.46, p=0.002) were more likely to have anaemia. Having higher body mass index (AOR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99, p=0.012) and higher diastolic blood pressure (AOR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99, p<0.001) were associated with lower odds to have anaemia.
    CONCLUSION: Anaemia among patients with T2DM and CKD in primary care was common, and the majority was unrecognised. Inadequate treatment of anaemia was also prevalent. Therefore, screening of anaemia should be incorporated into the routine assessment of diabetic complications particularly for those with significant associated factors. It is hoped that such strategy could lead to early treatment and hence improve their overall care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  12. Abdul Aziz AF, Ali MF, Yusof MF, Che' Man Z, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    Sci Rep, 2018 Dec 19;8(1):17965.
    PMID: 30568180 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-36154-0
    Data on post stroke outcomes in developing countries are scarce due to uncoordinated healthcare delivery systems. In Malaysia, the national stroke clinical practice guideline does not address transfer of care and longer term post stroke care beyond tertiary care. Hence, post stroke care delivery may be delivered at either tertiary or primary care facilities. This study aimed at describing patients' characteristics and outcomes of post stroke care delivered by the primary care teams at public primary care healthcentres across Peninsular Malaysia. Multi staged sampling was done to select public primary care health centres to recruit post stroke patients. At each health centre, convenience sampling was done to recruit adult patients (≥18 years) who received post stroke care between July-December 2012. Baseline measurements were recorded at recruitment and retrospective medical record review was done simultaneously, for details on medical and / or rehabilitation treatment at health centre. Changes in the measurements for post stroke care were compared using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Rank test where appropriate. Total of 151 patients were recruited from ten public primary care healthcentres. The mean age at stroke presentation was 55.8 ± 9.8 years. Median duration of follow up was 2.3 (IQR 5.1) years. Majority co-resided with a relative (80.8%), and a family member was primary caregiver (75.%). Eleven percent were current smokers. Almost 71.0% of patients achieved BP ≤ 140/90 mmHg. Only 68.9% of the patients had been referred for neurorehabilitation. Percentage of recorded data was highest for blood pressure (88.1%) while lowest was HbA1c (43.0%). For clinical outcomes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride level and calculated GFR (eGFR) showed statistically significant changes during follow up (p care at public primary care healthcentres showed benefits in stroke risk factors control (i.e. hypertension and dyslipidaemia) but deterioration in renal function. A more structured coordination is needed to optimise post stroke care beyond acute phase management for patients who reside at home in the community.
    Study site: ten Klinik Kesihatan from six states in Peninsular Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  13. Swarna Nantha Y, Haque S, Swarna Nantha H
    Fam Pract, 2018 Dec 10.
    PMID: 30534941 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmy119
    Background: There has been a shift in worldwide disease burden from infections to non-communicable diseases, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). Behavioural change and self-management are key to optimal T2D control. Several universal models of diabetic care have been proposed to help explain the dimensions of T2D self-care such as medication adherence, physical activity, diet and patient-doctor interaction. These models do not allow an objective and quantifiable measurement of the problems faced by patients in terms of medication compliance.

    Objective: To create a comprehensive conceptual model of behavioural change related to T2D medication compliance.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study will be conducted at a regional primary care clinic using a mixed-method technique. First, a Grounded Theory qualitative inquiry will be used to investigate predictors of medication adherence in T2D patients. Consequently, the elements derived from the interview will be incorporated into the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework to generate an integrated behavioural model. This model will then be used to quantify the factors related to compliance with medication amongst T2D patients.

    Discussion: The framework developed here could help in the design of policies to optimize T2D control by identifying lapses in patients' intake of diabetic medications. This can be done by exploring the patients' fundamental and unarticulated belief system via a naturalistic approach adopted in this study. The properties of the framework can be replicated in other settings to serve as a benchmark for quality improvement in T2D patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  14. Abu Talib R, Idris IB, Sutan R, Ahmad N, Abu Bakar N
    Iran. J. Public Health, 2018 Nov;47(11):1694-1702.
    PMID: 30581786
    Background: This cross-sectional was aimed to assess the prevalence of pre-pregnancy care services usage and its determinant factors among women of reproductive age in Kedah, Malaysia.

    Methods: Overall, 1347 respondents who attended 24 government health clinics, were chosen using systematic multistage random sampling. A validated self-administered questionnaire which consisted of sections including socio-demographic characteristics, social support, knowledge on pre-pregnancy care, perception on risk of pregnancy, health status, as well as intention and awareness on pre-pregnancy care services were distributed.

    Results: The prevalence of utilization of pre-pregnancy care services was still low i.e. 44.0%. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed consistent significant level between all factors and pre-pregnancy care usage except for family planning practice. The factors that showed significant difference with the usage of pre-pregnancy care services were age of more than 35 (P<0.001), high education level (P<0.001), non-working mothers (P<0.001), multipara (P=0.001), awareness on the existence of pre-pregnancy care services in government health facilities (P<0.001), intention to use the services (P=0.0030), having medical illness (P=0.005), having social support (P=0.001), high knowledge (P<0.001), and positive perception (P<0.001).

    Conclusion: Low usage of pre-pregnancy care services can be improved through health screening on reproductive-aged women with positive determinant factors at the triage level in integrated clinics. Information and knowledge on pre-pregnancy services should be disseminated among community members through various means including roadshows and pre-wedding workshops.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  15. Bong WT, Tan CE
    Open Access Maced J Med Sci, 2018 Oct 25;6(10):1928-1933.
    PMID: 30455776 DOI: 10.3889/oamjms.2018.339
    BACKGROUND: Parental anxiety regarding fever may be unwarranted as most cases are owing to self-limiting causes.
    AIM: To assess the level of knowledge and concerns regarding childhood fever among parents with young children in a public health clinic in Kuching, East Malaysia.
    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among parents recruited from a maternal and child health clinic, with children aged 6 months to 6 years. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their knowledge and concerns about childhood fever. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed, and associations between dependent and independent variables were determined.
    RESULTS: Only 26.1% of participants were found to have good knowledge. Knowledge regarding childhood fever was significantly associated with parent's ethnicity, education level, and household income. About 72% of parents were always worried about their child's illness. Three major reasons for their concerns were persistently rising temperature; discomfort caused by the fever, and feared complications of fever.
    CONCLUSION: Excessive parental anxiety due to poor knowledge and misconceptions about fever may lead to poor quality of life and inappropriate management of fever. Healthcare providers may help by educating parents about fever and serious signs that indicate the need to seek healthcare advice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  16. Saidi S, Milnes LJ, Griffiths J
    J Clin Nurs, 2018 Oct;27(19-20):3758-3767.
    PMID: 29893043 DOI: 10.1111/jocn.14559
    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore self-care and self-care support in patients with Type 2 diabetes in urban Malaysia.
    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Malaysia and associated long-term and life-changing complications is increasing. With effective self-care and self-care support, severe complications of the condition can be avoided or reduced. Prior to this study, no evidence existed about Malaysian patients' management of the condition or support for self-care from the healthcare system.
    DESIGN: A single embedded qualitative case study.
    METHODS: Semistructured interviews with 18 patients with Type 2 diabetes aged 28-69 years, healthcare professionals (n = 19), observations (n = 13) of clinic appointments from two urban settings in Malaysia and a documentary analysis. Recordings were transcribed verbatim, field notes were made during observations and the data analysed and synthesised within and across case using Framework analysis.
    FINDINGS: Three main themes explained self-care and self-care support in Malaysia: fatalism, faith and fear. Patients were fatalistic about developing diabetes-they perceived it as inevitable because it is so common in Malaysia. However, faith in God, coupled with fear of the consequences of diabetes, motivated them to engage in self-care practices. The fear was largely induced by diabetes healthcare professionals working in overcrowded clinics, and stretched thinly across the service, who used a direct and uncompromising approach to instil the importance of self-care to avoid severe long-term complications.
    CONCLUSION: This study provided important insight on how people in Malaysia developed diabetes, their responses to the disease and the approach of healthcare professionals in supporting them to engage with self-care.
    RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Any future development of self-care programmes in Malaysia needs to recognise the factors that motivate patients to self-care and include components that build self-efficacy.
    Study site: three outpatient clinics (one in primary care and two in secondary care), Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  17. Azraii AB, Ramli AS, Ismail Z, Abdul-Razak S, Mohd-Kasim NA, Ali N, et al.
    Atherosclerosis, 2018 Oct;277:508-516.
    PMID: 30270092 DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.08.018
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to determine knowledge, awareness and practice (KAP) regarding familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) among Malaysian primary care physicians (PCP), and to compare KAP between PCP with postgraduate qualification (PCP-PG-Qual) and PCP without PG qualification (PCP-noPG-Qual).
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving PCP with ≥1-year working experience in Malaysian primary care settings. An adapted and validated 25-item FH-KAP questionnaire was disseminated during primary care courses. Total score for each domain was calculated by summing-up the correct responses, converted into percentage scores. Normality distribution was examined and comparisons of mean/median percentage scores were made between the two groups of PCP.
    RESULTS: A total of 372 PCP completed the questionnaire. Regarding knowledge, 77.7% correctly defined FH. However, only 8.3% correctly identified coronary artery disease risk in untreated FH. The mean percentage knowledge score was significantly higher in PCP-PG-Qual compared to PCP-noPG-Qual (48.9, SD ± 13.92 vs. 35.2, SD ± 14.13), t(370) = 8.66, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  18. Syahnaz MH, Rasina Nilofer JK, Azmawati MW, Harlina Halizah S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 Oct;73(5):301-306.
    PMID: 30350809 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: The practice of modern contraceptives still remains a sceptical issue in the society and dormant due to increasing objection of husbands who play a significant role in the family planning practice.

    OBJECTIVES: This study was done to determine the factors affecting the ever use of modern contraceptive methods among married men visiting a healthcare clinic in Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross sectional study of 443 men aged over 18 years was conducted using convenient sampling from January 2016 till March 2016 at a primary care clinic. A self-administered questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristic, attitude towards family planning, spousal communication and ever used of modern contraceptive methods was used.

    RESULTS: The proportion of ever used modern contraception was 48% (n=192). Multiple logistic regression revealed that spousal communication on family planning (Adjusted OR 15.8; 95% CI 7.0 - 35.6) and attitude towards marital relationship (Adjusted OR 1.1; CI 1.0 - 1.1) were significant predictors for ever used of modern contraception among married men.

    CONCLUSION: The proportion of ever used modern contraception is still not high. Men who communicated with their spouse on modern contraception and perceived family planning as means to preserve their marital relationship were more likely to practice modern contraceptive method.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  19. Zun AB, Ibrahim MI, Hamid AA
    Oman Med J, 2018 Sep;33(5):416-422.
    PMID: 30210721 DOI: 10.5001/omj.2018.76
    Objectives: Implemented in 2010, 1 Malaysia Clinic (1MC) is the latest innovation in public primary healthcare services in Malaysia to serve the urban population. This study aimed to assess the level of satisfaction and its associated factors using the SERVQUAL (SERV-service, QUAL-quality) instrument. We also sought to compare the difference of mean score between expectation and perception of SERVQUAL dimension among patients attending 1MC in Kota Bharu district, Malaysia.

    Methods: This cross-sectional study included all nine 1MCs in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia, and used the validated SERVQUAL questionnaire from Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The primary data was collected in January 2017. The sample size was proportionate to the average daily patient attendance for each clinic, and a simple random sampling method was applied to reduced selection bias. Satisfaction level was determined by the mean gap score of expectation and perception of the SERVQUAL dimension.

    Results: A total of 386 patients were involved in this study (184 male and 202 female). Most were from the low socioeconomic group. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the clinic services. The tangible dimension (service quality (SQ) gap: -0.25) was the most critical dimension among all five SQ dimensions assessed. The factors included low education level (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.67; p = 0.024), monthly household income less than RM 3000 (adj. OR 2.97; 95% CI: 1.72, 5.51; p < 0.001), and frequency 3 3 visits (adj. OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.45; p < 0.001) had significant association with high level of satisfaction.

    Conclusion: 1MC has achieved its objective to increase the accessibility of health services among the low-income population in urban settings. However, most patients were not satisfied with certain parts of the services. Thus, proper evaluation of the service gap is required for improvement of the service.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  20. Chew BH, Vos RC, Pouwer F, Rutten GEHM
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2018 Aug;142:74-84.
    PMID: 29802952 DOI: 10.1016/j.diabres.2018.05.021
    AIMS: To examine whether diabetes distress (DD), when measured by three different instruments, was associated differently with self-efficacy, self-care activity, medication adherence and disease control in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study in three health clinics. DD was assessed with the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale, the 2-item DDS-2 (DDS-2) and the 5-item Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID-5). Dependent variables included self-efficacy, self-care activities, medication adherence, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP). Multiple linear and logistic regression were used in analyses.
    RESULTS: In total 338 participants (56% women), with a mean age of 61 years and diabetes duration of 9.8 years, were included. DDS-2 was an independent determinant of SBP (β = 1.89, 95% CI 0.14, 3.64), DBP (β = 1.19, 95% CI 0.16, 2.21) and blood pressure target (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.12, 3.83). PAID-5 was an independent determinant of medication adherence (adjusted β = -0.05, 95% CI -0.08, -0.01) and self-care activities (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.26, 0.99).
    CONCLUSIONS: Associations of DD with important aspects of diabetes care are substantially influenced by confounders and depend on the way DD is measured. Our findings call for a judicious use of different DD measures in clinical practice and research. The study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02730754).
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
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