Urinary incontinence (UI) is common in women in postmenopausal age, but many women delay seeking treatment. The objective of this study is to determine health-seeking behavior of postmenopausal women with UI and its associated factors. This is a cross-sectional study involving 348 postmenopausal women from the outpatient clinic using personal data forms and a validated UI questionnaire. A total of 348 menopausal women were involved in the study. Only 13.17% of patients with UI sought treatment. Factors associated with seeking treatment were age of menopause and severity of UI. More health education needs to be done among these patients.
Study site: Primary care clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
PURPOSE: To evaluate a patient-report instrument for identifying adverse drug events (ADEs) in older populations with multimorbidity in the community setting.
METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of 859 community-dwelling patients aged ≥70 years treated at 15 primary care practices. Patients were asked if they had experienced any of a list of 74 symptoms classified by physiologic system in the previous 6 months and if (1) they believed the symptom to be related to their medication, (2) the symptom had bothered them, (3) they had discussed it with their family physician, and (4) they required hospital care due to the symptom. Self-reported symptoms were independently reviewed by 2 clinicians who determined the likelihood that the symptom was an ADE. Family physician medical records were also reviewed for any report of an ADE.
RESULTS: The ADE instrument had an accuracy of 75% (95% CI, 77%-79%), a sensitivity of 29% (95% CI, 27%-31%), and a specificity of 93% (95% CI, 92%-94%). Older people who reported a symptom had an increased likelihood of an ADE (positive likelihood ratio [LR+]: 4.22; 95% CI, 3.78-4.72). Antithrombotic agents were the drugs most commonly associated with ADEs. Patients were most bothered by muscle pain or weakness (75%), dizziness or lightheadedness (61%), cough (53%), and unsteadiness while standing (52%). On average, patients reported 39% of ADEs to their physician. Twenty-six (3%) patients attended a hospital outpatient clinic, and 32 (4%) attended an emergency department due to ADEs.
CONCLUSION: Older community-dwelling patients were often not correct in recognizing ADEs. The ADE instrument demonstrated good predictive value and could be used to differentiate between symptoms of ADEs and chronic disease in the community setting.
Study site: primary care practices, Ireland
Management of sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus is challenging due to the social stigma attached. We describe the development of a client-friendly sexually transmitted disease service in a primary care clinic in Malaysia with a special focus on key populations. Challenges and key lessons learnt from its development and implementation are discussed.
Objective: To determine the extent of self-management support (SMS) provided to primary care patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and hypertension and its associated factors.
Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted between April and May 2017.
Setting: Forty public clinics in Malaysia.
Participants: A total of 956 adult patients with T2D and/or hypertension were interviewed.
Main Outcome Measures: Patient experience on SMS was evaluated using a structured questionnaire of the short version Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care instrument, PACIC-M11. Linear regression analysis adjusting for complex survey design was used to determine the association of patient and clinic factors with PACIC-M11 scores.
Results: The overall PACIC-M11 mean was 2.3(SD,0.8) out of maximum of 5. The subscales' mean scores were lowest for patient activation (2.1(SD,1.1)) and highest for delivery system design/decision support (2.9(SD,0.9)). Overall PACIC-M11 score was associated with age, educational level and ethnicity. Higher overall PACIC-M11 ratings was observed with increasing difference between actual and expected consultation duration [β = 0.01; 95% CI (0.001, 0.03)]. Better scores were also observed among patients who would recommend the clinic to friends and family [β = 0.19; 95% CI (0.03, 0.36)], when health providers were able to explain things in ways that were easy to understand [β = 0.34; 95% CI (0.10, 0.59)] and knew about patients' living conditions [β = 0.31; 95% CI (0.15, 0.47)].
Conclusions: Our findings indicated patients received low levels of SMS. PACIC-M11 ratings were associated with age, ethnicity, educational level, difference between actual and expected consultation length, willingness to recommend the clinic and provider communication skills.
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a serious global burden that affects men as well as their partners. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of ED among male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor, Malaysia.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of Malaysian men aged ≥ 18 years attending two major outpatient clinics in Johor Bahru and Segamat in Johor, Malaysia, between 1 January 2016 and 31 March 2016. Subjects were chosen via simple random sampling and 400 patients were recruited. The study instrument was a survey form that consisted of three sections: sociodemographic and comorbid profile, validated English and Malay versions of the 15-item International Index of Erectile Function, and the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of self-reported ED was 81.5%. The prevalence of ED according to severity was as follows: mild (17.0%), mild to moderate (23.8%), moderate (11.3%) and severe (29.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that ED was associated with increasing age (odds ratio [OR] 4.023, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.633-9.913), Indian as compared to Malay ethnicity (OR 3.252, 95% CI 1.280-8.262), secondary as compared to tertiary education (OR 2.171, 95% CI 1.203-3.919), single as compared to married status (OR 6.119, 95% CI 2.542-14.734) and stress (OR 4.259, 95% CI 1.793-10.114).
CONCLUSION: ED has significant prevalence and severity among adult male outpatient clinic attendees in Johor. Increasing age, Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, singlehood and stress were significant predictors of ED.
Study site: Klinik Kesihatan Mahmoodiah, Johor Bahru; outpatient department, Hospital Besar Segamat, Johor, Malaysia
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of anaemia among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) at primary care settings and its associated factors.
DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: This cross-sectional study involved 808 adult patients with T2DM and CKD who were recruited via systematic sampling from 20 public primary care clinics in Peninsular Malaysia. Their sociodemographic, clinical and biomedical profiles were collected through interviews, examination of medical records and blood testing.
RESULTS: The prevalence of anaemia was 31.7% (256/808). The anaemia was mainly mild (61.5%) and normocytic normochromic (58.7%). About 88.7% of the patients with anaemia were not known to have anaemia prior to the study. Among 36 patients with documented history of anaemia, 80.6% were still anaemic, and only a half received iron therapy. Multivariate regression analysis showed that women (adjusted odd ratio (AOR): 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.21, p=0.009) and those with older age (AOR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.06, p<0.001), CKD stage 3a (AOR: 2.47; 95% CI: 1.25 to 4.87, p=0.009), CKD stage 3b (AOR: 4.36; 95% CI: 2.14 to 8.85, p<0.001), CKD stage 4 (AOR: 10.12; 95% CI: 4.36 to 23.47, p<0.001), CKD stage 5 (AOR: 10.80; 95% CI: 3.32 to 35.11, p<0.001) and foot complication (AOR 3.12, 95% CI: 1.51 to 6.46, p=0.002) were more likely to have anaemia. Having higher body mass index (AOR 0.95, 95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99, p=0.012) and higher diastolic blood pressure (AOR 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.99, p<0.001) were associated with lower odds to have anaemia.
CONCLUSION: Anaemia among patients with T2DM and CKD in primary care was common, and the majority was unrecognised. Inadequate treatment of anaemia was also prevalent. Therefore, screening of anaemia should be incorporated into the routine assessment of diabetic complications particularly for those with significant associated factors. It is hoped that such strategy could lead to early treatment and hence improve their overall care.
TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NMRR-15-660-24324.
Data on post stroke outcomes in developing countries are scarce due to uncoordinated healthcare delivery systems. In Malaysia, the national stroke clinical practice guideline does not address transfer of care and longer term post stroke care beyond tertiary care. Hence, post stroke care delivery may be delivered at either tertiary or primary care facilities. This study aimed at describing patients' characteristics and outcomes of post stroke care delivered by the primary care teams at public primary care healthcentres across Peninsular Malaysia. Multi staged sampling was done to select public primary care health centres to recruit post stroke patients. At each health centre, convenience sampling was done to recruit adult patients (≥18 years) who received post stroke care between July-December 2012. Baseline measurements were recorded at recruitment and retrospective medical record review was done simultaneously, for details on medical and / or rehabilitation treatment at health centre. Changes in the measurements for post stroke care were compared using paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Rank test where appropriate. Total of 151 patients were recruited from ten public primary care healthcentres. The mean age at stroke presentation was 55.8 ± 9.8 years. Median duration of follow up was 2.3 (IQR 5.1) years. Majority co-resided with a relative (80.8%), and a family member was primary caregiver (75.%). Eleven percent were current smokers. Almost 71.0% of patients achieved BP ≤ 140/90 mmHg. Only 68.9% of the patients had been referred for neurorehabilitation. Percentage of recorded data was highest for blood pressure (88.1%) while lowest was HbA1c (43.0%). For clinical outcomes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride level and calculated GFR (eGFR) showed statistically significant changes during follow up (p care at public primary care healthcentres showed benefits in stroke risk factors control (i.e. hypertension and dyslipidaemia) but deterioration in renal function. A more structured coordination is needed to optimise post stroke care beyond acute phase management for patients who reside at home in the community.
Study site: ten Klinik Kesihatan from six states in Peninsular Malaysia
Background: There has been a shift in worldwide disease burden from infections to non-communicable diseases, especially type 2 diabetes (T2D). Behavioural change and self-management are key to optimal T2D control. Several universal models of diabetic care have been proposed to help explain the dimensions of T2D self-care such as medication adherence, physical activity, diet and patient-doctor interaction. These models do not allow an objective and quantifiable measurement of the problems faced by patients in terms of medication compliance.
Objective: To create a comprehensive conceptual model of behavioural change related to T2D medication compliance.
Methods: A cross-sectional study will be conducted at a regional primary care clinic using a mixed-method technique. First, a Grounded Theory qualitative inquiry will be used to investigate predictors of medication adherence in T2D patients. Consequently, the elements derived from the interview will be incorporated into the Theory of Planned Behaviour framework to generate an integrated behavioural model. This model will then be used to quantify the factors related to compliance with medication amongst T2D patients.
Discussion: The framework developed here could help in the design of policies to optimize T2D control by identifying lapses in patients' intake of diabetic medications. This can be done by exploring the patients' fundamental and unarticulated belief system via a naturalistic approach adopted in this study. The properties of the framework can be replicated in other settings to serve as a benchmark for quality improvement in T2D patient care.
Background: This cross-sectional was aimed to assess the prevalence of pre-pregnancy care services usage and its determinant factors among women of reproductive age in Kedah, Malaysia.
Methods: Overall, 1347 respondents who attended 24 government health clinics, were chosen using systematic multistage random sampling. A validated self-administered questionnaire which consisted of sections including socio-demographic characteristics, social support, knowledge on pre-pregnancy care, perception on risk of pregnancy, health status, as well as intention and awareness on pre-pregnancy care services were distributed.
Results: The prevalence of utilization of pre-pregnancy care services was still low i.e. 44.0%. Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed consistent significant level between all factors and pre-pregnancy care usage except for family planning practice. The factors that showed significant difference with the usage of pre-pregnancy care services were age of more than 35 (P<0.001), high education level (P<0.001), non-working mothers (P<0.001), multipara (P=0.001), awareness on the existence of pre-pregnancy care services in government health facilities (P<0.001), intention to use the services (P=0.0030), having medical illness (P=0.005), having social support (P=0.001), high knowledge (P<0.001), and positive perception (P<0.001).
Conclusion: Low usage of pre-pregnancy care services can be improved through health screening on reproductive-aged women with positive determinant factors at the triage level in integrated clinics. Information and knowledge on pre-pregnancy services should be disseminated among community members through various means including roadshows and pre-wedding workshops.
BACKGROUND: Parental anxiety regarding fever may be unwarranted as most cases are owing to self-limiting causes.
AIM: To assess the level of knowledge and concerns regarding childhood fever among parents with young children in a public health clinic in Kuching, East Malaysia.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among parents recruited from a maternal and child health clinic, with children aged 6 months to 6 years. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire regarding their knowledge and concerns about childhood fever. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed, and associations between dependent and independent variables were determined.
RESULTS: Only 26.1% of participants were found to have good knowledge. Knowledge regarding childhood fever was significantly associated with parent's ethnicity, education level, and household income. About 72% of parents were always worried about their child's illness. Three major reasons for their concerns were persistently rising temperature; discomfort caused by the fever, and feared complications of fever.
CONCLUSION: Excessive parental anxiety due to poor knowledge and misconceptions about fever may lead to poor quality of life and inappropriate management of fever. Healthcare providers may help by educating parents about fever and serious signs that indicate the need to seek healthcare advice.
BACKGROUND: The practice of modern contraceptives still remains a sceptical issue in the society and dormant due to increasing objection of husbands who play a significant role in the family planning practice.
OBJECTIVES: This study was done to determine the factors affecting the ever use of modern contraceptive methods among married men visiting a healthcare clinic in Malaysia.
MATERIAL AND METHOD: A cross sectional study of 443 men aged over 18 years was conducted using convenient sampling from January 2016 till March 2016 at a primary care clinic. A self-administered questionnaire assessing sociodemographic characteristic, attitude towards family planning, spousal communication and ever used of modern contraceptive methods was used.
RESULTS: The proportion of ever used modern contraception was 48% (n=192). Multiple logistic regression revealed that spousal communication on family planning (Adjusted OR 15.8; 95% CI 7.0 - 35.6) and attitude towards marital relationship (Adjusted OR 1.1; CI 1.0 - 1.1) were significant predictors for ever used of modern contraception among married men.
CONCLUSION: The proportion of ever used modern contraception is still not high. Men who communicated with their spouse on modern contraception and perceived family planning as means to preserve their marital relationship were more likely to practice modern contraceptive method.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study aimed to determine knowledge, awareness and practice (KAP) regarding familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) among Malaysian primary care physicians (PCP), and to compare KAP between PCP with postgraduate qualification (PCP-PG-Qual) and PCP without PG qualification (PCP-noPG-Qual).
METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving PCP with ≥1-year working experience in Malaysian primary care settings. An adapted and validated 25-item FH-KAP questionnaire was disseminated during primary care courses. Total score for each domain was calculated by summing-up the correct responses, converted into percentage scores. Normality distribution was examined and comparisons of mean/median percentage scores were made between the two groups of PCP.
RESULTS: A total of 372 PCP completed the questionnaire. Regarding knowledge, 77.7% correctly defined FH. However, only 8.3% correctly identified coronary artery disease risk in untreated FH. The mean percentage knowledge score was significantly higher in PCP-PG-Qual compared to PCP-noPG-Qual (48.9, SD ± 13.92 vs. 35.2, SD ± 14.13), t(370) = 8.66, p
Objectives: Implemented in 2010, 1 Malaysia Clinic (1MC) is the latest innovation in public primary healthcare services in Malaysia to serve the urban population. This study aimed to assess the level of satisfaction and its associated factors using the SERVQUAL (SERV-service, QUAL-quality) instrument. We also sought to compare the difference of mean score between expectation and perception of SERVQUAL dimension among patients attending 1MC in Kota Bharu district, Malaysia.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included all nine 1MCs in the Kota Bharu district, Malaysia, and used the validated SERVQUAL questionnaire from Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The primary data was collected in January 2017. The sample size was proportionate to the average daily patient attendance for each clinic, and a simple random sampling method was applied to reduced selection bias. Satisfaction level was determined by the mean gap score of expectation and perception of the SERVQUAL dimension.
Results: A total of 386 patients were involved in this study (184 male and 202 female). Most were from the low socioeconomic group. Less than half of the patients were satisfied with the clinic services. The tangible dimension (service quality (SQ) gap: -0.25) was the most critical dimension among all five SQ dimensions assessed. The factors included low education level (adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) 1.87; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 2.67; p = 0.024), monthly household income less than RM 3000 (adj. OR 2.97; 95% CI: 1.72, 5.51; p < 0.001), and frequency 3 3 visits (adj. OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.44, 3.45; p < 0.001) had significant association with high level of satisfaction.
Conclusion: 1MC has achieved its objective to increase the accessibility of health services among the low-income population in urban settings. However, most patients were not satisfied with certain parts of the services. Thus, proper evaluation of the service gap is required for improvement of the service.
AIMS: To examine the impact of Ramadan Focused Education Program (RFEP) on medications adjustment in type 2 diabetes patients in Ramadan.
METHODS: This is a controlled, intervention based study. It was run on three phases: before, during, and after Ramadan on 262 type 2 diabetes patients. The intervention group (n = 140) received RFEP on medications doses & timing adjustment before and after Ramadan, while the control group (n = 122) received standard care.
RESULTS: The dose of insulin glargine was reduced from 42.51 ± 22.16 at the baseline to 40.11 ± 18.51-units during Ramadan (p = 0.002) in the intervention group while it remained the same in the control group before Ramadan and during Ramadan (38.51 ± 18.63 and 38.14 ± 18.46, P = 0.428, respectively). The hypoglycemia score was 14.2 ± (8.5) pre-Ramadan in the intervention and reduced to 6.36 ± 6.17 during Ramadan (p
AIMS: To examine whether diabetes distress (DD), when measured by three different instruments, was associated differently with self-efficacy, self-care activity, medication adherence and disease control in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study in three health clinics. DD was assessed with the 17-item Diabetes Distress Scale, the 2-item DDS-2 (DDS-2) and the 5-item Problem Areas in Diabetes Scale (PAID-5). Dependent variables included self-efficacy, self-care activities, medication adherence, HbA1c, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP). Multiple linear and logistic regression were used in analyses.
RESULTS: In total 338 participants (56% women), with a mean age of 61 years and diabetes duration of 9.8 years, were included. DDS-2 was an independent determinant of SBP (β = 1.89, 95% CI 0.14, 3.64), DBP (β = 1.19, 95% CI 0.16, 2.21) and blood pressure target (OR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.12, 3.83). PAID-5 was an independent determinant of medication adherence (adjusted β = -0.05, 95% CI -0.08, -0.01) and self-care activities (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.26, 0.99).
CONCLUSIONS: Associations of DD with important aspects of diabetes care are substantially influenced by confounders and depend on the way DD is measured. Our findings call for a judicious use of different DD measures in clinical practice and research. The study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02730754).
BACKGROUND: Obesity in pregnancy causes both maternal and foetal complications hence adequate knowledge of obesity related pregnancy risks would ensure better outcomes. This study aims to determine the knowledge of obesity related pregnancy risks among pregnant women.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant women from four antenatal clinics in Seremban, between February and May 2015. Knowledge on pregnancy risks was assessed using questionnaire. Women were defined as having broad knowledge on obesity related pregnancy risks if they correctly identified that women who are very obese, are at higher risk of obesity related pregnancy complications and weight loss prior to pregnancy is associated with lower risk of obesity related pregnancy complications. Descriptive statistics and regression tests were used in the analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 315 women participated in this study. Their mean age is 29.3 (SD±4.8) years and majority were Malay (72.4%). More than half of them were overweight and obese (60.6%). About 63.2% participants had broad knowledge on obesity related pregnancy risk. Education is a significant predictor of broad knowledge as women with tertiary education had higher odds of having broad knowledge compared to those with only school education (OR 2.1; 95%CI: 1.28 to 3.59).
CONCLUSIONS: This study found that more than half of the participants had knowledge of obesity related pregnancy risks and that education is a significant predictor for knowledge. Pre-pregnancy care education programmes can help identify barriers, introduce simple weight management strategies to overcome obesity, to ensure better maternal and foetal outcome.
Study site: Antenatal clinics (klinik kesihatan), Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
INTRODUCTION: Social support and self-efficacy are factors that influence patients' health behaviour. However, the relationship between these two factors among patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) has not been adequately explored. This study aims to report social support and selfefficacy of Malaysian T2DM patients, and their correlations.
METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire study involved 329 patients with T2DM who received their follow up at a public primary care clinic. Patients were selected via systematic random sampling. Patients self-completed locally adapted versions of the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Social Support Survey and Diabetic Management Self Efficacy Scale (DMSES). The scores of both tools were analysed to determine the association and correlation between social support and self-efficacy.
RESULTS: The mean score for overall social support was 72.7±21.40 score range (0-100). "Affectionate support" was rated the highest averaged mean score at 78.31±23.71 (score range: 0-100). The mean DMSES score was 147.6±35.5 (score range :0-200), of which "medications" subscale was rated the highest with averaged mean scores 9.07±1.67 (score range: 0-10). Overall social support and self-efficacy were found to be weakly correlated (r=0.197, p<0.001). However, all subscales of social support were moderately correlated with "medications" subscale of self-efficacy.
CONCLUSION: Social support is significantly associated with patients' self-efficacy in handling their own medications.
BACKGROUND: The first week after childbirth is a crucial period for exclusive breastfeeding initiation.
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the association of postnatal breastfeeding education with knowledge, attitude, and exclusive breastfeeding practice at six months after childbirth among women who delivered at two district hospitals in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.
METHODS: This is a quasi-experimental study design. A newly developed and validated questionnaire was used to determine scoring for baseline and six months after childbirth. The intervention consisted of individualized postnatal breastfeeding education delivered by researchers using flipchart one week after childbirth and breastfeeding diary in addition to usual care. The comparison group received the usual postnatal care by health clinics. Repeated measure analysis of variance and multiple logistic regression analysis were used.
RESULTS: A total of 116 participants were included in this study (59 in intervention group and 57 in comparison group). Six months after childbirth, the adjusted mean score of knowledge and attitude of the intervention group were significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001 and p=0.002, respectively). More participants in the intervention group (n=26, 44.1%) exclusively breastfed their infants compared with 15 (26.3%) in the comparison group (p=0.046). Postnatal breastfeeding education was significantly associated with exclusive breastfeeding practice six months after childbirth [adjusted odds ratio 2.31; 95% confidence interval: 1.02, 5.14; p=0.040].
CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal breastfeeding education was significantly associated with an improvement in women's knowledge, attitude and exclusive breastfeeding practice six months after childbirth.
Study site: two district hospitals in the northeast part of Peninsular Malaysia.
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of malnutrition among five-year-olds and factors associated with unsuccessful outcome of a Food Basket Programme (FBP) in a rural district of Kelantan, Malaysia.
DESIGN: Administrative health records from selected health clinics were reviewed. Study sample includes indigenous population or Orang Asli of Malaysia. Unsuccessful outcome was defined according to failure to complete the programme according to growth gain and on-time. Multiple logistics regression was used to assess the associated factors of unsuccessful outcome of FBP.
RESULTS: This study showed that the prevalence rates of malnutrition among children below five years old were 34.2% underweight, 16.4% thinness, 32.5% stunting and 3.0% overweight, with Orang Asli children faring the worse. Orang Asli children were also five times more likely to be unsuccessful in the FBP (p
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the evidence-based practices of primary care physicians between those working in rural and in urban primary care settings.
RESEARCH DESIGN: Data from two previous qualitative studies, the Front-line Equitable Evidence-based Decision Making in Medicine and Creating, Synthesising and Implementing evidence-based medicine (EBM) in primary care studies, were sorted, arranged, classified and compared with the help of qualitative research software, NVivo V.10. Data categories were interrogated through comparison between and within datasets to identify similarities and differences in rural and urban practices. Themes were then refined by removing or recoding redundant and infrequent nodes into major key themes.
PARTICIPANTS: There were 55 primary care physicians who participated in 10 focus group discussions (n=31) and 9 individual physician in-depth interviews.
SETTING: The study was conducted across three primary care settings-an academic primary care practice and both private and public health clinics in rural (Pahang) and urban (Selangor and Kuala Lumpur) settings in Malaysia.
RESULTS: We identified five major themes that influenced the implementation of EBM according to practice settings, namely, workplace factors, EBM understanding and awareness, work experience and access to specialist placement, availability of resources and patient population. Lack of standardised care is a contributing factor to differences in EBM practice, especially in rural areas.
CONCLUSIONS: There were major differences in the practice of EBM between rural and urban primary care settings. These findings could be used by policy-makers, administrators and the physicians themselves to identify strategies to improve EBM practices that are targeted according to workplace settings.