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  1. Lam ES
    Family Practitioner, 1978;3(4):31-34.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  2. Evi Diana, O., Roslan, J., Noafizah, M., Siti Zubaidah, A.
    Journal of Health Management, 2012;10(1):18-29.
    MyJurnal
    Purpose- Work ethics are practice and speed that should be practiced during working. This study was conducted to identify positive work ethics among health clinic staff who work at the counter and in the clinic
    Design/methodology/approach- This study was carried out from January 2008 until December 2008. Health Clinic staff who work at the counter and in the clinic were chosen as respondents. Self- administered questionnaire was used to gain feedback on work ethic practice among staff. The questionnaire consists of evaluation questions on staff in the respondent's deoaftment
    Findings- From the study, approximately B0% of staff have practiced positive work ethics, From 15 work ethics practices, there were only three that should be give attention; i.e. (i) gossiping, (ii) apathetic on reprimand and advice, and (iii) hot- tempered, Improvement strategies need to be formed especially strengthening the soft skills courses and increasing the communication skills to the counter staff, It is also wise to form a leader as a'role model' in improving effective supervisory skills in service counter. Keywords: Work Ethics, Counter Staff, Clinic Staff, Health Clinic
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  3. Hisham R, Ng CJ, Liew SM, Hamzah N, Ho GJ
    BMJ Open, 2016 Mar 09;6(3):e010565.
    PMID: 26962037 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010565
    OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors, including barriers and facilitators, influencing the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) across various primary care settings in Malaysia based on the doctors' views and experiences.
    RESEARCH DESIGN: The qualitative study was used to answer the research question. 37 primary care physicians participated in six focus group discussions and six individual in-depth interviews. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate both the interviews and focus groups, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, checked and analysed using a thematic approach.
    PARTICIPANTS: 37 primary care doctors including medical officers, family medicine specialists, primary care lecturers and general practitioners with different working experiences and in different settings.
    SETTING: The study was conducted across three primary care settings-an academic primary care practice, private and public health clinics in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
    RESULTS: The doctors in this study were aware of the importance of EBM but seldom practised it. Three main factors influenced the implementation of EBM in the doctors' daily practice. First, there was a lack of knowledge and skills in searching for and applying evidence. Second, workplace culture influenced doctors' practice of EBM. Third, some doctors considered EBM as a threat to good clinical practice. They were concerned that rigid application of evidence compromised personalised patient care and felt that EBM did not consider the importance of clinical experience.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite being aware of and having a positive attitude towards EBM, doctors in this study seldom practised EBM in their routine clinical practice. Besides commonly cited barriers such as having a heavy workload and lack of training, workplace 'EBM culture' had an important influence on the doctors' behaviour. Strategies targeting barriers at the practice level should be considered when implementing EBM in primary care.
    Study site: klinik kesihatan, general practice clinics, Klang Valley, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  4. Zailinawati AH, Ng CJ, Nik-Sherina H
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 2006;18(1):10-5.
    PMID: 16629433 DOI: 10.1177/10105395060180010301
    Missed appointments affect patients' health in addition to reducing practice efficiency. This study explored the rate and reasons of non-attendance among patients with chronic illnesses. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in a family practice clinic over a one-month period in 2004. Those who failed turn up for scheduled appointments were interviewed by telephone based on a structured questionnaire. Out of 671 patients, the non-attendance rate was 16.7%. Sixty-seven percent of non-attenders were successfully interviewed. Males (p = 0.01), Indians (p = 0.015), patients with coronary artery disease (p = 0.017), multiple diseases (> 4) (p = 0.036) and shorter appointment intervals (p = 0.001) were more likely to default. The main reasons for non-attendance were: forgot the appointment dates (32.9%), not feeling well (12.3%), administrative errors (19.1%) and work or family commitments (8.2%). The majority would prefer a reminder through telephone (71.4%), followed by letters (41.3%). In conclusion, appropriate intervention could be taken based on the reasons identified in this study.

    Study site: Family Practice Clinic of the
    Department of Primary Care
    Medicine, University of Malaya
    Medical Centre, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  5. Minhat, H.S.
    MyJurnal
    Diversified leisure involvement pose various health benefits to the elderly population. However, some elderly are too focus on doing a particular type of activity during their leisure time such as religious activity. This study aims to explore factors that could possibly contribute to the higher involvement in religious activity among the Malay ethnic elderly in Malaysia. In depth interviews were conducted, involving a total of 20 elderly aged 60 years and above with stratification by background characteristics. Each interview was conducted for an average of 15 to 30 minutes. They were purposively selected from two health clinics located in two different districts in the state of Selangor, representing an urban and a rural area. Majority of the elderly interviewed perceived that by engaging in religious activities such as prayer and reciting the Holy Quran or old Islamic scripture gives them serenity or calmness. Additionally, they also felt that involvement in such activities is very synonymous with being old and therefore one should be actively involved in religious activities with increasing age. In view of the lack of diversity of leisure involvement among the elderly and the passive and solitary nature of some of the religious activities, the elderly should be made aware of the importance of participating in other types of leisure activities especially physical activities. Although, they gain spiritual and social benefits from involving in religious activities, they also need to perform other form of activities that can improve the physical health status.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  6. Lee EL, Wong PS, Tan MY, Sheridan J
    Int J Pharm Pract, 2018 Apr;26(2):138-147.
    PMID: 28574154 DOI: 10.1111/ijpp.12374
    OBJECTIVES: This study explored the experiences and views of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) on their diabetes self-management and potential roles for community pharmacists in diabetes self-management education and support (DSME/S) in Malaysia.

    METHODS: A qualitative study, using semi-structured, face-to-face interviews, was conducted with patients with T2D attending a primary care health clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed inductively.

    KEY FINDINGS: Fourteen participants with T2D were interviewed. Data were coded into five main themes: experience and perception of diabetes self-management, constraints of the current healthcare system, perception of the community pharmacist and community pharmacies, perceived roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care, and challenges in utilising community pharmacies to provide DSME/S. There were misconceptions about diabetes management that may be attributed to a lack of knowledge. Although participants described potential roles for community pharmacists in education, medication review and continuity of care, these roles were mostly non-clinically oriented. Participants were not confident about community pharmacists making recommendations and changes to the prescribed treatment regimens. While participants recognised the advantages of convenience of a community pharmacy-based diabetes care service, they raised concerns over the retail nature and the community pharmacy environment for providing such services.

    CONCLUSION: This study highlighted the need to improve the care provision for people with T2D. Participants with T2D identified potential, but limited roles for community pharmacists in diabetes care. Participants expressed concerns that need to be addressed if effective diabetes care is to be provided from community pharmacies in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  7. Aziz AF, Aziz NA, Nordin NA, Ali MF, Sulong S, Aljunid SM
    J Neurosci Rural Pract, 2013 Oct;4(4):413-20.
    PMID: 24347948 DOI: 10.4103/0976-3147.120243
    CONTEXT: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community.
    AIMS: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level.
    SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility.
    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI).
    STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05.
    RESULTS: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2-100) to 90.5 (range: 27-100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0-22) to 3.0 (range: 0-19) though the change was not significant (Z= -0.744, P = 0.457).
    CONCLUSIONS: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.
    KEYWORDS: Long-term stroke care; poststroke; primary care
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  8. Abdullah A, Liew SM, Hanafi NS, Ng CJ, Lai PS, Chia YC, et al.
    Patient Prefer Adherence, 2016;10:99-106.
    PMID: 26869773 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S94687
    Telemonitoring of home blood pressure (BP) is found to have a positive effect on BP control. Delivering a BP telemonitoring service in primary care offers primary care physicians an innovative approach toward management of their patients with hypertension. However, little is known about patients' acceptance of such service in routine clinical care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  9. Chong MC, Sellick K, Francis K, Abdullah KL
    PMID: 25029948 DOI: 10.1016/S1976-1317(11)60012-1
    PURPOSE: A cross sectional descriptive study, which involved government hospitals and health clinics from Peninsular Malaysia sought to identify the continuing professional education (CPE) needs and their readiness for E-learning. This paper focuses on the first phase of that study that aimed to determine the factors that influence nurses' participation in CPE.
    METHODS: Multistage cluster sampling was used to recruit 1,000 nurses randomly from 12 hospitals and 24 health clinics from four states in Peninsular Malaysia who agreed to be involved. The respondent rate was 792 (79.2%), of which 562 (80%) had participated in CPE in the last 12 months.
    RESULTS: Findings suggested that updating knowledge and providing quality care are the most important factors that motivate participation in CPE, with respective means of 4.34 and 4.39. All the mean scores for educational opportunity were less than 3.0. Chi-square tests were used to test the association of demographic data and CPE participation. All demographical data were significantly associated with CPE participation, except marital status.
    CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of mandatory CPE is considered an important measure to increase nurse's participation in CPE. However, effective planning that takes into consideration the learning needs of nurses is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  10. Lee YK, Ng CJ, Lee PY, Khoo EM, Abdullah KL, Low WY, et al.
    PMID: 23378747 DOI: 10.2147/PPA.S36791
    BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes often require insulin as the disease progresses. However, health care professionals frequently encounter challenges when managing patients who require insulin therapy. Understanding how health care professionals perceive the barriers faced by patients on insulin will facilitate care and treatment strategies.
    OBJECTIVE: This study explores the views of Malaysian health care professionals on the barriers faced by patients using insulin.
    METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with health care professionals involved in diabetes care using insulin. Forty-one health care professionals participated in the study, consisting of primary care doctors (n = 20), family medicine specialists (n = 10), government policymakers (n = 5), diabetes educators (n = 3), endocrinologists (n = 2), and one pharmacist. We used a topic guide to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using a thematic approach.
    RESULTS: FIVE THEMES WERE IDENTIFIED AS BARRIERS: side effects, patient education, negative perceptions, blood glucose monitoring, and patient adherence to treatment and follow-up. Patients perceive that insulin therapy causes numerous negative side effects. There is a lack of patient education on proper glucose monitoring and how to optimize insulin therapy. Cost of treatment and patient ignorance are highlighted when discussing patient self-monitoring of blood glucose. Finally, health care professionals identified a lack of a follow-up system, especially for patients who do not keep to regular appointments.
    CONCLUSION: This study identifies five substantial barriers to optimizing insulin therapy. Health care professionals who successfully identify and address these issues will empower patients to achieve effective self-management. System barriers require government agency in establishing insulin follow-up programs, multidisciplinary diabetes care teams, and subsidies for glucometers and test strips.
    KEYWORDS: diabetes; focus groups; insulin; noncommunicable disease; primary care; qualitative study
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  11. Wadsworth GR
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1981 Sep;36(3):148-50.
    PMID: 7329371
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  12. Fariza Fadzil, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Shuhaila Ahmad, Noor Shaheeran Abdul Hayi, Azah Abdul Samad, et al.
    Int J Public Health Res, 2015;5(2):637-642.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction: In maternal healthcare, pre-pregnancy weight is used to predict pregnancy outcomes. Since no recorded data on pre-pregnancy weight, perceived weight is used alternatively. This study examines the relationship between perceived and actual weight among non-pregnant urban Malaysian women of childbearing age and identifies differences in perceived and actual weight by selected socio-demographic characteristics.
    Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between April and June 2013 among urban Malaysian women attending public health clinics in the Klang Valley. Information on height, perceived current weight and time when their weight was last taken were obtained and actual weight was the average of two measurements (TANITA-HD-323-digital-scale). Socio-demographic data collected were age, ethnicity, education level, marital and employment status and total household income.
    Results: Mean age of 371 women in this study was 28.81±5.65, 82.2% were Malays, 62.8% had tertiary education, over 75% were married and employed, with more than half from middle-income households. Overall, the mean perceived and actual weight was 59.29±11.59 and 59.20±11.90 respectively. Pearson‟s Correlation test showed a very strong positive correlation between perceived and actual weight (r=0.957;p<0.0001), ranging between 0.852 to 0.994 among subgroups; 258 (69.5%) perceived their weight accurately (±2.0 kg of actual weight), 49 (13.2%) under and 64 (17.3%) overestimated their weight.Main outliers were among younger women, Malays, tertiary educated, employed, middle-income and had weight last measured a month or more ago.
    Conclusion: Strong correlation between perceived and actual weight among women in this study reassured weight perception can be used more confidently in patients‟ history taking and future research among urban Malaysian women using public health services.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  13. Usha Devi B, Paul E, Munjeet K
    Family Physician, 2005;13:5-9.
    A study was conducted at the Outpatient Department (OPD) of Ipoh Hospital, an urban public primary healthcare facility, over a weekend, to determine the profile of patients attending the clinic, the reasons for encounter and the reasons for choosing after hours medical care. The data from this study would be useful in determining the need for and formulating a policy for after hours medical care at urban primary health care facilities in the country. The study showed there was a low proportion of acute illness in the weekend clinic. A total of 17% of the patients had an acute illness and a further 8% had aggravation of an existing illness. This group of patients requires access to weekend medical services. The main reason for choosing after hours care was social, that is the convenience of an off-day from work or school. Several options can be explored to provide after hours care, including volunteer government doctors or private general practitioners running the service. Another option is to direct public patients during the weekends to private general practitioners in their locality who will be subsidized. The cost of providing after hours care is expected to be higher. Misuse of services may have to be considered as the study showed 5 % of the patients were not ill during the encounter.

    Study site: Outpatient Department (OPD) of Hospital Ipoh
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  14. Ralph AP, Rashid Ali MRS, William T, Piera K, Parameswaran U, Bird E, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2017 04 27;17(1):312.
    PMID: 28449659 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2314-z
    BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency (low plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25D] concentration) is often reported in tuberculosis. Adjunctive vitamin D has been tested for its potential to improve treatment outcomes, but has proven largely ineffective. To better understand vitamin D in tuberculosis, we investigated determinants of 25D and its immunologically active form, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D), their inter-relationship in tuberculosis, longitudinal changes and association with outcome.
    METHODS: In a prospective observational study of adults with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis in Sabah, Malaysia, we measured serial 25D, 1,25D, vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), albumin, calcium, parathyroid hormone, chest x-ray, week 8 sputum smear/culture and end-of-treatment outcome. Healthy control subjects were enrolled for comparison.
    RESULTS: 1,25D was elevated in 172 adults with tuberculosis (mean 229.0 pmol/L, 95% confidence interval: 215.4 - 242.6) compared with 95 controls (153.9, 138.4-169.4, p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  15. Sui CF, Ming LC, Neoh CF, Ibrahim B
    PMID: 26316735 DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S84618
    Background: This study utilized a validated combination of a COPD Population Screener
    (COPD-PS) questionnaire and a handheld spirometric device as a screening tool for patients at high risk of COPD, such as smokers. The study aimed to investigate and pilot the feasibility and application of this combined assessment, which we termed the “VitalQPlus”, as a screening tool for the early detection of COPD, especially in primary care settings.
    Methods: This was a cross-sectional study screening potentially undiagnosed COPD patients using a validated five-item COPD-PS questionnaire together with a handheld spirometric device. Patients were recruited from selected Malaysian government primary care health centers.
    Results: Of the total of 83 final participants, only 24.1% (20/83) were recruited from Perak and Penang (peninsular Malaysia) compared to 75.9% (63/83) from Sabah (Borneo region). Our dual assessment approach identified 8.4% of the surveyed patients as having potentially undiagnosed COPD. When only the Vitalograph COPD-6 screening tool was used, 15.8% of patients were detected with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV1/FEV6) ratio at <0.75, while 35.9% of patients were detected with the COPD-PS questionnaire. These findings suggested that this dual assessment approach has a greater chance of identifying potentially undiagnosed COPD patients compared to the Vitalograph COPD-6 or COPD-PS questionnaire when used alone. Our findings show that patients with more symptoms (scores of >=5) yielded twice the percentage of outcomes of FEV1/FEV6 <0.75 compared to patients with fewer COPD symptoms (scores <5).
    Conclusion: With the availability of a simple screening questionnaire and the COPD-6, there is an opportunity easily to make patients more aware of their lung symptoms and to encourage the provision of early treatment. The proposed dual assessment approach, which we termed the VitalQPlus, may play a profound role in the early diagnosis of COPD, which is crucial in improving the clinical management of the disease.
    Keywords: spirometry, pulmonary function test, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,
    airway obstruction
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  16. Chia YC, Ching SM, Lim HM
    J. Hypertens., 2017 05;35 Suppl 1:S50-S56.
    PMID: 28350621 DOI: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000001333
    OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to determine the relationship of long-term visit-to-visit variability of SBP to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a multiethnic primary care setting.
    METHOD: This is a retrospective study of a cohort of 807 hypertensive patients over a period of 10 years. Three-monthly clinic blood pressure readings were used to derive blood pressure variability (BPV), and CVD events were captured from patient records.
    RESULTS: Mean age at baseline was 57.2 ± 9.8 years with 63.3% being women. The BPV and mean SBP over 10 years were 14.7 ± 3.5 and 142 ± 8 mmHg, respectively. Prevalence of cardiovascular event was 13%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BPV was the predictor of CVD events, whereas the mean SBP was not independently associated with cardiovascular events in this population. Those with lower SBP and lower BPV had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same low mean SBP but higher BPV (10.5 versus 12.8%). Similarly those with higher mean SBP but lower BPV also had fewer cardiovascular events than those with the same high mean and higher BPV (11.6 versus 16.7%). Other variables like being men, diabetes and Indian compared with Chinese are more likely to be associated with cardiovascular events.
    CONCLUSION: BPV is associated with an increase in CVD events even in those who have achieved lower mean SBP. Thus, we should prioritize not only control of SBP levels but also BPV to reduce CVD events further.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  17. Loganathan A, Ng CJ, Low WY
    BMC Geriatr, 2016;16:97.
    PMID: 27153989 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-016-0274-6
    BACKGROUND: Few studies on falls interventions have been conducted in South East Asia. Despite its population ageing rapidly, the acceptability of interventions among the older population in this region remains variable. This study aims to explore views and experiences regarding falls and their prevention among older persons at high risk of falls.
    METHOD: Sixteen individuals aged 60 years and over with at least one fall in the preceding 12 months were recruited from our Primary Care clinics. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews among individuals and focus-groups was conducted. Thematic analyses were conducted on transcriptions of audio-taped interviews using the WeftQDA software. The interviews ceased when data saturation was achieved.
    RESULTS: The three themes included older persons' views on falls, help-seeking behaviour and views on falls interventions. Many older persons interviewed did not perceive falls as a serious problem, some reported a stigma surrounding falls, while others felt they had not sustained more serious injuries due to God's grace. Older persons sought traditional medicine and other alternative treatments for pain relief and other fall-related symptoms. Accessibility of healthcare facilities often prevented older persons from receiving physiotherapy or eye tests.
    CONCLUSION: The delivery of complex interventions for a multifactorial condition such as falls in the older persons in our setting is inhibited by various cultural barriers, falls perceptions as well as logistic difficulties. Efforts to establish a multi-disciplinary intervention among our older population will need to include strategies to overcome these issues.
    KEYWORDS: Accidental falls; Aged; Falls interventions; Falls preventions; Older adults; Qualitative study

    Study site: Primary Care Clinics at University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  18. Ong SM, Lim YMF, Sivasampu S, Khoo EM
    BMC Geriatr, 2018 02 23;18(1):59.
    PMID: 29471806 DOI: 10.1186/s12877-018-0750-2
    BACKGROUND: Polypharmacy is particularly important in older persons as they are more likely to experience adverse events compared to the rest of the population. Despite the relevance, there is a lack of studies on the possible association of patient, prescriber and practice characteristics with polypharmacy. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the rate of polypharmacy among older persons attending public and private primary care clinics, and its association with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    METHODS: We used data from The National Medical Care Survey (NMCS), a national cross-sectional survey of patients' visits to primary care clinics in Malaysia. A weighted total of 22,832 encounters of patients aged ≥65 years were analysed. Polypharmacy was defined as concomitant use of five medications and above. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to examine the association of polypharmacy with patient, prescriber and practice characteristics.

    RESULTS: A total of 20.3% of the older primary care attenders experienced polypharmacy (26.7%% in public and 11.0% in private practice). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of polypharmacy were 6.37 times greater in public practices. Polypharmacy was associated with patients of female gender (OR 1.49), primary education level (OR 1.61) and multimorbidity (OR 14.21). The variation in rate of polypharmacy was mainly found at prescriber level.

    CONCLUSION: Polypharmacy is common among older persons visiting primary care practices. Given the possible adverse outcomes, interventions to reduce the burden of polypharmacy are best to be directed at individual prescribers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities/standards; Ambulatory Care Facilities/trends
  19. Cheong AT, Sazlina SG
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(2):36-44.
    PMID: 27099659 MyJurnal
    Hill-Bone compliance to high blood pressure therapy scale (HBTS) is one of the useful scales in primary care settings. It has been tested in America, Africa and Turkey with variable validity and reliability. The aim of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of HBTS (HBTS-M) for the Malaysian population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
  20. Chia YC, Lim HM, Ching SM
    BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2014 Nov 20;14:163.
    PMID: 25410585 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2261-14-163
    BACKGROUND: The Pooled Cohort Risk Equation was introduced by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) 2013 in their Blood Cholesterol Guideline to estimate the 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk. However, absence of Asian ethnicity in the contemporary cohorts and limited studies to examine the use of the risk score limit the applicability of the equation in an Asian population. This study examines the validity of the pooled cohort risk score in a primary care setting and compares the cardiovascular risk using both the pooled cohort risk score and the Framingham General Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk score.
    METHODS: This is a 10-year retrospective cohort study of randomly selected patients aged 40-79 years. Baseline demographic data, co-morbidities and cardiovascular (CV) risk parameters were captured from patient records in 1998. Pooled cohort risk score and Framingham General CVD risk score for each patient were computed. All ASCVD events (nonfatal myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease (CHD) death, fatal and nonfatal stroke) occurring from 1998-2007 were recorded.
    RESULTS: A total of 922 patients were studied. In 1998, mean age was 57.5 ± 8.8 years with 66.7% female. There were 47% diabetic patients and 59.9% patients receiving anti-hypertensive treatment. More than 98% of patients with pooled cohort risk score ≥7.5% had FRS >10%. A total of 45 CVD events occurred, 22 (7.2%) in males and 23 (3.7%) in females. The median pooled cohort risk score for the population was 10.1 (IQR 4.7-20.6) while the actual ASCVD events that occurred was 4.9% (45/922). Our study showed moderate discrimination with AUC of 0.63. There was good calibration with Hosmer-Lemeshow test χ2 = 12.6, P = 0.12.
    CONCLUSIONS: The pooled cohort risk score appears to overestimate CV risk but this apparent over-prediction could be a result of treatment. In the absence of a validated score in an untreated population, the pooled cohort risk score appears to be appropriate for use in a primary care setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Ambulatory Care Facilities
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