Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 359 in total

  1. Abbas Khan K, Zaman K, Shoukry AM, Sharkawy A, Gani S, Sasmoko, et al.
    PMID: 30864039 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-04755-5
    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of natural disasters on external migration, price level, poverty incidence, health expenditures, energy and environmental resources, water demand, financial development, and economic growth in a panel of selected Asian countries for a period of 2005-2017. The results confirm that natural disasters in the form of storm and flood largely increase migration, price level, and poverty incidence, which negatively influenced country's economic resources, including enlarge healthcare expenditures, high energy demand, and low economic growth. The study further presented the following results: i) natural resource depletion increases external migration, ii) FDI inflows increase price level, iii) increase healthcare spending and energy demand decreases poverty headcount, iv) poverty incidence and mortality rate negatively influenced healthcare expenditures, v) industrialization increases energy demand, and vi) agriculture value added, fertilizer, and cereal yields required more water supply to produce greater yield. The study emphasized the need to magnify the intensity of natural disasters and create natural disaster mitigation unit to access the human and infrastructure cost and attempt quick recovery for global prosperity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  2. Abd Samad NA, Said I, Abdul Rahim A
    Stud Health Technol Inform, 2018;256:367-377.
    PMID: 30371497
    Access to our buildings relies to the accessibility of its external environment and the route taken. Developments and planning in urban areas has many several requirements and restrictions. Planning accessibility for Malaysian built environment is achievable by designing in compliance to the requirements enforced by authorities. Accessible design is commonly associated with providing facilities for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs), the issue that is often brought up is the inaccessibility of the external environment and lacking of seamless connectivity between buildings and the outdoor. The intention is to formulate accessibility strategies and work out planning process on how accessibility can be achieved. Universal Design will be the basis for the design and planning concept to accommodate all users to enjoy our urban built environment. It is notable that developed countries advances more in terms of implementing and enforcing accessibility measures via legislative and regulatory documents, government strategies and initiatives within its planning approach than the developing nations. The methodology will be looking into the establishment of strategies and measures of international and local planning policy, local and action plans of City of London as selected Local Authority to be analyzed its inclusive policy has been successfully implemented in their jurisdiction. The findings, discussions and result will be an outcome of generating a framework of accessibility strategies that is derived from interviews and government documents accordingly to targeted Malaysian urban areas focusing the City of Petaling Jaya and Putrajaya and how it can be improvised. Therefore, an interpretation of adopting accessibility planning strategies of developed country, to be adapted locally according to Malaysian legislation, culture and lifestyles.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design
  3. Abdul Manan MM
    Accid Anal Prev, 2014 Sep;70:301-13.
    PMID: 24831271 DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2014.04.009
    This paper uses data from an observational study, conducted at access points in straight sections of primary roads in Malaysia in 2012, to investigate the effects of motorcyclists' behavior and road environment attributes on the occurrence of serious traffic conflicts involving motorcyclists entering primary roads via access points. In order to handle the unobserved heterogeneity in the small sample data size, this study applies mixed effects logistic regression with multilevel bootstrapping. Two statistically significant models (Model 2 and Model 3) are produced, with 2 levels of random effect parameters, i.e. motorcyclists' attributes and behavior at Level 1, and road environment attributes at Level 2. Among all the road environment attributes tested, the traffic volume and the speed limit are found to be statistically significant, only contributing to 26-29% of the variations affecting the traffic conflict outcome. The implication is that 71-74% of the unmeasured or undescribed attributes and behavior of motorcyclists still have an importance in predicting the outcome: a serious traffic conflict. As for the fixed effect parameters, both models show that the risk of motorcyclists being involved in a serious traffic conflict is 2-4 times more likely if they accept a shorter gap to a single approaching vehicle (time lag <4s) and in between two vehicles (time gap <4s) when entering the primary road from the access point. A road environment factor, such as a narrow lane (seen in Model 2), and a behavioral factor, such as stopping at the stop line (seen in Model 3), also influence the occurrence of a serious traffic conflict compared to those entering into a wider lane road and without stopping at the stop line, respectively. A discussion of the possible reasons for this seemingly strange result, including a recommendation for further research, concludes the paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment Design*
  4. Abdullah F, Sina I, Fauzee F
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2008 Nov 1;11(21):2478-83.
    PMID: 19205267
    An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  5. Abdullah NH, Mohamed N, Sulaiman LH, Zakaria TA, Rahim DA
    Malays J Med Sci, 2016 May;23(3):1-8.
    PMID: 27418864
    Bauxite mining is not known to most Malaysian except recently due to environmental pollution issues in Kuantan, Pahang. Potential impacts are expected to go beyond physical environment and physical illness if the situation is not controlled. Loss of economic potentials, and the presence of unpleasant red dust causing mental distress, anger and community outrage. More studies are needed to associate it with chronic physical illness. While evidences are vital for action, merely waiting for a disease to occur is a sign of failure in prevention. All responsible agencies should focus on a wider aspect of health determinants rather than merely on the occurrence of diseases to act and the need to emphasize on sustainable mining to ensure health of people is not compromised.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Pollution
  6. Abraham, Martin
    ASM Science Journal, 2012;6(1):67-70.
    The pursuit, initiation and establishment of multi-stakeholder partnerships, including with the private sector, is often a critical component of attaining and achieving the success and sustainability of many projects the world over. However, the soliciting and securing of socially, economically and environmentally constructive engagements between the private sector on the one hand, and the NGOs, CBOs and local communities on the other hand, is in reality much easier said than done. Notably, since most private sector corporations undoubtedly tend to leave behind various "ecological footprints", differing only in their size and depth, stemming from their respective forms and functions, and their ensuing impacts and implications. The interplay between the civil society and the private sector, especially for resource mobilization. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  7. Abu Hassan Shaari, Mohamed Sapian Mohamed, Jamalludin Ab Rahman
    The incidence of dengue in Malaysia has increased from 15.2 per 100,000 in 1973 to 361.0 per 100,000 population by the year 2014. The same trend was seen in case fatality rates that went up from 0.16% to 0.62% between 2000 to 2013.1,2 More than 60% of the cases were from the Klang Valley region. In Pahang the dengue incidence rates from 2004 to 2014 showed a similar increase from 40.9 to 193.8 per 100,000 population and an increase in case fatality rates from 0.07% to 0.3% too was observed between 2000-2014. Fortunately these figures were below the national average.3
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  8. Aburas MM, Ahamad MSS, Omar NQ
    Environ Monit Assess, 2019 Mar 05;191(4):205.
    PMID: 30834982 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7330-6
    Spatio-temporal land-use change modeling, simulation, and prediction have become one of the critical issues in the last three decades due to uncertainty, structure, flexibility, accuracy, the ability for improvement, and the capability for integration of available models. Therefore, many types of models such as dynamic, statistical, and machine learning (ML) models have been used in the geographic information system (GIS) environment to fulfill the high-performance requirements of land-use modeling. This paper provides a literature review on models for modeling, simulating, and predicting land-use change to determine the best approach that can realistically simulate land-use changes. Therefore, the general characteristics of conventional and ML models for land-use change are described, and the different techniques used in the design of these models are classified. The strengths and weaknesses of the various dynamic, statistical, and ML models are determined according to the analysis and discussion of the characteristics of these models. The results of the review confirm that ML models are the most powerful models for simulating land-use change because they can include all driving forces of land-use change in the simulation process and simulate linear and non-linear phenomena, which dynamic models and statistical models are unable to do. However, ML models also have limitations. For instance, some ML models are complex, the simulation rules cannot be changed, and it is difficult to understand how ML models work in a system. However, this can be solved via the use of programming languages such as Python, which in turn improve the simulation capabilities of the ML models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  9. Aburas, Maher Milad, Sabrina Ho Abdullah, Mohammad Firuz Ramli, Zulfa Hanan Ash'aari
    Remote sensing and geographic information system techniques are significant and popular approaches that have been used in recent years to measure and map urban growth patterns. This paper primarily aims to provide a basis for a literature review of urban growth measurement and mapping by using different methods. For this purpose, the general characteristics of measuring and mapping urban growth patterns are described and classified. The strengths and weaknesses of the various methods have been identified from an analysis and discussion of the characteristics of the techniques. Results of reviews confirm that combining quantitative and qualitative techniques, such as Shannon approach and change detection, to measure and map urban growth patterns will improve understanding of the phenomenon of urban growth. Moreover, using social and economic data such as population and income data will improve understanding of the relationships between causes and effects. The integration of social and economic factors with quantitative and qualitative techniques will contribute to a perfect evaluation of urban growth patterns and land use changes, taking technical, social, economic, spatial, and temporal factors into account.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  10. Adam, M.B., Norazman, N., Mohamad Kasim, M.R.
    MATEMATIKA, 2018;34(1):113-123.
    Logging activity is one of the most important activities for tropical countries
    including Malaysia, as it produces quality trees for papers. One of the important tree
    species is the Acacia Mangium which it produces a soft tree for papermaking enterprises.
    The papers are exported to Europe and countries which have high demand for paper
    due to the rapid development of the printing industry. Thus we analyzed the height for
    individual trees. We investigate the maximum height of the trees from 1990 to 2006
    and we fit the data using extreme value model. Some of the data are missing and three
    imputation methods we used to solve this problem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  11. Adole, Adole Michael, Jamaludin Mohamad Yatim, Suhaimi Abubakar Ramli, Athirah Othman, Norazura Azzmi Mizal
    (Kenaf fibre is a good reinforcement in fibre polymer composites due to its high strength
    and elastic modulus, high stiffness, low density, low cost and eco-efficient, less health
    hazards, renewability, good mechanical and thermal properties, and biodegradability. It is
    traditionally used for rope, twine, fish net and sacking materials. Recently, it was observed
    that kenaf fibre had huge potentials to replacing synthetic fibre in composites due to the
    rising environmental and ecological issues, thus this awareness has motivated efforts for
    the advancement of new innovative bio-based composites incorporating kenaf fibre for
    various end-use structural applications. This paper presents an overview of the development
    made so far in the area of kenaf fibre and its composites in terms of chemical and microstructural
    properties, mechanical properties, dimensional stability, thermal stability, product
    development and application. Some fundamental issues and suggestions for further research
    in this area are also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  12. Agha S, Mekkawy W, Ibanez-Escriche N, Lind CE, Kumar J, Mandal A, et al.
    Anim. Genet., 2018 Oct;49(5):421-427.
    PMID: 30058152 DOI: 10.1111/age.12680
    Robustness has become a highly desirable breeding goal in the globalized agricultural market. Both genotype-by-environment interaction (G × E) and micro-environmental sensitivity are important robustness components of aquaculture production, in which breeding stock is often disseminated to different environments. The objectives of this study were (i) to quantify the degree of G × E by assessing the growth performance of Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) across three countries (Malaysia, India and China) and (ii) to quantify the genetic heterogeneity of environmental variance for body weight at harvest (BW) in GIFT as a measure of micro-environmental sensitivity. Selection for BW was carried out for 13 generations in Malaysia. Subsets of 60 full-sib families from Malaysia were sent to China and India after five and nine generations respectively. First, a multi-trait animal model was used to analyse the BW in different countries as different traits. The results indicate a strong G × E. Second, a genetically structured environmental variance model, implemented using Bayesian inference, was used to analyse micro-environmental sensitivity of BW in each country. The analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity of both BW and its environmental variance in all environments. The presence of genetic variation in residual variance of BW implies that the residual variance can be modified by selection. Incorporating both G × E and micro-environmental sensitivity information may help in selecting robust genotypes with high performance across environments and resilience to environmental fluctuations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction*
  13. Ahmad Faizal Ahmad Fuad, Mohd Sharifuddin Ahmad, Saharuddin Abdul Hamid
    Maritime transportation is very important for coastal state country like Malaysia. However, as having the busiest straits in the world, Malaysia is continuously exposed to the risk of marine spill. The nation had experienced around 30 marine spill incidents since 1976 to the present. The main contributor of marine spill is ship’s accident and in term of category of accident, collision had contributed the most. In term of type of substance that mostly spilled by ships is highly persistence crude oil. The management of marine spill response of Malaysia is applying the three tiers system which is base on the area and scale of the spill. The basis of establishing the marine response service is in accordance with OPRC, which incorporated into the national environmental law. With the three tiers of response system, Malaysia is equipped with arsenal of marine spill response and control equipments. However, with the present magnitude of threat, the current capacities of equipments are insufficient. Nevertheless, the possibility of full magnitude of marine spill is unlikely due to the safety features incorporated into the design of the ships and FSO/FPSO. In term of claim and compensation for marine spill incident, Malaysia is applying the two layers of compensation under the CLC 1992 Protocol and FUND 1992 Protocol. Therefore, Malaysia is ready in various aspects of marine spill response and control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  14. Ahmad Munir Che Muhamed, Thompson, Martin William
    Movement Health & Exercise, 2012;1(1):11-23.
    The combined metabolic and thermoregulatory demands experienced during exercise in the heat impose an exceptional stress on the circulatory system. To date, much of what is known about circulatory stress during exercise in the heat has focused on primarily dry environment (~ 40% rh)
    with limited studies carried in higher humidity (> 60% rh) conditions. This study was designed to investigate the influence of humid condition on circulatory responses during prolonged intense running exercise among elite runners. On separate days, 11 male elite runners ran for 60 minutes at
    an intensity of 70% max across three different humidity levels of HH (71% rh), NH (43% rh) and LH (26.2% rh) with the ambient temperature set at 300C. Thermal stress was found to increase during exercise in the HH condition as both Tre and Tsk steadily rise across time. Circulatory stress markedly increased during exercise in higher humidity levels. Heart rate was significantly higher in the HH condition with its level increasing to 92% of HRmax. The upwards drift in HR was significantly higher in HH within the last ten minutes of exercise. Contrary, stroke volume recorded a
    steady decline during exercise with a significantly lower SV in the HH as compared with the NH and LH. Results implicate rising humidity level will impose greater circulatory stress during prolonged intense exercise. The consequence from this circulatory stress will result in limited ability for an athlete to sustain his exercise capacity when HR reaches maximal level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  15. Ahmad, Z., Rohana, H., Md Tahir, P.
    ASM Science Journal, 2013;7(1):37-58.
    This study investigated the thermal properties of three room temperature curing adhesives containing nano particles which were thixotropic and shear thinning which allowed injection into overhead holes when exposed to different environmental conditions. Viscosity and shear stress of the adhesives were measured as a function of shear rate. The thermal behaviour of the adhesives were measured using dynamic mechanical thermal anylisis following exposures to different temperatures and humidities which included temperatures of 20 degrees Celcius, 30 degrees Celcius and 50 degrees Celcius, relative humidities of 65% RH, 75% RH 95% RH soaked in water at 20 degrees Celcius and placed in the oven at 50 degrees Celcius. The dynamic thermal properties reported include storage and loss modulus, the loss tangent and the glass transition temperature ( Tg ). For nano- and micro-particles filled adhesives, the Tg increased with the temperature increase, even though the adhesives was subjected to high humidity and this was due to further cross-linking. The results showed that room temperature cured epoxies were only partially cured at room temperature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  16. Ahmed F, Rafii MY, Ismail MR, Juraimi AS, Rahim HA, Asfaliza R, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2013;2013:963525.
    PMID: 23484164 DOI: 10.1155/2013/963525
    Submergence or flood is one of the major harmful abiotic stresses in the low-lying countries and crop losses due to waterlogging are considerably high. Plant breeding techniques, conventional or genetic engineering, might be an effective and economic way of developing crops to grow successfully in waterlogged condition. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is a new and more effective approach which can identify genomic regions of crops under stress, which could not be done previously. The discovery of comprehensive molecular linkage maps enables us to do the pyramiding of desirable traits to improve in submergence tolerance through MAS. However, because of genetic and environmental interaction, too many genes encoding a trait, and using undesirable populations the mapping of QTL was hampered to ensure proper growth and yield under waterlogged conditions Steady advances in the field of genomics and proteomics over the years will be helpful to increase the breeding programs which will help to accomplish a significant progress in the field crop variety development and also improvement in near future. Waterlogging response of soybean and major cereal crops, as rice, wheat, barley, and maize and discovery of QTL related with tolerance of waterlogging, development of resistant variety, and, in addition, future prospects have also been discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction*
  17. Al-Naggar RA, Bobryshev YV
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2012;13(11):5627-32.
    PMID: 23317228
    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of shisha smoking and associated factors among medical students in Malaysia.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Management and Science University from December 2011 until March 2012. The questionnaire consisted of five sections including socio-demographic, social environment, knowledge about shisha, psychosocial factors, and personal shisha smoking behavior. Obtained data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS 13). T-test was used to determine the relationships between shisha smoking and socio-demographic characteristic.

    RESULTS: A total number of 300 medical students participated in this study. Mean age was 22.5±2.5 years. The majority were female, Malay, single, from urban areas (67%, 54%, 97%, 73%; respectively). The prevalence of shisha smoking among medical students was found to be 20%. The study revealed that many students believed that shisha does not contains nicotine, carbon monoxide, does not lead to lung cancer, dental problems and does not lead to cardiovascular diseases (25%, 20.7%, 22.3%, 29%, 26.7%; respectively). Age and sex were found to be significantly associated with smoking shisha status among medical students (p=0.029, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, having parents, siblings and friends smokers of shisha were found to be significantly associated with shisha smoking status (p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.001; respectively). Furthermore, family problems, problems with friends, financial problems and university life were found to significantly associated with shisha smoking status among medical students (p<0.001, p=0.002, p<0.001, p=0.002; respectively).

    CONCLUSIONS: There is a high prevalence of shisha smoking and a poor knowledge about its impact on health among medical students. More attention is needed to focus on medical education in this regard. The policies that are currently employed in order to reduce the cigarettes smoking should be applied to shisha smoking and shisha products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  18. Al-Naggar RA, Al-Dubai SA, Al-Naggar TH, Chen R, Al-Jashamy K
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(3):619-24.
    PMID: 21627354
    OBJECTIVE: The objectives were to determine the prevalence and associated factors for smoking among university students in Malaysia.

    METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 199 students in the period from December of academic year 2009 until April of academic year 2010 in Management and Science University (MSU), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The questionnaire was distributed randomly to all faculties of MSU by choosing one of every 3 lecture rooms, as well as the library and cafeterias of the campus randomly by choosing one from every 3 tables. Questions concerned socio-demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes and practice toward smoking. Participant's consent was obtained and ethical approval was provided by the ethics committee of the University. Data entry and analysis were performed using descriptive statistics, chi square test, Student t- test and logistic multiple regression with the SPSS version 13.0, statistical significance being concluded at p < 0.05.

    RESULTS: About one third of students were smokers (29%). The most important reason of smoking was stress (20%) followed by 'influenced by friends' (16 %). Prevalence of smoking was significantly higher among male and those in advanced semesters (p = >0.001, p = 0.047). Smokers had low level of knowledge (p < 0.05), had wrong beliefs on smoking (p < 0.05), and negative attitude toward tobacco control policies compared to non smokers (p < 0.05). On multiple logistic regression, significant predictors of smoking in the model were gender (p = 0.025), age (p = 0.037), semester of study (p = 0.025) and attitude toward smoking (p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: This study found that 29% of university students were smokers. Males and students in advanced semesters were more likely to smoke. The results provide baseline data to develop an anti-smoking program to limit smoking in the university by implementing policies against smoking.

    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  19. Al-Samman AM, Rahman TA, Azmi MH, Hindia MN, Khan I, Hanafi E
    PLoS ONE, 2016 Sep 21;11(9):e0163034.
    PMID: 27654703 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0163034
    This paper presents an experimental characterization of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) channels in the 6.5 GHz, 10.5 GHz, 15 GHz, 19 GHz, 28 GHz and 38 GHz frequency bands in an indoor corridor environment. More than 4,000 power delay profiles were measured across the bands using an omnidirectional transmitter antenna and a highly directional horn receiver antenna for both co- and cross-polarized antenna configurations. This paper develops a new path-loss model to account for the frequency attenuation with distance, which we term the frequency attenuation (FA) path-loss model and introduce a frequency-dependent attenuation factor. The large-scale path loss was characterized based on both new and well-known path-loss models. A general and less complex method is also proposed to estimate the cross-polarization discrimination (XPD) factor of close-in reference distance with the XPD (CIX) and ABG with the XPD (ABGX) path-loss models to avoid the computational complexity of minimum mean square error (MMSE) approach. Moreover, small-scale parameters such as root mean square (RMS) delay spread, mean excess (MN-EX) delay, dispersion factors and maximum excess (MAX-EX) delay parameters were used to characterize the multipath channel dispersion. Multiple statistical distributions for RMS delay spread were also investigated. The results show that our proposed models are simpler and more physically-based than other well-known models. The path-loss exponents for all studied models are smaller than that of the free-space model by values in the range of 0.1 to 1.4 for all measured frequencies. The RMS delay spread values varied between 0.2 ns and 13.8 ns, and the dispersion factor values were less than 1 for all measured frequencies. The exponential and Weibull probability distribution models best fit the RMS delay spread empirical distribution for all of the measured frequencies in all scenarios.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  20. Alam A, Azam M, Abdullah AB, Malik IA, Khan A, Hamzah TA, et al.
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015 Jun;22(11):8392-404.
    PMID: 25537287 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-014-3982-5
    Environmental quality indicators are crucial for responsive and cost-effective policies. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia. For this purpose, the number of environmental quality indicators has been used, i.e., air pollution measured by carbon dioxide emissions, population density per square kilometer of land area, agricultural production measured by cereal production and livestock production, and energy resources considered by energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, which placed an impact on the financial development of the country. The study used four main financial indicators, i.e., broad money supply (M2), domestic credit provided by the financial sector (DCFS), domestic credit to the private sector (DCPC), and inflation (CPI), which each financial indicator separately estimated with the environmental quality indicators, over a period of 1975-2013. The study used the generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to minimize the simultaneity from the model. The results show that carbon dioxide emissions exert the positive correlation with the M2, DCFC, and DCPC, while there is a negative correlation with the CPI. However, these results have been evaporated from the GMM estimates, where carbon emissions have no significant relationship with any of the four financial indicators in Malaysia. The GMM results show that population density has a negative relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, in case of M2, this relationship is insignificant to explain their result. Cereal production has a positive relationship with the DCPC, while there is a negative relationship with the CPI. Livestock production exerts the positive relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, this relationship with the CPI has a more elastic relationship, while the remaining relationship is less elastic with the three financial indicators in a country. Energy resources comprise energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, both have distinct results with the financial indicators, as energy demand have a positive and significant relationship with the DCFC, DCPC, and CPI, while fossil fuel energy consumption have a negative relationship with these three financial indicators. The results of the study are of value to both environmentalists and policy makers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment*
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