Determining the water quality of Bakun Reservoir 13 months after it operates at full supply level is crucial for better understanding of changes in the physicochemical parameters, which may enable the prediction of its effects on the survival of aquatic life in the reservoir. This study determined 13 physicochemical parameters at six stations within the reservoir at fixed depths. The results showed that the minimum 5 mg/L of dissolved oxygen (DO) required for sensitive aquatic organisms was recorded at 6 m depth. However, DO was not detectable at depths exceeding 7 m. The water was acidic at depths of more than 10 m. Turbidity and total suspended solids increased corresponding with depth. Inorganic nitrogen were predominantly in the form of ammonia-nitrogen, creating an unhealthy environment for aquatic life. Concentration of Chl-a was significantly higher at the subsurface water than 30 m depth in four out of six stations. The present study shows changes in water quality as compared to the pre-impounded period and 15 months after the filling phase, in particular, stratification of dissolved oxygen, thermocline conditions and alkalinity. The changes varied according to the distance from the dam and may have been influenced by existing land developments within the area such as the construction of the Murum Hydroelectric Dam, oil palm plantations and timber concessionares. Though the water quality might have deteriorated, further study is needed to determine if this condition will prolong.
Background: One of important educational climate roles is to provide an environment that promotes positive development of medical students' psychological wellbeing during training. Unfortunately, many studies have reported that educational climate in medical education are not favourable to them. Therefore, it is a real need for a simple, valid, reliable and stable tool that will help medical schools to screen psychological wellbeing of their students so that early intervention could be done.
Objective: This study aimed to explore the psychometric properties of the Medical Student Wellbeing Index (MSWBI) to measure psychological wellbeing at different interval of measurements in a cohort of medical students.
Method: A prospective study was done on a cohort of medical students. MSWBI was administered to the medical students at five different intervals. The confirmatory factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha and intra-class correlation analysis were applied to measure construct validity, internal consistency and agreement level at different interval of measurements.
Result: A total of 153 (89.5%) medical students responded completely to the MSWBI. The MSWBI showed that the one-factor model had acceptable values for most of the goodness of fit indices signified its construct was stable across multiple measurements. The overall Cronbach's alpha values for the MSWBI at the five measurements ranged between 0.69 and 0.78. The ICC coefficient values for the MSWBI total score was 0.58 to 0.59.
Conclusion: This study found that the MSWBI had stable psychometric properties as a screening tool for measuring psychological wellbeing among medical students at different time and occasions. Continued research is required to refine and verify its psychometric credentials at different educational settings.
The Sandakan Formation of the Segama Group is exposed across the Sandakan Peninsular in eastern Sabah. This Upper Miocene part of the Segama Group unconformably overlies the Garinono Formation and is conformably overlain by the Bongaya Formation. This formation was investigated with detailed logging of outcrops and microfossils analysis in order to map the depositional facies and sedimentary environment. This study showed the presence of seven lithofacies: Thick amalgamated sandstone; thin, lenticular interbedded HCS sandstones and mudstone; laminated mudstone with Rhizophora; trough cross-bedded sandstone; laminated mudstone; strip mudstone with thin sandstone and siltstone; and interbedded HCS sandstone and mudstone. Based on the presence of Rhizophora, Brownlowia, Florchuetia sp., Polypodium, Stenochleana palustris, Ascidian spicule low angle cross bedding, very fine grained sandstone, thin alternations of very fine sandstone, silt and clay layers showing cyclicity (muddy rhythemites), rocks in the Sandakan Formation are interpreted as mangal estuary and open marine facies. Three facies associations could be deduced from the seven lithofacies: Gradual coarsening upwards shoreface; abrupt change facies and prograding estuary facies association.
Environmental factors play a very important role in the child development process, especially in a situation like that of Iraq. Thirteen years of economic sanctions followed by the 2003 war and 8 years of unstable security have affected the daily life of Iraqi families and children. The objective of this study was to assess the associations between living environment domains and child intelligence quotient (IQ) score.
In most research including environmental research, missing recorded data often exists and has become a common problem for data quality. In this study, several imputation methods that have been designed based on the techniques for functional data analysis are introduced and the capability of the methods for estimating missing values is investigated. Single imputation methods and iterative imputation methods are conducted by means of curve estimation using regression and roughness penalty smoothing approaches. The performance of the methods is compared using a reference data set, the real PM10 data from an air quality monitoring station namely the Petaling Jaya station located at the western part of Peninsular Malaysia. A hundred of the missing data sets that have been generated from a reference data set with six different patterns of missing values are used to investigate the performance of the considered methods. The patterns are simulated according to three percentages (5, 10 and 15) of missing values with respect to two different sizes (3 and 7) of maximum gap lengths (consecutive missing points). By means of the mean absolute error, the index of agreement and the coefficient of determination as the performance indicators, the results have showed that the iterative imputation method using the roughness penalty approach is more flexible and superior to other methods.
A detailed sedimentological study and facies analysis of the Permian age, uppermost succession of the Kubang Pasu Formation in Perlis was conducted in order to reconstruct the palaeo-depositional environment. Four stratigraphic sections of the uppermost Kubang Pasu Formation were logged at Bukit Chondong and Bukit Tungku Lembu, Perlis. The sections were divided into facies based on lithology and sedimentary structures. Large scale patterns in the form of facies associations and facies successions were also identified. The uppermost Kubang Pasu Formation can be divided into several coarsening upward facies successions. Each facies succession grades upward from an offshore facies association (FA1) composed of bioturbated mudstone and minor thin sandstone, into a distal lower shoreface facies association (FA 2) composed primarily of mudstone interbedded with hummocky cross-stratified sandstone (HCS) and finally a proximal lower shoreface facies association (FA 3) composed of amalgamated hummocky cross-stratified sandstone beds. The facies succession is interpreted as representing a wave- and storm-influenced coastal depositional environment. The gradual transition from siliciclastics to carbonates is probably related to post rift thermal subsidence and tectonic quiescence due to separation of Sibumasu from Gondwana during the Permian.
The efficiency of the extraction and removal of pollutants from food and the environment has been an important issue in analytical science. By incorporating inorganic species into an organic matrix, a new material known as an organic-inorganic hybrid material is formed. As it possesses high selectivity, permeability, and mechanical and chemical stabilities, organic-inorganic hybrid materials constitute an emerging research field and have become popular to serve as sorbents in various separaton science methods. Here, we review recent significant advances in analytical solid-phase extraction employing organic-inorganic composite/nanocomposite sorbents for the extraction of organic and inorganic pollutants from various types of food and environmental matrices. The physicochemical characteristics, extraction properties, and analytical performances of sorbents are discussed; including morphology and surface characteristics, types of functional groups, interaction mechanism, selectivity and sensitivity, accuracy, and regeneration abilities. Organic-inorganic hybrid sorbents combined with extraction techniques are highly promising for sample preparation of various food and environmental matrixes with analytes at trace levels.
This paper uses data from an observational study, conducted at access points in straight sections of primary roads in Malaysia in 2012, to investigate the effects of motorcyclists' behavior and road environment attributes on the occurrence of serious traffic conflicts involving motorcyclists entering primary roads via access points. In order to handle the unobserved heterogeneity in the small sample data size, this study applies mixed effects logistic regression with multilevel bootstrapping. Two statistically significant models (Model 2 and Model 3) are produced, with 2 levels of random effect parameters, i.e. motorcyclists' attributes and behavior at Level 1, and road environment attributes at Level 2. Among all the road environment attributes tested, the traffic volume and the speed limit are found to be statistically significant, only contributing to 26-29% of the variations affecting the traffic conflict outcome. The implication is that 71-74% of the unmeasured or undescribed attributes and behavior of motorcyclists still have an importance in predicting the outcome: a serious traffic conflict. As for the fixed effect parameters, both models show that the risk of motorcyclists being involved in a serious traffic conflict is 2-4 times more likely if they accept a shorter gap to a single approaching vehicle (time lag <4s) and in between two vehicles (time gap <4s) when entering the primary road from the access point. A road environment factor, such as a narrow lane (seen in Model 2), and a behavioral factor, such as stopping at the stop line (seen in Model 3), also influence the occurrence of a serious traffic conflict compared to those entering into a wider lane road and without stopping at the stop line, respectively. A discussion of the possible reasons for this seemingly strange result, including a recommendation for further research, concludes the paper.
Access to our buildings relies to the accessibility of its external environment and the route taken. Developments and planning in urban areas has many several requirements and restrictions. Planning accessibility for Malaysian built environment is achievable by designing in compliance to the requirements enforced by authorities. Accessible design is commonly associated with providing facilities for Persons with Disabilities (PwDs), the issue that is often brought up is the inaccessibility of the external environment and lacking of seamless connectivity between buildings and the outdoor. The intention is to formulate accessibility strategies and work out planning process on how accessibility can be achieved. Universal Design will be the basis for the design and planning concept to accommodate all users to enjoy our urban built environment. It is notable that developed countries advances more in terms of implementing and enforcing accessibility measures via legislative and regulatory documents, government strategies and initiatives within its planning approach than the developing nations. The methodology will be looking into the establishment of strategies and measures of international and local planning policy, local and action plans of City of London as selected Local Authority to be analyzed its inclusive policy has been successfully implemented in their jurisdiction. The findings, discussions and result will be an outcome of generating a framework of accessibility strategies that is derived from interviews and government documents accordingly to targeted Malaysian urban areas focusing the City of Petaling Jaya and Putrajaya and how it can be improvised. Therefore, an interpretation of adopting accessibility planning strategies of developed country, to be adapted locally according to Malaysian legislation, culture and lifestyles.
Students are characterized according to their own distinct learning styles. Discovering students' learning style is significant in the educational system in order to provide adaptivity. Past researches have proposed various approaches to detect the students' learning styles. Among all, the Bayesian network has emerged as a widely used method to automatically detect students' learning styles. On the other hand, tree augmented naive Bayesian network has the ability to improve the naive Bayesian network in terms of better classification accuracy. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of the tree augmented naive Bayesian in automatically detecting students' learning style in the online learning environment. The experimental results are promising as the tree augmented naive Bayes network is shown to achieve higher detection accuracy when compared to the Bayesian network.
INTRODUCTION: The participation of general practitioners (GPs) in primary care research is variable and often poor. We aimed to develop a substantive and empirical theoretical framework to explain GPs' decision-making process to participate in research.
METHODS: We used the grounded theory approach to construct a substantive theory to explain the decision-making process of GPs to participate in research activities. Five in-depth interviews and four focus group discussions were conducted among 21 GPs. Purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling were used to attempt saturation of the core category. Data were collected using semi-structured open-ended questions. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked prior to analysis. Open line-by-line coding followed by focus coding were used to arrive at a substantive theory. Memoing was used to help bring concepts to higher abstract levels.
RESULTS: The GPs' decision to participate in research was attributed to their inner drive and appreciation for primary care research and their confidence in managing their social and research environments. The drive and appreciation for research motivated the GPs to undergo research training to enhance their research knowledge, skills and confidence. However, the critical step in the GPs' decision to participate in research was their ability to align their research agenda with priorities in their social environment, which included personal life goals, clinical practice and organisational culture. Perceived support for research, such as funding and technical expertise, facilitated the GPs' participation in research. In addition, prior experiences participating in research also influenced the GPs' confidence in taking part in future research.
CONCLUSIONS: The key to GPs deciding to participate in research is whether the research agenda aligns with the priorities in their social environment. Therefore, research training is important, but should be included in further measures and should comply with GPs' social environments and research support.
The pursuit, initiation and establishment of multi-stakeholder partnerships, including with the private sector, is often a critical component of attaining and achieving the success and sustainability of many projects the world over. However, the soliciting and securing of socially, economically and environmentally constructive engagements between the private sector on the one hand, and the NGOs, CBOs and local communities on the other hand, is in reality much easier said than done. Notably, since most private sector corporations undoubtedly tend to leave behind various "ecological footprints", differing only in their size and depth, stemming from their respective forms and functions, and their ensuing impacts and implications. The interplay between the civil society and the private sector, especially for resource mobilization. (Copied from article).
Using the cow-baited trap (CBT) method, 1,845 Anopheles mosquitos, comprising 14 species, were caught in malaria-endemic area of Hulu Perak district, Peninsular Malaysia. The two dominant species were An. barbirostris (18.59%) and An. aconitus (18.86%). Anopheles maculatus, the main malaria vector, constituted 9.11% of the total number of mosquitos sampled. Three hundred and seventy-seven Anopheles larvae, comprising 8 species, were sampled using the North Carolina Biological Station dipper. Anopheles barbirostris larvae amounted to 64.69% of the total number of larvae; An. aconitus accounted for 10.65% of larvae. Seven habitats were identified as breeding places of Anopheles. Most species were found to breed in paddies, fishponds, and rivers. Other less popular habitats were temporary pools, mountain streams, and spring wells.
In Malaysia, landfills are being filled up rapidly due to the current daily generation of approximately 30,000 tonnes of municipal solid waste. This situation creates the crucial need for improved landfilling practices, as sustainable landfilling technology is yet to be achieved here. The objective of this paper is to identify and evaluate the development and trends in landfilling practices in Malaysia. In 1970, the disposal sites in Malaysia were small and prevailing waste disposal practices was mere open-dumping. This network of relatively small dumps, typically located close to population centres, was considered acceptable for a relatively low population of 10 million in Malaysia. In the 1980s, a national programme was developed to manage municipal and industrial wastes more systematically and to reduce adverse environmental impacts. The early 1990s saw the privatization of waste management in many parts of Malaysia, and the establishment of the first sanitary landfills for MSW and an engineered landfill (called 'secure landfill' in Malaysia) for hazardous waste. A public uproar in 2007 due to contamination of a drinking water source from improper landfilling practices led to some significant changes in the government's policy regarding the country's waste management strategy. Parliament passed the Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Management (SWPCM) Act 2007 in August 2007. Even though the Act is yet to be implemented, the government has taken big steps to improve waste management system further. The future of the waste management in Malaysia seems somewhat brighter with a clear waste management policy in place. There is now a foundation upon which to build a sound and sustainble waste management and disposal system in Malaysia.
Series of catastrophic floods that we have witnessed over the last decade in Malaysia have necessitated the adoption of reliable early warning system. Ultimate concern during any event of natural or manmade disaster would be information dissemination to lessen the disaster impact on lives and property. The Bertam Valley incident in the wee hours of 23rd October 2013 has been considered as the game changer of how we view the role of vulnerable communities in facing dam-related disasters. Empowerment of local communities has been considered as vital in disaster management, as they are often the first responders to disaster. Local Community-Based Early Warning System (CBEWS) is a smart mechanism operated by the communities. This study revolves around the actual implementation of such system in Cameron Highlands in the effort of increasing human resilience towards damrelated disasters. While establishing the system, the Bertam Valley community has received support from different individuals and organisations. It is paramount that the community develops and maintains close coordination and strong links with these stakeholders. The performance of early warning systems can be evaluated via key parameters such as timeliness, accuracy, reliability, user friendliness, flexibility, and costs & benefits.
This research focuses on the ASTER DEM generation for visual and mathematical analysis of topography, landscapes and landforms, as well as modeling of surface processes of Central Alborz, Iran. ASTER DEM 15 m generated using tie points over the Central Alborz and Damavand volcano with 5671 m height from ASTER (Advanced Space borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite data using PCI Geomatica 9.1. Geomorphic parameters are useful to identify and describe geomorphologic forms and processes, which were extracted from ASTER DEM in GIS environment such as elevation, aspect, slope angle, vertical curvature, and tangential curvature. Although the elevation values are slightly low in altitudes above 5500 m asl., the ASTER DEM is useful in interpretation of the macro- and meso-relief, and provides the opportunity for mapping especially at medium scales (1:100,000 and 1:50,000). ASTER DEM has potential to be a best tool to study 3D model for to geomorphologic mapping and processes of glacial and per glacial forms above 4300 m asl.
Comet Lulin was discovered by Lin Chi-Sheng and Ye Quanzhi using the 16-inch telescope at Lulin Observatory in Nantou, Taiwan in 2007. According to Brian Marsden of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, it reached its perihelion on 10 January 2009 at a distance of 113 million
km from the Sun. It moves in a very nearly parabolic retrograde (‘backwards’ compared to the movement of the planets) orbit at an inclination of 1.6 degrees from the ecliptic (“Newfound Comet Lulin to Grace Night Skies”). http://www.space.com/spacewatch/090206-ns-cometlulin.html). It passed nearest to the Earth at a distance of 61 million km on 23 February 2009.
Middle-income countries are currently undergoing massive structural changes towards more industrialized economies. In this paper, we carefully examine the impact of these transformations on the environmental quality of middle-income countries. Specifically, we examine the role of sector value addition to GDP on CO2 emission nexus for middle-income economies controlling for the effects of population growth, energy use, and trade openness. Using recently developed panel methods that consider cross-sectional dependence and allow for heterogeneous slope coefficients, we show that energy use and growth of industrial and service sectors positively explain CO2 emissions in middle-income economies. We also find that population growth is insignificantly associated with CO2 emission. Hence, our paper provides a solid ground for developing a sustainable and pro-growth policy for middle-income countries.
Prolonged drought conditions have adverse environmental and socio-economic impacts due to unmet water demands. Defining drought is difficult because of its onset and ending time. Therefore, characterisation of drought is essential for drought management operations. Thus, drought indices come in handy and are a practical approach to assimilate large amounts of data into quantitative information which can then be applied for drought forecasting, declaring drought levels, contingency planning and impact assessments. This study analyses drought events using indices, namely SPI and Deciles Index, computed with DrinC software program but are not popular in Malaysia. It is observed that both indices are identical and suitable for drought occurrences.