Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 430 in total

  1. Tan Poo Chang, Kwok Kwan Kit, Tan Boon Ann, Shyamala Nagaraj, Tey Nai Peng, Siti Norazah Zulkifli
    Asia Pac Popul J, 1987 Mar;2(1):3-20.
    PMID: 12341034
    PIP: Morality in Peninsular Malaysia has reached a level that is quite similar to that prevailing in the low mortality countries. This article systematically documents changes in mortality levels and differentials in Malaysia over time and relates these to changes in development indicators and health-related policies. Remedial measures undertaken by the authorities including the expansion of hospital and health services into the estates, together with a comprehensive malaria-eradication program, improvements in sanitation laws, and increased provision of public utilities and education, resulted in beriberi being eliminated and the incidence of malaria, typhus, and smallpox being greatly reduced by the time of World War II. The gain in life expectancy over the period of 1957-1979 was greatest for the Malay, the most significant period being 1957-1967, which saw the introduction of rural health programs. The infant mortality rate and the neonatal and post-neonatal rates declined substantially for all ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia for the same time period. Although the lower infant mortality of the Chinese can be explained by their advantageous socioeconomic position the same reason cannot explain the lower decline in infant mortality levels of the Indians. Much still needs to be done to narrow, if not to eliminate, the existing mortality differentials of different groups in the country. Overall, the quality of life of the general population can be further enhanced by reducing the high mortality level of disadvantaged groups.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  2. Jamal R, Syed Zakaria SZ, Kamaruddin MA, Abd Jalal N, Ismail N, Mohd Kamil N, et al.
    Int J Epidemiol, 2015 Apr;44(2):423-31.
    PMID: 24729425 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyu089
    The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100,000 individuals aged 35-70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the early detection of cancers and other diseases. At recruitment, a questionnaire-based interview was conducted, biophysical measurements were performed and biospecimens were collected, processed and stored. Baseline investigations included fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, renal profile and full blood count. From April 2006 to the end of September 2012 we recruited a total of 106,527 participants. The baseline prevalence data showed 16.6% participants with diabetes, 46.5% with hypertension, 44.9% with hypercholesterolaemia and 17.7% with obesity. The follow-up phase commenced in June 2013. This is the most comprehensive and biggest cohort study in Malaysia, and has become a valuable resource for epidemiological and biological research. For information on collaboration and also data access, investigators can contact the project leader at (rahmanj@ppukm.ukm.edu.my).
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction
  3. Teh CS, Suhaili Z, Lim KT, Khamaruddin MA, Yahya F, Sajili MH, et al.
    Emerging Infect. Dis., 2012 Jul;18(7):1177-9.
    PMID: 22709679 DOI: 10.3201/eid1807.111656
    A cholera outbreak in Terengganu, Malaysia, in November 2009 was caused by 2 El Tor Vibrio cholerae variants resistant to typical antimicrobial drugs. Evidence of replacement of treatable V. cholerae infection in the region with antimicrobial-resistant strains calls for increased surveillance and prevention measures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  4. Suaini NH, Koplin JJ, Ellis JA, Peters RL, Ponsonby AL, Dharmage SC, et al.
    J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol., 2014 Oct;144 Pt B:445-54.
    PMID: 25174667 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2014.08.018
    We aimed to investigate the relationship between genetic and environmental exposure and vitamin D status at age one, stratified by ethnicity. This study included 563 12-month-old infants in the HealthNuts population-based study. DNA from participants' blood samples was genotyped using Sequenom MassARRAY MALDI-TOF system on 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six genes. Using logistic regression, we examined associations between environmental exposure and SNPs in vitamin D pathway and filaggrin genes and vitamin D insufficiency (VDI). VDI, defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3(25(OH)D3) level ≤50nmol/L, was measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Infants were stratified by ethnicity determined by parent's country of birth. Infants formula fed at 12 months were associated with reduced odds of VDI compared to infants with no current formula use at 12 months. This association differed by ethnicity (Pinteraction=0.01). The odds ratio (OR) of VDI was 0.29 for Caucasian infants (95% CI, 0.18-0.47) and 0.04 for Asian infants (95% CI, 0.006-0.23). Maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy and/or breastfeeding were associated with increased odds of infants being VDI (OR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.11-5.18 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.20-5.24 respectively). Presence of a minor allele for any GC SNP (rs17467825, rs1155563, rs2282679, rs3755967, rs4588, rs7041) was associated with increased odds of VDI. Caucasian infants homozygous (AA) for rs4588 had an OR of 2.49 of being associated with VDI (95% CI, 1.19-5.18). In a country without routine infant vitamin D supplementation or food chain fortification, formula use is strongly associated with a reduced risk of VDI regardless of ethnicity. There was borderline significance for an association between filaggrin mutations and VDI. However, polymorphisms in vitamin D pathway related genes were associated with increased likelihood of being VDI in infancy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment; Environmental Exposure
  5. Buji RI, Abdul Murad NA, Chan LF, Maniam T, Mohd Shahrir MS, Rozita M, et al.
    Lupus, 2018 Apr;27(5):744-752.
    PMID: 29161964 DOI: 10.1177/0961203317742711
    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are a high-risk population for suicide. Glutamatergic neurosystem genes have been implicated in the neurobiology of depression in SLE and suicidal behaviour in general. However, the role of glutamate receptor gene polymorphisms in suicidal behaviour among SLE patients remains unclear in the context of established clinical and psychosocial factors. We aimed to investigate the association of NR2A gene polymorphism with suicidal ideation in SLE while accounting for the interaction between clinical and psychosocial factors. Methods A total of 130 SLE patients were assessed for mood disorders (MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview), severity of depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9), suicidal behaviour (Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale), socio-occupational functioning (Work and Social Adjustment Scale), recent life events (Social Readjustment Rating Scale) and lupus disease activity (SELENA-SLE Disease Activity Index). Eighty-six out of the 130 study participants consented for NR2A genotyping. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed nominal significance for the interaction effect between the NR2A rs2072450 AC genotype and higher severity of socio-occupational impairment with lifetime suicidal ideation in SLE patients ( p = 0.038, odds ratio = 1.364, 95% confidence interval = 1.018-1.827). However, only the association between lifetime mood disorder and lifetime suicidal ideation remained significant after Bonferroni correction ( p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction
  6. Arshat H, Othman R, Kuan Lin Chee, Abdullah M
    JOICFP Rev, 1985 Oct;10:10-5.
    PMID: 12313881
    The NADI program (pulse in Malay) was initially launched as a pilot project in 1980 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. It utilized an integrated approach involving both the government and the private sectors. By sharing resources and expertise, and by working together, the government and the people can achieve national development faster and with better results. The agencies work through a multi-level supportive structure, at the head of which is the steering committee. The NADI teams at the field level are the focal points of services from the various agencies. Members of NADI teams also work with urban poor families as well as health groups, parents-teachers associations, and other similar groups. The policy and planning functions are carried out by the steering committee, the 5 area action committees and the community action committees, while the implementation function is carried out by the area program managers and NADI teams. The chairman of each area action committee is the head of the branch office of city hall. Using intestinal parasite control as the entry point, the NADI Integrated Family Development Program has greatly helped in expanding inter-agency cooperation and exchange of experiences by a coordinated, effective and efficient resource-mobilization. The program was later expanded to other parts of the country including the industrial and estate sectors. Services provided by NADI include: comprehensive health services to promote maternal and child health; adequate water supply, proper waste disposal, construction of latrines and providing electricity; and initiating community and family development such as community education, preschool education, vocational training, family counseling and building special facilities for recreational and educational purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  7. Yap RW, Shidoji Y, Hon WM, Masaki M
    J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics, 2011;4(6):309-21.
    PMID: 22301682 DOI: 10.1159/000334358
    The prevalence of lifestyle-related chronic diseases is increasing and gene-diet interaction studies are limited among the Malaysian population. This study was conducted to evaluate the association and interaction effects of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2(VEGFR2) gene polymorphisms and dietary patterns on anthropometric and biochemical risk factors of chronic diseases in 179 Chinese Malaysian adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction
  8. Too CL, Muhamad NA, Ilar A, Padyukov L, Alfredsson L, Klareskog L, et al.
    Ann. Rheum. Dis., 2016 06;75(6):997-1002.
    PMID: 26681695 DOI: 10.1136/annrheumdis-2015-208278
    OBJECTIVES: Lung exposures including cigarette smoking and silica exposure are associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the association between textile dust exposure and the risk of RA in the Malaysian population, with a focus on women who rarely smoke.

    METHODS: Data from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis population-based case-control study involving 910 female early RA cases and 910 female age-matched controls were analysed. Self-reported information on ever/never occupationally exposed to textile dust was used to estimate the risk of developing anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA. Interaction between textile dust and the human leucocyte antigen DR β-1 (HLA-DRB1) shared epitope (SE) was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), with 95% CI.

    RESULTS: Occupational exposure to textile dust was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing RA in the Malaysian female population (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.2). The association between occupational exposure to textile dust and risk of RA was uniformly observed for the ACPA-positive RA (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8) and ACPA-negative RA (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0) subsets, respectively. We observed a significant interaction between exposure to occupational textile dust and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles regarding the risk of ACPA-positive RA (OR for double exposed: 39.1, 95% CI 5.1 to 297.5; AP: 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.2).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating that textile dust exposure is associated with an increased risk for RA. In addition, a gene-environment interaction between HLA-DRB1 SE and textile dust exposure provides a high risk for ACPA-positive RA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction
  9. Graham NS, Hammond JP, Lysenko A, Mayes S, O Lochlainn S, Blasco B, et al.
    Plant Cell, 2014 Jul;26(7):2818-30.
    PMID: 25082855 DOI: 10.1105/tpc.114.128603
    Although Ca transport in plants is highly complex, the overexpression of vacuolar Ca(2+) transporters in crops is a promising new technology to improve dietary Ca supplies through biofortification. Here, we sought to identify novel targets for increasing plant Ca accumulation using genetical and comparative genomics. Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping to 1895 cis- and 8015 trans-loci were identified in shoots of an inbred mapping population of Brassica rapa (IMB211 × R500); 23 cis- and 948 trans-eQTLs responded specifically to altered Ca supply. eQTLs were screened for functional significance using a large database of shoot Ca concentration phenotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana. From 31 Arabidopsis gene identifiers tagged to robust shoot Ca concentration phenotypes, 21 mapped to 27 B. rapa eQTLs, including orthologs of the Ca(2+) transporters At-CAX1 and At-ACA8. Two of three independent missense mutants of BraA.cax1a, isolated previously by targeting induced local lesions in genomes, have allele-specific shoot Ca concentration phenotypes compared with their segregating wild types. BraA.CAX1a is a promising target for altering the Ca composition of Brassica, consistent with prior knowledge from Arabidopsis. We conclude that multiple-environment eQTL analysis of complex crop genomes combined with comparative genomics is a powerful technique for novel gene identification/prioritization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gene-Environment Interaction
  10. Franco L, Palacios G, Martinez JA, Vázquez A, Savji N, De Ory F, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2011 Aug;5(8):e1251.
    PMID: 21829739 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001251
    Dengue virus (DENV) circulates in human and sylvatic cycles. Sylvatic strains are both ecologically and evolutionarily distinct from endemic viruses. Although sylvatic dengue cycles occur in West African countries and Malaysia, only a few cases of mild human disease caused by sylvatic strains and one single case of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Malaysia have been reported. Here we report a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) with thrombocytopenia (13000/µl), a raised hematocrit (32% above baseline) and mucosal bleeding in a 27-year-old male returning to Spain in November 2009 after visiting his home country Guinea Bissau. Sylvatic DENV-2 West African lineage was isolated from blood and sera. This is the first case of DHF associated with sylvatic DENV-2 in Africa and the second case worldwide of DHF caused by a sylvatic strain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  11. Swami V, Furnham A, Kannan K, Sinniah D
    Int J Soc Psychiatry, 2008 Mar;54(2):164-79.
    PMID: 18488409
    Lay beliefs about schizophrenia have been extensively studied in cross-cultural settings, but research on ethnic differences are currently lacking.
    Matched MeSH terms: Social Environment
  12. Sims LD
    Avian Dis., 2007 Mar;51(1 Suppl):174-81.
    PMID: 17494550
    Numerous lessons have been learned so far in controlling H5N1 avian influenza in Asia. Early detection of incursions of virus prevented establishment of the disease in several countries, notably Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. In countries where detection of early cases was delayed, infection is endemic and has been for three or more years. Control measures implemented in these countries need to reflect this finding. Vaccination will continue to be one of the key measures used in these endemically infected countries. Used alone, vaccination will not result in elimination of H5N1 viruses from a country, but, if used correctly, it will markedly reduce the prevalence of and susceptibility to infection. Vaccination has already played a valuable role in reducing the adverse effects of H5N1 viruses. Mass culling also reduces the level of infection in infected areas. However, the long-term benefits are limited in endemically infected countries owing to the high probability of reinfection on restocking unless other measures are used in parallel. Full epidemiological studies have not been conducted in many infected countries. Nevertheless, it is recognized that the number of clinical cases does not truly reflect the levels of infection. Domestic ducks and large live poultry markets have played a key role in the persistence of infection, because they can be infected silently. In tackling this disease, countries should adopt integrated control programs using the combination of measures best suited to the local environment. All surveillance data should be shared, both positive and negative, and should include information on cases of infection and disease. Socioeconomic and ecological implications of all control measures should be assessed before implementation, especially the impact on the rural poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  13. Chow CK, Corsi DJ, Gilmore AB, Kruger A, Igumbor E, Chifamba J, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2017 03 31;7(3):e013817.
    PMID: 28363924 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013817
    OBJECTIVES: This study examines in a cross-sectional study 'the tobacco control environment' including tobacco policy implementation and its association with quit ratio.

    SETTING: 545 communities from 17 high-income, upper-middle, low-middle and low-income countries (HIC, UMIC, LMIC, LIC) involved in the Environmental Profile of a Community's Health (EPOCH) study from 2009 to 2014.

    PARTICIPANTS: Community audits and surveys of adults (35-70 years, n=12 953).

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Summary scores of tobacco policy implementation (cost and availability of cigarettes, tobacco advertising, antismoking signage), social unacceptability and knowledge were associated with quit ratios (former vs ever smokers) using multilevel logistic regression models.

    RESULTS: Average tobacco control policy score was greater in communities from HIC. Overall 56.1% (306/545) of communities had >2 outlets selling cigarettes and in 28.6% (154/539) there was access to cheap cigarettes (<5cents/cigarette) (3.2% (3/93) in HIC, 0% UMIC, 52.6% (90/171) LMIC and 40.4% (61/151) in LIC). Effective bans (no tobacco advertisements) were in 63.0% (341/541) of communities (81.7% HIC, 52.8% UMIC, 65.1% LMIC and 57.6% LIC). In 70.4% (379/538) of communities, >80% of participants disapproved youth smoking (95.7% HIC, 57.6% UMIC, 76.3% LMIC and 58.9% LIC). The average knowledge score was >80% in 48.4% of communities (94.6% HIC, 53.6% UMIC, 31.8% LMIC and 35.1% LIC). Summary scores of policy implementation, social unacceptability and knowledge were positively and significantly associated with quit ratio and the associations varied by gender, for example, communities in the highest quintile of the combined scores had 5.0 times the quit ratio in men (Odds ratio (OR) 5·0, 95% CI 3.4 to 7.4) and 4.1 times the quit ratio in women (OR 4.1, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.1).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that more focus is needed on ensuring the tobacco control policy is actually implemented, particularly in LMICs. The gender-related differences in associations of policy, social unacceptability and knowledge suggest that different strategies to promoting quitting may need to be implemented in men compared to women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  14. Joekes S
    Focus Gend, 1994 Jun;2(2):13-8.
    PMID: 12345527
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  15. Sahimin N, Lim YA, Ariffin F, Behnke JM, Lewis JW, Mohd Zain SN
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Nov;10(11):e0005110.
    PMID: 27806046 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005110
    A cross-sectional study of intestinal parasitic infections amongst migrant workers in Malaysia was conducted. A total of 388 workers were recruited from five sectors including manufacturing, construction, plantation, domestic and food services. The majority were recruited from Indonesia (n = 167, 43.3%), followed by Nepal (n = 81, 20.9%), Bangladesh (n = 70, 18%), India (n = 47, 12.1%) and Myanmar (n = 23, 5.9.2%). A total of four nematode species (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis and hookworms), one cestode (Hymenolepis nana) and three protozoan species (Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium spp.) were identified. High prevalence of infections with A. lumbricoides (43.3%) was recorded followed by hookworms (13.1%), E. histolytica/dispar (11.6%), Giardia sp. (10.8%), T. trichura (9.5%), Cryptosporodium spp. (3.1%), H. nana (1.8%) and E. vermicularis (0.5%). Infections were significantly influenced by socio-demographic (nationality), and environmental characteristics (length of working years in the country, employment sector and educational level). Up to 84.0% of migrant workers from Nepal and 83.0% from India were infected with intestinal parasites, with the ascarid nematode A. lumbricoides occurring in 72.8% of the Nepalese and 68.1% of the Indian population. In addition, workers with an employment history of less than a year or newly arrived in Malaysia were most likely to show high levels of infection as prevalence of workers infected with A. lumbricoides was reduced from 58.2% to 35.4% following a year's residence. These findings suggest that improvement is warranted in public health and should include mandatory medical screening upon entry into the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  16. Tan PS, Genc F, Delgado E, Kellum JA, Pinsky MR
    Intensive Care Med, 2002 Aug;28(8):1064-72.
    PMID: 12185426
    We tested the hypothesis that NO contamination of hospital compressed air also improves PaO(2) in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) and following lung transplant (LTx).
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment, Controlled
  17. Yusof M, Sahroni MN
    Int J Health Care Qual Assur, 2018 Oct 08;31(8):1014-1029.
    PMID: 30415623 DOI: 10.1108/IJHCQA-07-2017-0125
    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to present a review of health information system (HIS)-induced errors and its management. This paper concludes that the occurrence of errors is inevitable but it can be minimised with preventive measures. The review of classifications can be used to evaluate medical errors related to HISs using a socio-technical approach. The evaluation could provide an understanding of errors as a learning process in managing medical errors.

    DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A literature review was performed on issues, sources, management and approaches to HISs-induced errors. A critical review of selected models was performed in order to identify medical error dimensions and elements based on human, process, technology and organisation factors.

    FINDINGS: Various error classifications have resulted in the difficulty to understand the overall error incidents. Most classifications are based on clinical processes and settings. Medical errors are attributed to human, process, technology and organisation factors that influenced and need to be aligned with each other. Although most medical errors are caused by humans, they also originate from other latent factors such as poor system design and training. Existing evaluation models emphasise different aspects of medical errors and could be combined into a comprehensive evaluation model.

    RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: Overview of the issues and discourses in HIS-induced errors could divulge its complexity and enable its causal analysis.

    PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: This paper helps in understanding various types of HIS-induced errors and promising prevention and management approaches that call for further studies and improvement leading to good practices that help prevent medical errors.

    ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Classification of HIS-induced errors and its management, which incorporates a socio-technical and multi-disciplinary approach, could guide researchers and practitioners to conduct a holistic and systematic evaluation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
  18. Rostami R, Lamit H, Khoshnava SM, Rostami R
    Ecohealth, 2014 Sep;11(3):308-21.
    PMID: 24859923 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-014-0939-6
    The inherent economic and social challenges in major cities have been known to foster stress among the urban population. Frequent stress over long periods may well have serious damaging outcomes, resulting in ailments such as burnout syndrome, sleeplessness and exhaustion, depression, feelings of panic, among others. Therefore, providing access to resources that may enable people to cope with the stress of urban life has become a crucial phenomenon in the twentieth century. Increasing empirical evidence indicates that the presence of natural areas can contribute to enhancing the quality of life in many ways. This study examines two historical Persian gardens from the residents' perspective in well-known, historic cities of Iran: Isfahan and Kerman. The data were collected through questionnaires (n = 252), semi-structured interviews (n = 20), and visual observation techniques. The findings demonstrate that nature, diversity and the gardens' historical background, and coherence motivate the residents' frequent visits to the gardens, which help to address their social, psychological, and physical needs. In addition, the residents' involvements and the variety of experiences that occur in the gardens lead to the creation of deeper meanings and values associated with the gardens. Subsequently, these construct functional and emotional attachment that evokes a sense of place and identity and may contribute to society's health and well-being.
    Matched MeSH terms: Environment
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