Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1412 in total

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  1. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Ray M, Logan R, Sterne JA, Hernández-Díaz S, Robins JM, et al.
    AIDS, 2010 Jan 02;24(1):123-37.
    PMID: 19770621 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283324283
    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) on mortality among HIV-infected individuals after appropriate adjustment for time-varying confounding by indication.

    DESIGN: A collaboration of 12 prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States (the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration) that includes 62 760 HIV-infected, therapy-naive individuals followed for an average of 3.3 years. Inverse probability weighting of marginal structural models was used to adjust for measured confounding by indication.

    RESULTS: Two thousand and thirty-nine individuals died during the follow-up. The mortality hazard ratio was 0.48 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.57) for cART initiation versus no initiation. In analyses stratified by CD4 cell count at baseline, the corresponding hazard ratios were 0.29 (0.22-0.37) for less than 100 cells/microl, 0.33 (0.25-0.44) for 100 to less than 200 cells/microl, 0.38 (0.28-0.52) for 200 to less than 350 cells/microl, 0.55 (0.41-0.74) for 350 to less than 500 cells/microl, and 0.77 (0.58-1.01) for 500 cells/microl or more. The estimated hazard ratio varied with years since initiation of cART from 0.57 (0.49-0.67) for less than 1 year since initiation to 0.21 (0.14-0.31) for 5 years or more (P value for trend <0.001).

    CONCLUSION: We estimated that cART halved the average mortality rate in HIV-infected individuals. The mortality reduction was greater in those with worse prognosis at the start of follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Rusmah M, Rahim ZH
    ASDC J Dent Child, 1992 Mar-Apr;59(2):108-10.
    PMID: 1583191
    The medicaments used in this study were buffered glutaraldehyde and formocresol. Schiff's reagent was used in the quantification of aldehyde released into the collecting medium. The results of this study clearly show that formocresol diffused throughout the dentine and cementum within fifteen minutes following a pulpotomy procedure, whereas no diffusion of buffered glutaraldehyde was observed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Petre-Quadens O, Hussain H, Balaratnan C
    Acta Neurol Belg, 1975 Mar;75(2):85-92.
    PMID: 168717
    The Temiars are a tribe of negroid pygmies of basically Proto-Malaysian affinities. Field-work in the Malaysian jungle provided some observations on the sleep-wakefulness cycle of two young Temiar adults. This cycle was monophasic circumstances permitting. Their rest-activity cycle at night was similar in the jungle and in the laboratory. Polygraphic total night-sleep recordings were made with both of them in the EEG laboratory in the Hospital Besar in Kuala Lumpur. The eye-movement frequencies of PS were compared with those from young adults of the West. Although the differences were not statistically significant, the Rem-densities of the Temiars were constantly at the low side. The significance of the results are being discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Abdul Rahim FS, Mohamed AM, Marizan Nor M, Saub R
    Acta Odontol. Scand., 2014 Nov;72(8):999-1004.
    PMID: 25029211 DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2014.936036
    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the legal representatives' perceptions on dental care access of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) compared to their non-DS siblings in Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Daood U, Bandey N, Qasim SB, Omar H, Khan SA
    Acta Odontol. Scand., 2011 Nov;69(6):367-73.
    PMID: 21449690 DOI: 10.3109/00016357.2011.569507
    To investigate the failure of 15 dental implants (Paragon/Zimmer) in relation to their surface quality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Dhillon KS, Sengupta S, Singh BJ
    Acta Orthop Scand, 1988 Aug;59(4):419-24.
    PMID: 3421080
    Thirty-nine displaced fractures of the lateral humeral condyle in children were followed for an average of 5 (2-5) years. The results were evaluated from functional and cosmetic aspects. Patients treated within 2 weeks by open reduction and internal fixation did well. Those operated on after 6 weeks did not do better than nonoperated on cases. Complications included cubitus varus and valgus deformities, osteonecrosis, nonunion and malunion, and loss of motion. We recommend that patients presenting late be left alone and any sequelae evaluated at a late stage.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Boo NY, Chee SC, Rohana J
    Acta Paediatr., 2002;91(6):674-9.
    PMID: 12162601
    A randomized controlled study was carried out on 96 preterm infants (< 37 wk) with birthweight less than 2000 g admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. The aim was to compare the weight gain between preterm infants exposed to 12 h cyclical lighting (intensity of light: 78.4 +/- 24.7 lux, mean +/- SD) and those exposed to a continuously dim environment (5.9 +/- 1.9 lux). The exclusion criteria were infants with major congenital malformations or who needed continuous lighting for treatment procedure and care. From day 7 of life until discharge, 50 infants were randomized to receive 12 h cyclical lighting and 46 infants to a continuously dim environment. There was no significant difference in the mean birthweight (12 h lighting vs continuously dim: 1482 vs 1465 g, p = 0.8), mean gestational age (31.6 vs 31.4 wk, p = 0.6), median duration of hospital stay (28.5 vs 28.5 d, p = 0.8), mean age to regain birthweight (13.0 vs 12.9 d, p = 0.3), mean weight gained by day 14 (27.6 vs 36.2 g, p = 1.0), median weight gain per day (11.9 vs 12.2 g, p = 0.9) or median body weight on discharge (1800 vs 1800 g, p = 0.4) between the two groups of infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Lyn LY, Sze HW, Rajendran A, Adinarayana G, Dua K, Garg S
    Acta Pharm, 2011 Dec;61(4):391-402.
    PMID: 22202198 DOI: 10.2478/v10007-011-0037-z
    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Ali MA, Nouruddeen ZB, Muhamad II, Latip RA, Othman NH
    Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment, 2013 Jul-Sep;12(3):241-52.
    PMID: 24584953
    Microwave heating is one of the most attractive cooking methods for food preparation, commonly employed in households and especially in restaurants for its high speed and convenience. The chemical constituents of oils that degrade during microwave heating do so at rates that vary with heating temperature and time in a similar manner to other type of processing methods. The rate of quality characteristics of the oil depends on the fatty acid composition and the minor components during heating. Addition of oxidative-stable palm olein (PO) to heat sensitive canola oil (CO), may affect the quality characteristics of CO during microwave heating. The aim of this study was to evaluate how heat treatments by microwave oven affect the quality of CO in presence of PO.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Loh HS, Mohd-Azmi ML, Sheikh-Omar AR, Zamri-Saad M, Tam YJ
    Acta Virol., 2007;51(1):27-33.
    PMID: 17432941
    The present study described the kinetics of Rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) infection in newborn rats by monitoring infectious virus and viral antigens in various organs, viral DNA in the blood (DNAemia) and antibody response. These parameters were evaluated quantitatively using double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA), real-time PCR, indirect ELISA and virus infectivity assay. For the first time DAS-ELISA was used for detection of RCMV antigen directly from organ samples. The relationships between the presence of viral antigens in the infected organs and antibody levels were established by the Spearman's rank test. It was found that the virus was present in the blood, spleen, liver, lungs, and kidneys earlier than in the salivary glands. Furthermore, the early immunity of the newborn rats led to a delayed seroconversion. We suggested that the prolonged presence of the virus in salivary glands could augment the antibody response that conversely might be responsible for a reduction of viremia. This study expanded our understanding of RCMV pathogenesis leading to improved therapeutic and preventive treatment regimens particularly for the neonatal Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Additionally, the detection procedures developed in this study such as DAS-ELISA and real-time PCR could serve as alternative techniques for rapid screening of large number of samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Sulong AF, Hassan NH, Hwei NM, Lokanathan Y, Naicker AS, Abdullah S, et al.
    Adv Clin Exp Med, 2014 May-Jun;23(3):353-62.
    PMID: 24979505
    Autologous nerve grafts to bridge nerve gaps pose various drawbacks. Nerve tissue engineering to promote nerve regeneration using artificial neural conduits has emerged as a promising alternative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Rao M
    Adv Physiol Educ, 2006 Jun;30(2):95.
    PMID: 16709743
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Lam LC, Ong PA, Dikot Y, Sofiatin Y, Wang H, Zhao M, et al.
    Age Ageing, 2015 Sep;44(5):835-40.
    PMID: 26271049 DOI: 10.1093/ageing/afv099
    population ageing will lead to a leap in the dementia population in Asia. However, information about potentials for low-cost and low-risk interventions is limited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Sharma JN, Stewart JM, Mohsin SS, Katori M, Vavrek R
    Agents Actions Suppl., 1992;38 ( Pt 3):258-69.
    PMID: 1334354
    We have evaluated the effects of a B2 receptor antagonist (B5630) of kinins on BK and captopril-induced acute hypotensive responses in anaesthetized SHR. Intravenous treatment of BK (1.0 microgram) and captopril (0.3 mg/kg) caused significant (p < 0.05) fall in the SBP and DBP. Whereas BK caused greater fall in the SBP (p < 0.05), DBP (p < 0.01) and duration of hypotension (p < 0.05) when administered after captopril (Fig 1 and 2). All the hypotensive effects of BK and captopril were significantly antagonised (p < 0.05) in the presence of B5630 (2.0 mg/kg). Further, the duration of hypotensive responses of BK and captopril were blocked (p < 0.05) by B5630. The agonists and BK-antagonist did not cause significant (p > 0.05) alterations in HR during the entire investigation. These findings provide evidence to support the suggestion that B2 receptor might be involved in the regulation of the hypotensive actions of BK and captopril. Kinins should also have valuable functions in the antihypertensive property of captopril-like drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Leow AH, Lim YY, Liew WC, Goh KL
    Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther., 2016 Apr;43(7):831-7.
    PMID: 26847417 DOI: 10.1111/apt.13550
    Marked epidemiological changes in upper gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori infection have taken place in the Asian Pacific region. In particular, differences with respect to race in the multiracial Asian population in Malaysia have been important and interesting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Asher MI, Stewart AW, Wong G, Strachan DP, García-Marcos L, Anderson HR, et al.
    Allergol Immunopathol (Madr), 2012 Sep-Oct;40(5):267-74.
    PMID: 22297190 DOI: 10.1016/j.aller.2011.11.004
    BACKGROUND: The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) identified trends in the prevalence of symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema over a seven-year period. We hypothesised that environmental influences on the three diseases are different and therefore investigated the correlation over time between trends in the prevalence of these diseases and their combinations at centre and individual level.
    METHODS: Centre level analyses were correlations between time trends in the prevalence of symptoms. At an individual level, odds ratios were calculated for associations between symptoms between Phases One and Three. We also investigated potential effect modification in the younger versus older age group; male versus female; and by average Gross National Income per capita (GNI).
    RESULTS: Both phases were completed in 66 centres in 37 countries for the 6-7 year age group and in 106 centres in 56 countries for the 13-14 year age group. We found that the correlations in time trends were stronger for the older age group than the younger one. Between symptoms of diseases, correlations of time trends were the strongest for rhinoconjunctivitis with eczema and weakest for eczema with asthma. The relationship between the three diseases was generally consistent over the seven-year period, and there was little association found with average GNI.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite some increase in the proportion of children with symptoms of asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema, the pattern between the three diseases has not changed much, suggesting that similar factors may be affecting them at a global level.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Habicht JP, DaVanzo J, Butz WP
    Am. J. Epidemiol., 1986 Feb;123(2):279-90.
    PMID: 3946377
    Analysis of mothers' recall data collected in 1976-1977 by a probability survey in Peninsular Malaysia shows an association between breastfeeding up to six months of age and improved survival of infants throughout the first year of life. Inappropriate sample selection and inadequate control of confounding can introduce large biases in these analyses. The magnitude and direction of these biases are presented. Even when these biases are dealt with, unsupplemented breastfeeding appears more beneficial than supplemented breastfeeding. The younger the infant and the longer the breastfeeding, the greater the estimated benefits in terms of deaths averted. The use of powdered infant formula did not appear to offset the detrimental effects of early weaning and supplementation. The positive relationships found in these analyses between breastfeeding and survival are not due to death precluding or terminating breastfeeding. Nor are they likely to be due to a shift away from breastfeeding because of recent illness, which was also controlled in the analyses. Nor are they likely to be due to other factors that both increase mortality risk and shorten breastfeeding; when such factors are taken into account, the beneficial effects of breastfeeding become stronger and imply that, if there had been no breastfeeding in this sample, twice as many babies would have died after the first week of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Oxford J, Berezin EN, Courvalin P, Dwyer DE, Exner M, Jana LA, et al.
    Am J Infect Control, 2014 Apr;42(4):423-5.
    PMID: 24679569 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2013.10.016
    We investigated the survival of a pandemic strain of influenza A H1N1 on a variety of common household surfaces where multiple samples were taken from 4 types of common household fomite at 7 time points. Results showed that influenza A H1N1sw virus particles remained infectious for 48 hours on a wooden surface, for 24 hours on stainless steel and plastic surfaces, and for 8 hours on a cloth surface, although virus recovery from the cloth may have been suboptimal. Our results suggest that pandemic influenza A H1N1 can survive on common household fomites for extended periods of time, and that good hand hygiene and regular disinfection of commonly touched surfaces should be practiced during the influenza season to help reduce transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  19. Segasothy M, Samad SA, Zulfigar A, Bennett WM
    Am. J. Kidney Dis., 1994 Jul;24(1):17-24.
    PMID: 8023820
    The risk of renal papillary necrosis and renal dysfunction due to the chronic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is unknown. In a prospective study of 259 heavy analgesic users seen in a general medical hospital over an 11-year-period beginning in January 1982, 69 new cases of analgesic nephropathy with renal papillary necrosis were confirmed by intravenous urogram (26.6%), ultrasonography (30.4%), and/or computed tomography (43%). Twenty-nine of these patients (42%) had consumed excessive quantities of NSAIDs alone; an additional nine patients (13%) had consumed NSAIDs predominantly in combinations with paracetamol, aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and/or traditional herbal medications. Of those patients who consumed NSAIDs alone, 17 had consumed only a single type of NSAID and the remaining 12 had consumed multiple types of NSAIDs. The amount of NSAIDs administered ranged from 1,000 to 26,600 capsules or tablets over a 2- to 25-year period. Renal impairment (serum creatinine, 126 to 778 mumol/L) was noted in 26 of these 38 patients (64.8%). The reasons given for consuming NSAIDs include gouty arthritis (18 patients), osteoarthritis (seven patients), rheumatoid arthritis (six patients), chronic headache (three patients), gouty arthritis plus chronic headache (three patients), and chronic backache (one patient). All patients were prescribed these drugs and were followed medically. The occurrence of analgesic nephropathy was predominantly in males (male to female ratio, 1.9:1). Most of the patients did not have the characteristic psychological profile attributed previously to analgesic abuse nephropathy. Associated addictive habits, such as the use of psychotropic drugs and sleeping tablets, purgative abuse, and alcoholism, were absent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  20. Qamruddin I, Alam MK, Mahroof V, Fida M, Khamis MF, Husein A
    Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 2017 Nov;152(5):622-630.
    PMID: 29103440 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.03.023
    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level laser irradiation applied at 3-week intervals on orthodontic tooth movement and pain associated with orthodontic tooth movement using self-ligating brackets.

    METHODS: Twenty-two patients (11 male, 11 female; mean age, 19.8 ± 3.1 years) with Angle Class II Division 1 malocclusion were recruited for this split-mouth clinical trial; they required extraction of maxillary first premolars bilaterally. After leveling and alignment with self-ligating brackets (SmartClip SL3; 3M Unitek, St Paul, Minn), a 150-g force was applied to retract the canines bilaterally using 6-mm nickel-titanium closed-coil springs on 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwires. A gallium-aluminum-arsenic diode laser (iLas; Biolase, Irvine, Calif) with a wavelength of 940 nm in a continuous mode (energy density, 7.5 J/cm2/point; diameter of optical fiber tip, 0.04 cm2) was applied at 5 points buccally and palatally around the canine roots on the experimental side; the other side was designated as the placebo. Laser irradiation was applied at baseline and then repeated after 3 weeks for 2 more consecutive follow-up visits. Questionnaires based on the numeric rating scale were given to the patients to record their pain intensity for 1 week. Impressions were made at each visit before the application of irradiation at baseline and the 3 visits. Models were scanned with a CAD/CAM scanner (Planmeca, Helsinki, Finland).

    RESULTS: Canine retraction was significantly greater (1.60 ± 0.38 mm) on the experimental side compared with the placebo side (0.79 ± 0.35 mm) (P <0.05). Pain was significantly less on the experimental side only on the first day after application of LLLI and at the second visit (1.4 ± 0.82 and 1.4 ± 0.64) compared with the placebo sides (2.2 ± 0.41 and 2.4 ± 1.53).

    CONCLUSIONS: Low-level laser irradiation applied at 3-week intervals can accelerate orthodontic tooth movement and reduce the pain associated with it.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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