Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1412 in total

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  1. Quah BL, Low HL, Wilson MH, Bimpis A, Nga VDW, Lwin S, et al.
    World Neurosurg, 2016 Oct;94:13-17.
    PMID: 27368511 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2016.06.081
    BACKGROUND: The optimal timing of cranioplasty remains uncertain.

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the risk of infections after primary cranioplasty in adult patients who underwent craniectomies for non-infection-related indications are no different when performed early or delayed. We tested this hypothesis in a prospective, multicenter, cohort study.

    METHODS: Data were collected prospectively from 5 neurosurgical centers in the United Kingdom, Malaysia, Singapore, and Bangladesh. Only patients older than 16 years from the time of the non-infection-related craniectomy were included. The recruitment period was over 17 months, and postoperative follow-up was at least 6 months. Patient baseline characteristics, rate of infections, and incidence of hydrocephalus were collected.

    RESULTS: Seventy patients were included in this study. There were 25 patients in the early cranioplasty cohort (cranioplasty performed before 12 weeks) and 45 patients in the late cranioplasty cohort (cranioplasty performed after 12 weeks). The follow-up period ranged between 16 and 34 months (mean, 23 months). Baseline characteristics were largely similar but differed only in prophylactic antibiotics received (P = 0.28), and primary surgeon performing cranioplasty (P = 0.15). There were no infections in the early cranioplasty cohort, whereas 3 infections were recorded in the late cohort. This did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.55).

    CONCLUSIONS: Early cranioplasty in non-infection-related craniectomy is relatively safe. There does not appear to be an added advantage to delaying cranioplasties more than 12 weeks after the initial craniectomy in terms of infection reduction. There was no significant difference in infection rates or risk of hydrocephalus between the early and late cohorts.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Falavigna A, Dozza DC, Teles AR, Wong CC, Barbagallo G, Brodke D, et al.
    World Neurosurg, 2017 Dec;108:328-335.
    PMID: 28893693 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.09.002
    OBJECTIVES: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are the most widely accepted means of measuring outcomes after spine procedures. We sought to determine the current status of worldwide use of PROMs in Latin America (LA), Europe (EU), Asia Pacific (AP), North America (NA), and Middle East (ME) to determine the barrier to its full implementation.

    METHODS: A questionnaire survey was sent by e-mail to members of AOSpine to evaluate their familiarity and use of PROMs instruments and to assess the barriers to their use in spine care practice in LA, EU, AP, NA, and ME.

    RESULTS: A total of 1634 AOSpine members from LA, EU, AP, NA, and ME answered the electronic questionnaire. The percentage of spine surgeons who were familiar with the generic health-related quality of life questionnaire was 71.7%. In addition, 31.9% of respondents did not use any PROMs routinely. The main barriers to implementing PROMs were lack of time to administer the questionnaires (57%) followed by lack of staff to assist in data collection (55%), and the long time to fill out the questionnaires (46%). The routine use of questionnaires was more frequent in NA and EU and less common in LA and ME (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found that 31.9% of spine surgeons do not use the PROMs questionnaire routinely. This appears to occur because of lack of knowledge regarding their importance, absence of reimbursement for this extra work, minimal financial support for clinical research, the cost of implementation, and lack of concern among physicians.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Quek KF, Loh CS, Low WY, Razack AH
    World J Urol, 2001 Nov;19(5):358-64.
    PMID: 11760785
    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in a Malaysian population by evaluating the quality of life before and after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Chan KK, Dassanayake B, Deen R, Wickramarachchi RE, Kumarage SK, Samita S, et al.
    World J Surg Oncol, 2010;8:82.
    PMID: 20840793 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7819-8-82
    This study compares clinico-pathological features in young (<40 years) and older patients (>50 years) with colorectal cancer, survival in the young and the influence of pre-operative clinical and histological factors on survival.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Balakrishnan N, Teo SH, Sinnadurai S, Bhoo Pathy NT, See MH, Taib NA, et al.
    World J Surg, 2017 11;41(11):2735-2745.
    PMID: 28653143 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-017-4081-9
    BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors are associated with risk of breast cancer, but the association with breast cancer survival is less well known. Previous studies have reported conflicting results on the association between time since last childbirth and breast cancer survival. We determined the association between time since last childbirth (LCB) and survival of women with premenopausal and postmenopausal breast cancers in Malaysia.

    METHOD: A historical cohort of 986 premenopausal, and 1123 postmenopausal, parous breast cancer patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2012 in University Malaya Medical Centre were included in the analyses. Time since LCB was categorized into quintiles. Multivariable Cox regression was used to determine whether time since LCB was associated with survival following breast cancer, adjusting for demographic, tumor, and treatment characteristics.

    RESULTS: Premenopausal breast cancer patients with the most recent childbirth (LCB quintile 1) were younger, more likely to present with unfavorable prognostic profiles and had the lowest 5-year overall survival (OS) (66.9; 95% CI 60.2-73.6%), compared to women with longer duration since LCB (quintile 2 thru 5). In univariable analysis, time since LCB was inversely associated with risk of mortality and the hazard ratio for LCB quintile 2, 3, 4, and 5 versus quintile 1 were 0.53 (95% CI 0.36-0.77), 0.49 (95% CI 0.33-0.75), 0.61 (95% CI 0.43-0.85), and 0.64 (95% CI 0.44-0.93), respectively; P trend = 0.016. However, this association was attenuated substantially following adjustment for age at diagnosis and other prognostic factors. Similarly, postmenopausal breast cancer patients with the most recent childbirth were also more likely to present with unfavorable disease profiles. Compared to postmenopausal breast cancer patients in LCB quintile 1, patients in quintile 5 had a higher risk of mortality. This association was not significant following multivariable adjustment.

    CONCLUSION: Time since LCB is not independently associated with survival in premenopausal or postmenopausal breast cancers. The apparent increase in risks of mortality in premenopausal breast cancer patients with a recent childbirth, and postmenopausal patients with longer duration since LCB, appear to be largely explained by their age at diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Mohamed R, Jong PL, Nurul Irdayu I
    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2014 Sep;30(9):2427-36.
    PMID: 24840100 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-014-1668-2
    Aquilaria malaccensis produces agarwood in response to wounding and fungal attack. However, information is limited regarding Aquilaria's interaction with its diverse fungal community. In this study, time-related changes of three natural fungal colonizers in two wounded wild A. malaccensis were tracked, beginning a few hours after wounding up to 12 months. Using species-specific primers derived from their nrITS sequences in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), we quantified the amount of Cunninghamella bainieri, Fusarium solani and Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Because time is a major factor affecting agarwood quantity and quality, 14 wood samples were collected at different time points, i.e., 0-18 h, 2-13 days, 2-18 weeks, and 6-12 months after wounding. qPCR data revealed that the abundance of the three species decreased over time. The fungi were detected in high numbers during the first few hours and days after wounding (40- to 25,000-fold higher levels compared with initial counts) and in low numbers (<1- to 3,200-fold higher than initially) many months later. Consistent with its role in defense response, the accumulation of secondary metabolites at the wounding site could have caused the decline in fungal abundance. Succession patterns of the two trees were not identical, indicating that fungal populations may have been affected by tree environment and wound microclimate. Our results are important for understanding the diversity of microbial community in wild Aquilaria species and their association to wound-induced agarwood formation. Fungi could be secondary triggers to agarwood production in situations where trees are wounded in attempt to induce agarwood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Nakisah MA, Ida Muryany MY, Fatimah H, Nor Fadilah R, Zalilawati MR, Khamsah S, et al.
    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2012 Mar;28(3):1237-44.
    PMID: 22805843 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-011-0927-8
    Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Pham T, Tanwandee T, Nazareth S, Galhenage S, Mollison L, et al.
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2015 Jul 28;21(28):8660-9.
    PMID: 26229408 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i28.8660
    To examined the efficacy and safety of treatment with boceprevir, PEGylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCVGT1) PR treatment-failures in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Chan WK, Azmi N, Mahadeva S, Goh KL
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2014 Oct 21;20(39):14488-94.
    PMID: 25339836 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v20.i39.14488
    To compare same-day whole-dose vs split-dose of 2-litre polyethylene glycol electrolyte lavage solution (PEG-ELS) plus bisacodyl for colon cleansing for morning colonoscopy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Jaganathan SK, Supriyanto E, Mandal M
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2013 Nov 21;19(43):7726-34.
    PMID: 24282361 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i43.7726
    AIM: To investigate the events associated with the apoptotic effect of p-Coumaric acid, one of the phenolic components of honey, in human colorectal carcinoma (HCT-15) cells.
    METHODS: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tertazolium-bromide assay was performed to determine the antiproliferative effect of p-Coumaric acid against colon cancer cells. Colony forming assay was conducted to quantify the colony inhibition in HCT 15 and HT 29 colon cancer cells after p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium Iodide staining of the HCT 15 cells using flow cytometry was done to study the changes in the cell cycle of treated cells. Identification of apoptosis was done using scanning electron microscope and photomicrograph evaluation of HCT 15 cells after exposing to p-Coumaric acid. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of HCT 15 cells exposed to p-Coumaric acid was evaluated using 2', 7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate. Mitochondrial membrane potential of HCT-15 was assessed using rhodamine-123 with the help of flow cytometry. Lipid layer breaks associated with p-Coumaric acid treatment was quantified using the dye merocyanine 540. Apoptosis was confirmed and quantified using flow cytometric analysis of HCT 15 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment after staining with YO-PRO-1.
    RESULTS: Antiproliferative test showed p-Coumaric acid has an inhibitory effect on HCT 15 and HT 29 cells with an IC₅₀ (concentration for 50% inhibition) value of 1400 and 1600 μmol/L respectively. Colony forming assay revealed the time-dependent inhibition of HCT 15 and HT 29 cells subjected to p-Coumaric acid treatment. Propidium iodide staining of treated HCT 15 cells showed increasing accumulation of apoptotic cells (37.45 ± 1.98 vs 1.07 ± 1.01) at sub-G1 phase of the cell cycle after p-Coumaric acid treatment. HCT-15 cells observed with photomicrograph and scanning electron microscope showed the signs of apoptosis like blebbing and shrinkage after p-Coumaric acid exposure. Evaluation of the lipid layer showed increasing lipid layer breaks was associated with the growth inhibition of p-Coumaric acid. A fall in mitochondrial membrane potential and increasing ROS generation was observed in the p-Coumaric acid treated cells. Further apoptosis evaluated by YO-PRO-1 staining also showed the time-dependent increase of apoptotic cells after treatment.
    CONCLUSION: These results depicted that p-Coumaric acid inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis through ROS-mitochondrial pathway.
    KEYWORDS: Apoptosis; Honey; Merocyanine; Reactive oxygen species; Rhodamine-123; Sub-G1; p-Coumaric acid
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Tee HP, Corte C, Al-Ghamdi H, Prakoso E, Darke J, Chettiar R, et al.
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2010 Aug 21;16(31):3905-10.
    PMID: 20712051
    To study the significance of cap-fitted colonoscopy in improving cecal intubation time and polyp detection rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Mohd Shukoor NS, Mohd Tamrin SB, Guan NY, Mohd Suadi Nata DH
    Work, 2018;60(1):129-134.
    PMID: 29843301 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-182741
    BACKGROUND: Hard hats are among the personal protective equipment (PPE) used in many industries to reduce the impact of any falling object on the skull and also to prevent head and brain injuries. However, the practice of wearing a safety helmet during working hours is still low. This is due to the physical discomfort perceived by safety helmet users.

    OBJECTIVE: Given the unpopularity of the current hard hat, the general perception of workers concerning its use and its measurements are the determining factors in the development of a new hard hat.

    METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which 132 male oil palm harvesters between 19 and 60 years of age were selected from among the employees of the same oil palm harvesting company. A set of questionnaires was developed to collect their socio-demographic information as well as their perceptions of comfort and the prevalence of head injury. In addition, a set of measuring instruments, including Martin's anthropometry set, was used for head measurement and data collection in respect of the current hard hat. In this research, six respondents were randomly selected to attend an interview session for qualitative assessment.RESULTSBased on the questionnaires, the unpopularity in the use of the hard hat was largely influenced by factors related to poor design, in general, and, specifically, poor ventilation (64%), load (67% ), and physical discomfort (42% ). The measurements of the anthropometric parameters and the dimensions of the hard hat also showed a significant mismatch.

    CONCLUSION: The unpopularity of the current hard hat among oil palm harvesters stemmed from the discomfort from wearing, which showed that the development of a new hard hat could lead to better usage and the greater likelihood of wearing a hard hat throughout the working day.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Lim SK, Lim WL, Elegbe EO
    West Afr J Med, 1996 Oct-Dec;15(4):186-9.
    PMID: 9020593
    30 patients who received electroconvulsive therapy were anaesthetized with either Propofol or Methohexitone in a randomized cross-over study. Recovery times were shorter in those who received Propofol. The decrease in diastolic pressure after induction was greater with Propofol than with Methohexitone. There was a greater increase in the blood pressure after the electroconvulsive therapy in those who received Methohexitone. The duration of convulsion was similar for both agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Harun H, Anuar AN, Ujang Z, Rosman NH, Othman I
    Water Sci. Technol., 2014;69(11):2252-7.
    PMID: 24901619 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2014.156
    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) has been applied to treat a broad range of industrial and municipal wastewater. AGS can be developed in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with alternating anaerobic-aerobic conditions. To provide anaerobic conditions, the mixed liquor is allowed to circulate in the reactor without air supply. The circulation flow rate of mixed liquor in anaerobic condition is the most important parameter of operation in the anaerobic-AGS processes. Therefore, this study investigates the effect of circulation rate on the performance of the SBR with AGS. Two identical reactors namely R1 and R2 were operated using fermented soy sauce wastewater at circulation rate of 14.4 and 36.0 l/h, respectively. During the anaerobic conditions, the wastewater was pumped out from the upper part of the reactor and circulated back into the bottom of the reactor for 230 min. A compact and dense AGS was observed in both reactors with a similar diameter of 2.0 mm in average, although different circulation rates were adopted. The best reactor performance was achieved in R2 with chemical oxygen demand removal rate of 89%, 90% total phosphorus removal, 79% ammonia removal, 10.1 g/l of mixed liquor suspended solids and a sludge volume index of 25 ml/g.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Ong YH, Chua AS, Lee BP, Ngoh GC
    Water Sci. Technol., 2013;67(2):340-6.
    PMID: 23168633 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2012.552
    To date, little information is known about the operation of the enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process in tropical climates. Along with the global concerns on nutrient pollution and the increasing array of local regulatory requirements, the applicability and compliance accountability of the EBPR process for sewage treatment in tropical climates is being evaluated. A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) inoculated with seed sludge from a conventional activated sludge (CAS) process was successfully acclimatized to EBPR conditions at 28 °C after 13 days' operation. Enrichment of Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis in the SBR was confirmed through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The effects of operational pH and influent C:P ratio on EBPR were then investigated. At pH 7 or pH 8, phosphorus removal rates of the EBPR processes were relatively higher when operated at C:P ratio of 3 than C:P ratio of 10, with 0.019-0.020 and 0.011-0.012 g-P/g-MLVSS•day respectively. One-year operation of the 28 °C EBPR process at C:P ratio of 3 and pH 8 demonstrated stable phosphorus removal rate of 0.020 ± 0.003 g-P/g-MLVSS•day, corresponding to effluent with phosphorus concentration <0.5 mg/L. This study provides the first evidence on good EBPR activity at relatively high temperature, indicating its applicability in a tropical climate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Tay CC, Liew HH, Redzwan G, Yong SK, Surif S, Abdul-Talib S
    Water Sci. Technol., 2011;64(12):2425-32.
    PMID: 22170837 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.805
    The potential of Pleurotus ostreatus spent mushroom compost (PSMC) as a green biosorbent for nickel (II) biosorption was investigated in this study. A novel approach of using the half-saturation concentration of biosorbent to rapidly determine the uptake, kinetics and mechanism of biosorption was employed together with cost per unit uptake analysis to determine the potential of this biosorbent. Fifty per cent nickel (II) biosorption was obtained at a half-saturation constant of 0.7 g biosorbent concentration, initial pH in the range of 4-8, 10 min contact time, 50 mL 50 mg/L nickel (II) initial concentration. The experimental data were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm model and the maximum nickel (II) biosorption was 3.04 mg/g. The results corresponded well to a second pseudo order kinetic model with the coefficient of determination value of 0.9999. Based on FTIR analysis, the general alkyl, hydroxyl or amino, aliphatic alcohol and carbonyl functional groups of biosorbent were involved in the biosorption process. Therefore, biosorption of nickel (II) must involve several mechanisms simultaneously such as physical adsorption, chemisorption and ion exchange. Cost comparison for PSMC with Amberlite IRC-86 ion exchange resin indicates that the biosorbent has the potential to be developed into a cost effective and environmentally friendly treatment system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Zakaria ZA, Aruleswaran N, Kaur S, Ahmad WA
    Water Sci. Technol., 2007;56(8):117-23.
    PMID: 17978439
    Cr(VI) biosorption and bioreduction ability of locally isolated Cr-resistant bacteria was investigated using the shake-flask technique. A mixture of S. epidermidis and B. cereus showed the highest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) level at 750 mg/L Cr(VI) followed by S. aureus and Bacillus sp. of 250 mg/L, and A. haemolyticus of 70 mg/L. From the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, the treatment of cells with heat-acid resulted in the highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorped (78.25 mg/g dry wt. for S. epidermidis) compared to heat-acetone (67.93 mg/g dry wt. Bacillus sp.), heat only (36.05 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis) or untreated cells (45.40 mg/g dry wt. S. epidermidis and B. cereus). FTIR analysis showed the involvement of amine groups in Cr(VI) adsorption. In the bioreduction study, A. haemolyticus was able to completely reduce Cr(VI) up to 50 mg/L.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Nazahiyah R, Yusop Z, Abustan I
    Water Sci. Technol., 2007;56(7):1-9.
    PMID: 17951862
    Sampling of urban runoff was carried out in a small catchment, which represents a residential area (3.34 ha) in Skudai, Johor. One hundred and seventeen runoff samples from ten storm events were analysed. Runoff quality showed large variations in concentrations during storms, especially for SS, BOD5 and COD. Concentrations of NO3-N, NO2-N, NH3-N, and P were also high. Lead (Pb) was also detected but the levels were low (<0.001 mg/L). In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event mean concentrations for all parameters were found to vary greatly between storms. The values (mg/L) were BOD5 (72), COD (325), SS (386), NO3-N (2.5), NO2-N (0.58), NH3-N (6.8), P (3.4), respectively. First flush phenomena were observed for BOD, COD, SS, NO3-N, NH3-N and P. The first 20-30% of the runoff volume evacuated between 20-59% BOD, 15-69% COD, 15-78% SS, 14-49% NO3-N, 14-19% NO2-N, 23-53% NH3-N and 23-43% P.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  19. Lee KK, Kassim AM, Lee HK
    Water Sci. Technol., 2004;50(5):73-7.
    PMID: 15497832
    White-rot fungi, namely Coriolus versicolor and Schizophyllum commune, were studied for the biodecolorization of textile dyeing effluent in shaker-flask experiments. The results showed that C. versicolor was able to achieve 68% color removal after 5 days of treatment while that of S. commune was 88% in 9 days. Both fungi achieved the above results in non-sterile condition with diammonium hydrogen phosphate as the nutrient supplement. On the other hand, the best COD removal of 80% was obtained with C. versicolor in 9 days in sterile effluent with yeast extract as nutrient supplement, while S. commune was able to remove 85% COD within 8 days in non-sterile textile effluent supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  20. Ujang Z, Soedjono E, Salim MR, Shutes RB
    Water Sci. Technol., 2005;52(12):243-50.
    PMID: 16477992
    Municipal leachate was treated in an experimental unit of constructed wetlands of subsurface flow type. The parameters studied were organics (BOD and COD), solids and heavy metals (Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr and Pb). Using two types of emergent plants of Scirpus globulosus and Eriocaulon sexangulare, more than 80% removal was achieved for all the parameters. E. sexangulare removed organics and heavy metals better than Scirpus globulosus. A higher concentration of heavy metals in the influent did not change the removal efficiency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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