Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1522 in total

  1. Taib M, Tan LL, Abd Karim NH, Ta GC, Heng LY, Khalid B
    Talanta, 2020 Jan 15;207:120321.
    PMID: 31594568 DOI: 10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120321
    An optical aptasensor-based sensing platform for rapid insulin detection was fabricated. Aminated porous silica microparticles (PSiMPs) were synthesized via a facile mini-emulsion method to provide large surface area for covalent immobilization of insulin-binding DNA aptamer (IGA3) by glutaraldehyde cross-linking protocol. A Nickel-salphen type complex with piperidine side chain [Ni(II)-SP] was synthesized with a simple one-pot reaction, and functionalized as an optical label due to strong π-π interaction between aromatic carbons of G-quadruplex DNA aptamer and planar aromatic groups of Ni(II)-SP to form the immobilized IGA3-Ni(II)-SP complex, i.e. the dye-labeled aptamer, thereby bringing yellow colouration to the immobilized G-quartet plane. Optical characterization of aptasensor towards insulin binding was carried out with a fiber optic reflectance spectrophotometer. The maximum reflectance intensity of the immobilized IGA3-Ni(II)-SP complex at 656 nm decreased upon binding with insulin as aptasensor changed to brownish orange colouration in the background. This allows optical detection of insulin as the colour change of aptasensor is dependent on the insulin concentration. The linear detection range of the aptasensor is obtained from 10 to 50 μIU mL-1 (R2 = 0.9757), which conformed to the normal fasting insulin levels in human with a limit of detection (LOD) at 3.71 μIU mL-1. The aptasensor showed fast response time of 40 min and long shelf life stability of >3 weeks. Insulin detection using healthy human serums with informed consent provided by participants suggests the DNA aptamer biosensor was in good agreement with ELISA standard method using BIOMATIK Human INS (Insulin) ELISA Kit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Ong VZ, Wu TY, Lee CBTL, Cheong NWR, Shak KPY
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2019 Nov;58:104598.
    PMID: 31450331 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.05.015
    This study demonstrated the effect of two-pot sequential pretreatment, comprising of ultrasound assisted deep eutectic solvent (DES) with the aim to investigate the effects of ultrasound amplitude and duration in enhancing delignification. Oil palm fronds (OPF) were ultrasonicated in a water medium, followed by a pretreatment using DES (choline chloride:urea). Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, Brunauer-Emmet-Teller and solubilised lignin concentration were conducted to confirm the effectiveness of ultrasound assisted DES on the pretreatment of OPF. The recommended ultrasound conditions were determined to be 70% amplitude and duration of 30 min, where the sequential DES pretreatment was able to reduce lignin content of OPF to 14.01%, while improving xylose recovery by 58%.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Ng TYS, Chew TL, Yeong YF, Jawad ZA, Ho CD
    Sci Rep, 2019 Oct 21;9(1):15062.
    PMID: 31636339 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-51460-x
    In recent years, there are increasing interest on applying ultrasonic irradiation for the synthesis of zeolite due to its advantages including remarkable shortened synthesis duration. In this project, the potential of ultrasonic irradiation treatment on the synthesis of zeolite RHO was investigated. Ultrasonic irradiation treatment time was varied from 30 to 120 minutes for the synthesis of zeolite RHO. The zeolite RHO solid samples were characterized with X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) and nitrogen adsorption-desorption analysis. The application of ultrasonic irradiation treatment in this study has accelerated the synthesis of zeolite RHO where the synthesis duration has been significantly shortened to 2 days compared to 8 days required by conventional hydrothermal heating without ultrasonic irradiation treatment. Highly crystalline zeolite RHO crystals in truncated octahedron morphology were successfully formed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Tahmasebi-Boldaji R, Hatamipour MS, Khanahmadi M, Sadeh P, Najafipour I
    Ultrason Sonochem, 2019 Oct;57:89-97.
    PMID: 31208622 DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.05.018
    This paper presents the successful application of ultrasound-assisted packed-bed (UAE-PB) method for the extraction of hypericin from the Hypericum perfuratum L. The Soxhlet system was utilized for the determination of suitable solvent from ethanol, methanol or from the mixture of different proportions of ethanol-methanol. The mixture of 50:50 v/v ethanol-methanol was obtained to be the most suitable solvent since it led to the highest extraction amount of hypericin. The extraction amount of hypericin increased by 13.6% and 21.4% when the solvent changed from pure methanol to the mixture of 50:50 v/v ethanol-methanol for the extraction time of 3 and 8 h, respectively. Subsequently, the extraction was conducted through the UAE-PB, and the effects of temperature, time, and the ratio of solvent to the dried plant were studied. The response surface method (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of parameters on the extraction in the UAE-PB system. At the temperature of 60 °C, extraction time of 105 min, and the solvent to plant ratio of 15.3, the maximum extraction yield of hypericin was achieved. In the optimal conditions, the amount of extraction was 0.112 mg hypericin/g dried plant, which was in accordance with the optimized predicted value (0.111 mg hypericin/g dried plant) from Design-Expert software.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Ferrando S, Agas D, Mirata S, Signore A, De Angelis N, Ravera S, et al.
    J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol., 2019 Oct;199:111627.
    PMID: 31536925 DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotobiol.2019.111627
    Photobiomodulation relies on the transfer of energy from incident photons to a cell photoacceptor. For many years the concept of photobiomodulation and its outcome has been based upon a belief that the sole receptor within the cell was the mitochondrion. Recently, it has become apparent that there are other photoacceptors operating in different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Alternative photoacceptors would appear to be water and mechanisms regulating calcium homeostasis, despite a direct effect of laser photonic energy on intracellular calcium concentration outwith mitochondrial activity or influence, have not been clearly demonstrated. Therefore, to increase the knowledge of intracellular‑calcium and laser photon interaction, as well as to demonstrate differences in irradiation profiles with modern hand-pieces, we tested and compared the photobiomodulatory effect of 808 nm and 980 nm diode laser light by low- and higher-energy (60s, 100 mW/cm2, 100 mW/cm2, 500 mW/cm2, 1000 mW/cm2, 1500 mW/cm2, 2000 mW/cm2) irradiated with a "standard" (Gaussian fluence distribution) hand-piece or with a "flat-top" (uniform fluence) hand-piece. For this purpose, we used the eukaryote unicellular-model Dictyostelium discoideum. The 808 nm and 980 nm infrared laser light, at the energy tested directly affect the stored Ca2+ homeostasis, independent of the mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. From an organism perspective, the effect on Ca2+-dependent signal transduction as the regulator of spore germination in Dictyostelium, demonstrates how a cell can respond quickly to the correct laser photonic stimulus through a different cellular pathway than the known light-chromophore(mitochondria) interaction. Additionally, both hand-piece designs tested were able to photobiomodulate the D. discoideum cell; however, the hand-piece with a flat-top profile, through uniform fluence levels allows more effective and reproducible effects.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Masir N, Akhter A, Roshan TM, Florence CS, Abdul-Rahman F, Tumian NR, et al.
    J. Clin. Pathol., 2019 Sep;72(9):630-635.
    PMID: 31189540 DOI: 10.1136/jclinpath-2019-205837
    AIMS: Heightened B-cell receptor (BCR) activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is well established, and a subset of patients with relapsed DLBCL can benefit from BCR-targeted therapies. Universal outreach of such emerging therapies mandates forming a global landscape of BCR molecular signalling in DLBCL, including Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: 79 patients with DLBCL (nodal, 59% and extranodal, 41%) treated with rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy were selected. Expression levels of BCR and linked signalling pathway molecules were inter-related with Lymph2Cx-based cell of origin (COO) types and overall survival (OS).

    RESULTS: Activated B-cell (ABC) type DLBCL constituted 49% (39/79) compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type DLBCL (29/79; 37%) and revealed poor prognosis (p=0.013). In ABC-DLBCL, high BTK expression exerted poor response to R-CHOP, while OS in ABC-DLBCL with low BTK expression was similar to GCB-DLBCL subtype (p=0.004). High LYN expression coupled with a poor OS for ABC-DLBCL as well as GCB-DLBCL subtypes (p=0.001). Furthermore, high coexpression of BTK/LYN (BTKhigh/LYNhigh) showed poor OS (p=0.019), which linked with upregulation of several genes associated with BCR repertoire and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, high BTK and LYN expression retained prognostic significance against established clinical predictive factors such as age, International Prognostic Index and COO (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a clear association between high BCR activity in DLBCL and response to therapy in a distinct population. Molecular data provided here will pave the pathway for the provision of promising novel-targeted therapies to patients with DLBCL in Southeast Asia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Moayyedi P, Eikelboom JW, Bosch J, Connolly SJ, Dyal L, Shestakovska O, et al.
    Gastroenterology, 2019 09;157(3):682-691.e2.
    PMID: 31152740 DOI: 10.1053/j.gastro.2019.05.056
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial.

    METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up.

    RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant.

    CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Edueng K, Mahlin D, Gråsjö J, Nylander O, Thakrani M, Bergström CAS
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 27;24(15).
    PMID: 31357587 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24152731
    This study explores the effect of physical aging and/or crystallization on the supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Spray-dried, fully amorphous indapamide, metolazone, glibenclamide, hydrocortisone, hydrochlorothiazide, ketoconazole, and sulfathiazole were used as model APIs. The parameters used to assess the supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics were the maximum supersaturation concentration (Cmax,app), the area under the curve (AUC), and the crystallization rate constant (k). These were compared for freshly spray-dried and aged/crystallized samples. Aged samples were stored at 75% relative humidity for 168 days (6 months) or until they were completely crystallized, whichever came first. The solid-state changes were monitored with differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and powder X-ray diffraction. Supersaturation potential and crystallization kinetics were investigated using a tenfold supersaturation ratio compared to the thermodynamic solubility using the µDISS Profiler. The physically aged indapamide and metolazone and the minimally crystallized glibenclamide and hydrocortisone did not show significant differences in their Cmax,app and AUC when compared to the freshly spray-dried samples. Ketoconazole, with a crystalline content of 23%, reduced its Cmax,app and AUC by 50%, with Cmax,app being the same as the crystalline solubility. The AUC of aged metolazone, one of the two compounds that remained completely amorphous after storage, significantly improved as the crystallization kinetics significantly decreased. Glibenclamide improved the most in its supersaturation potential from amorphization. The study also revealed that, besides solid-state crystallization during storage, crystallization during dissolution and its corresponding pathway may significantly compromise the supersaturation potential of fully amorphous APIs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Hamzah FH, Mohd Hairon S, Yaacob NM, Musa KI
    PMID: 31295907 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16142453
    Prompt investigation of food poisoning outbreak are essential, as it usually involves a short incubation period. Utilizing the advancement in mobile technology, a mobile application named MyMAFI (My Mobile Apps for Field Investigation) was developed with the aim to be an alternative and better tool for current practices of field investigation of food poisoning outbreak. A randomized cross-over trial with two arms and two treatment periods was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the newly developed mobile application as compared to the standard paper-based format approach. Thirty-six public health inspectors from all districts in Kelantan participated in this study and they were randomized into two equal sized groups. Group A started the trial as control group using the paper-format investigation form via simulated outbreaks and group B used the mobile application. After a one-month 'washout period', the group was crossed over. The primary outcome measured was the time taken to complete the outbreak investigation. The treatment effects, the period effects and the period-by-treatment interaction were analyzed using Pkcross command in Stata software. There was a significant treatment effect with mean square 21840.5 and its corresponding F statistic 4.47 (p-value = 0.038), which indicated that the mobile application had significantly improve the reporting timeliness. The results also showed that there was a significant period effect (p-value = 0.025); however, the treatment by period interaction was not significant (p-value = 0.830). The newly developed mobile application-MyMAFI-can improve the timeliness in reporting for investigation of food poisoning outbreak.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Abdul Wahab S, Hassan A, Latif MT, Vadiveel Y, Jeyabalan T, Soo CI, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 07 01;20(7):1959-1965.
    PMID: 31350951 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.7.1959
    Objective: Epidemiological studies have reported the close relationship between risk for lung cancers and air pollution
    in particular, for non-smoking related lung cancers. However, most studies used residential address as proxies which may
    not estimate accurately an individual’s air pollution exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify risk factors
    such as occupation and mode of transportation associated with lung cancer diagnosis and death. Methods: Subjects
    with lung cancer (n=514) were evaluated both by chart reviews for clinical data and interviews to determine residential
    address for ten years, main occupation and main mode of transportation. Annual particulate matter with diameter size
    less than 2.5 micrometre (PM2.5) concentration were calculated based on particulate matter with diameter size less than
    10 micrometre (PM10) data recorded by Malaysian Department of Environment. Logistic regression analysis, cluster
    analysis and the Cox regression analysis were performed to the studied variables. Results: This study concurred with
    previous studies that lung adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in predominantly younger, female non-smokers compared
    to the other types of lung cancers. Lung adenocarcinoma subjects had annual PM2.5 that was almost twice higher than
    squamous cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and other histological subtypes (p=0.024). Independent of smoking,
    the κ -means cluster analysis revealed two clusters in which the high risk cluster involves occupation risk with air
    pollution of more than four hours per day, main transportation involving motorcycle and trucks and mean annual PM2.5
    concentration of more than 30 based on residential address for more than ten years. The increased risk for the high-risk
    cluster was more than five times for the diagnosis of lung adenocarcinoma (OR=5.69, 95% CI=3.14-7.21, p<0.001).
    The hazard ratio for the high-risk cluster was 3.89 (95% CI=2.12-4.56, p=0.02) for lung adenocarcinoma mortality at
    1 year. Conclusion: High-risk cluster including PM2.5, occupation risk and mode of transportation as surrogates for
    air-pollution exposure was identified and highly associated with lung adenocarcinoma diagnosis and 1-year mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Shehabi Y, Howe BD, Bellomo R, Arabi YM, Bailey M, Bass FE, et al.
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2019 06 27;380(26):2506-2517.
    PMID: 31112380 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1904710
    BACKGROUND: Dexmedetomidine produces sedation while maintaining a degree of arousability and may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation and delirium among patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). The use of dexmedetomidine as the sole or primary sedative agent in patients undergoing mechanical ventilation has not been extensively studied.

    METHODS: In an open-label, randomized trial, we enrolled critically ill adults who had been undergoing ventilation for less than 12 hours in the ICU and were expected to continue to receive ventilatory support for longer than the next calendar day to receive dexmedetomidine as the sole or primary sedative or to receive usual care (propofol, midazolam, or other sedatives). The target range of sedation-scores on the Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale (which is scored from -5 [unresponsive] to +4 [combative]) was -2 to +1 (lightly sedated to restless). The primary outcome was the rate of death from any cause at 90 days.

    RESULTS: We enrolled 4000 patients at a median interval of 4.6 hours between eligibility and randomization. In a modified intention-to-treat analysis involving 3904 patients, the primary outcome event occurred in 566 of 1948 (29.1%) in the dexmedetomidine group and in 569 of 1956 (29.1%) in the usual-care group (adjusted risk difference, 0.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -2.9 to 2.8). An ancillary finding was that to achieve the prescribed level of sedation, patients in the dexmedetomidine group received supplemental propofol (64% of patients), midazolam (3%), or both (7%) during the first 2 days after randomization; in the usual-care group, these drugs were administered as primary sedatives in 60%, 12%, and 20% of the patients, respectively. Bradycardia and hypotension were more common in the dexmedetomidine group.

    CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing mechanical ventilation in the ICU, those who received early dexmedetomidine for sedation had a rate of death at 90 days similar to that in the usual-care group and required supplemental sedatives to achieve the prescribed level of sedation. More adverse events were reported in the dexmedetomidine group than in the usual-care group. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others; SPICE III ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01728558.).

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Ismail S, Manaf RA, Mahmud A
    East. Mediterr. Health J., 2019 Jun 04;25(4):239-245.
    PMID: 31210344 DOI: 10.26719/emhj.19.011
    Background: Research on the health benefits of fasting is growing; this includes time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting.

    Aims: This article aims to review and highlight the similarities and differences between time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting during Ramadan.

    Methods: A scoping review was undertaken to identify relevant articles that answered the research question: what are the similarities and differences in characteristics of time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting? MEDLINE/PubMed was searched using the terms: time-restricted feeding, and weight. Inclusion criteria were: original research and review articles; written in English; and published between the years 2000 and 2017.

    Results: A total of 25 articles that answered the research question were included in the review: 15 original research papers and 10 reviews. The findings suggest that Ramadan fasting is a form of time-restricted feeding in the contemporary context because of the period when eating is not allowed. The fasting duration reported in time-restricted feeding ranged from 4 to 24 hours, which is longer than that of Islamic fasting which is between 8 and 20 hours. Both time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting have been found to have positive health effects, including weight reduction.

    Conclusion: Time-restricted feeding and Islamic fasting have many similar characteristics and reported positive health effects.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Yeang HY
    Yale J Biol Med, 2019 06;92(2):213-223.
    PMID: 31249482
    The widely held explanation for photoperiod-controlled flowering in long-day plants is largely embodied in the External Coincidence Hypothesis which posits that flowering is induced when activity of a rhythmic gene that regulates it (a putative "flowering gene") occurs in the presence of light. Nevertheless, re-examination of the Arabidopsis flowering data from non 24-hour cycles of Roden et al. suggests that External Coincidence is not tenable if the circadian rhythm of the "flowering gene" were entrained to sunrise as commonly accepted. On the other hand, the hypothesis is supported if circadian cycling of the gene conforms to a solar rhythm, and its entrainment is to midnight on the solar clock. Data available point to flowering being induced by the gene which peaks in its expression between 16 to 19 h after midnight. In the normal 24 h cycle, that would be between 4 p.m. and 7 p.m., regardless of the photoperiod. Such timing of the "flowering gene" expression allows for variable coincidence between gene activity and light, depending on the photoperiod and cycle period. A correlation is found between earliness of flowering and the degree of coincidence of "flowering gene" expression with light (r = 0.88, p<0.01).
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Abdullah MM, Foo YC, Yap BK, Lee CML, Hoo LP, Lim TO
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2019 06 01;20(6):1701-1708.
    PMID: 31244290 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.6.1701
    Objective: This report focuses on a private medical centre cancer care performance as measured by patient survival
    outcome for up to 5 years. Methods: All patients with nasopharyngeal cancer treated at SJMC between 2008 and 2012
    were enrolled for this observational cohort study. Mortality outcome was ascertained through record linkage with
    national death register, linkage with hospital registration system and finally through direct contact by phone. Result:
    266 patients treated between 2008 and 2012 were included for survival analysis. 31% of patients were diagnosed with
    Early NPC Cancer (Stage I or II), another 44% with Locally Advanced Cancer (Stage III) and 25% with late stage IV
    metastatic cancer. 2%, 27% and 67% had WHO Class I, II and III NPC respectively. The overall survival at 5 years
    was 100% for patients with Stage I disease, 91% for Stage II disease, 72% for Stage III disease, and decreasing to
    44% for Stage IV disease. Overall survival at 5 years for all stages was 73%. Conclusion: SJMC is among the first
    hospitals in Malaysia to embark on routine measurement of the performance of its cancer care services and its results
    are comparable to any leading centers in developed countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Puspitasari Y, Annas S, Adza-Rina MN, Zamri-Saad M
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Jun;131:170-174.
    PMID: 30978429 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.04.012
    Pasteurella multocida B:2 is a Gram-negative organism causing haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) in buffaloes. It causes severe pulmonary infection, leading to infiltration of numerous macrophages and neutrophils. Despite the inflammatory response, buffaloes succumb to HS. This study aims to evaluate the in-vitro efficacy of macrophages and neutrophils of buffalo following exposure to P. multocida B:2. In-vitro infections were done using 107 cfu/ml of P. multocida B:2 for Group 1, Escherichia coli for Group 2 and Mannhaemia haemolytica A:2 for Group 3 cells. The inoculated cell cultures were harvested at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min post-exposure and the phagocytic, killing and cell death rates were determined. Both phagocytosis and killing rates of all bacteria increased over time. Phagocytosis involved between 71% and 73% neutrophils and between 60% and 64% macrophages at 120 min. Killing rate of all bacteria involved between 76% and 79% for neutrophils and between 70% and 74% for macrophages at 120 min. Death rate of neutrophils ranged between 67% in Group 3, and 88% in Group 1 at 120 min, significantly (p  0.05) than Group 2. Similar pattern was observed for death rate of macrophages. The phagocytosis and killing rates of P. multocida B:2 were similar to other bacterial species used in this study but more neutrophils and macrophages were dead following infection by P. multocida B:2 than M. haemolytica A:2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Alsalem MA, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri OS, Alamoodi AH, Albahri AS, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2019 Jun 01;43(7):212.
    PMID: 31154550 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1338-x
    This paper aims to assist the administration departments of medical organisations in making the right decision on selecting a suitable multiclass classification model for acute leukaemia. In this paper, we proposed a framework that will aid these departments in evaluating, benchmarking and ranking available multiclass classification models for the selection of the best one. Medical organisations have continuously faced evaluation and benchmarking challenges in such endeavour, especially when no single model is superior. Moreover, the improper selection of multiclass classification for acute leukaemia model may be costly for medical organisations. For example, when a patient dies, one such organisation will be legally or financially sued for incidents in which the model fails to fulfil its desired outcome. With regard to evaluation and benchmarking, multiclass classification models are challenging processes due to multiple evaluation and conflicting criteria. This study structured a decision matrix (DM) based on the crossover of 2 groups of multi-evaluation criteria and 22 multiclass classification models. The matrix was then evaluated with datasets comprising 72 samples of acute leukaemia, which include 5327 gens. Subsequently, multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques are used in the benchmarking and ranking of multiclass classification models. The MCDM used techniques that include the integrated BWM and VIKOR. BWM has been applied for the weight calculations of evaluation criteria, whereas VIKOR has been used to benchmark and rank classification models. VIKOR has also been employed in two decision-making contexts: individual and group decision making and internal and external group aggregation. Results showed the following: (1) the integration of BWM and VIKOR is effective at solving the benchmarking/selection problems of multiclass classification models. (2) The ranks of classification models obtained from internal and external VIKOR group decision making were almost the same, and the best multiclass classification model based on the two was 'Bayes. Naive Byes Updateable' and the worst one was 'Trees.LMT'. (3) Among the scores of groups in the objective validation, significant differences were identified, which indicated that the ranking results of internal and external VIKOR group decision making were valid.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Naeem J, Hamzaid NA, Islam MA, Azman AW, Bijak M
    Med Biol Eng Comput, 2019 Jun;57(6):1199-1211.
    PMID: 30687901 DOI: 10.1007/s11517-019-01949-4
    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) benefit from muscle training with functional electrical stimulation (FES). For safety reasons and to optimize training outcome, the fatigue state of the target muscle must be monitored. Detection of muscle fatigue from mel frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC) feature of mechanomyographic (MMG) signal using support vector machine (SVM) classifier is a promising new approach. Five individuals with SCI performed FES cycling exercises for 30 min. MMG signals were recorded on the quadriceps muscle group (rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM)) and categorized into non-fatigued and fatigued muscle contractions for the first and last 10 min of the cycling session. For each subject, a total of 1800 contraction-related MMG signals were used to train the SVM classifier and another 300 signals were used for testing. The average classification accuracy (4-fold) of non-fatigued and fatigued state was 90.7% using MFCC feature, 74.5% using root mean square (RMS), and 88.8% with combined MFCC and RMS features. Inter-subject prediction accuracy suggested training and testing data to be based on a particular subject or large collection of subjects to improve fatigue prediction capacity. Graphical abstract ᅟ.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Low END, Mokhtar NM, Wong Z, Raja Ali RA
    J Crohns Colitis, 2019 May 27;13(6):755-763.
    PMID: 30954025 DOI: 10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz002
    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with ulcerative colitis [UC] with long disease duration have a higher risk of developing colitis-associated cancer [CAC] compared with patients with short-duration UC. The aim of this study was to identify transcriptomic differences associated with the duration of UC disease.

    METHODS: We conducted transcriptome profiling on 32 colonic biopsies [11 long-duration UC, ≥20 years; and 21 short-duration UC, ≤5 years] using Affymetrix Human Transcriptome Array 2.0. Differentially expressed genes [fold change > 1.5, p < 0.05] and alternative splicing events [splicing index > 1.5, p < 0.05] were determined using the Transcriptome Analysis Console. KOBAS 3.0 and DAVID 6.8 were used for KEGG and GO analysis. Selected genes from microarray analysis were validated using qPCR.

    RESULTS: There were 640 differentially expressed genes between both groups. The top ten upregulated genes were HMGCS2, UGT2A3 isoforms, B4GALNT2, MEP1B, GUCA2B, ADH1C, OTOP2, SLC9A3, and LYPD8; the top ten downregulated genes were PI3, DUOX2, VNN1, SLC6A14, GREM1, MMP1, CXCL1, TNIP3, TFF1, and LCN2. Among the 123 altered KEGG pathways, the most significant were metabolic pathways; fatty acid degradation; valine, leucine, and isoleucine degradation; the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling pathway; and bile secretion, which were previously linked with CAC. Analysis showed that 3560 genes exhibited differential alternative splicing between long- and short-duration UC. Among them, 374 were differentially expressed, underscoring the intrinsic relationship between altered gene expression and alternative splicing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-duration UC patients have altered gene expressions, pathways, and alternative splicing events as compared with short-duration UC patients, and these could be further validated to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of CAC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  19. Colombo A, Chandrasekhar J, Aquino M, Ong TK, Sartori S, Baber U, et al.
    Int. J. Cardiol., 2019 05 15;283:67-72.
    PMID: 30826192 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.01.053
    BACKGROUND: The COMBO stent (OrbusNeich Medical, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida) is a new-generation bio-engineered drug eluting stent, combining an abluminal coating of a bioabsorbable polymer matrix for sustained release of sirolimus and luminal anti-CD34 coating for endothelial progenitor cell capture and rapid endothelialization.

    METHODS: The Multinational Abluminal Sirolimus Coated BiO-Engineered StenT (MASCOT) registry was a prospective post-marketing study conducted from June 2014-May 2017 across 60 centers globally. Patients were eligible if COMBO stent implantation was attempted, and they received dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) per local guidelines. Follow-up was conducted by trained research staff at 1, 6 and 12 months by phone or clinic visit to capture clinical events and DAPT cessation events. The primary endpoint was 1-year target lesion failure (TLF), composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction not clearly attributable to a non-target vessel, or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization.

    RESULTS: A total of 2614 patients were enrolled over the study period with 96.7% completion of 1-year follow-up. The mean age of enrolled patients was 62.9 ± 11.2 years and 23.0% were female. Diabetes mellitus was present at baseline in 33.5%. A total of 56.1% patients underwent PCI for acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The 1-year primary endpoint of TLF occurred in 3.4% patients (n = 88). Definite stent thrombosis occurred in 0.5% patients (n = 12).

    CONCLUSION: The MASCOT post marketing registry provides comprehensive safety and efficacy outcomes following contemporary PCI using the novel COMBO stent in an all-comer population. This platform is associated with low rates of 1-year TLF and ST. CLINICALTRIALS.

    GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02183454.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  20. Ganesan S, Vadivelu VM
    Chemosphere, 2019 May;223:668-674.
    PMID: 30802832 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.104
    Hydrazine is an intermediate product of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process where both ammonium and nitrite in wastewater are converted to nitrogen gas by bacteria. In this study the effect of external hydrazine addition (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L) on the start-up period of the Anammox process was studied using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The SBR with an addition of 10 mg/L hydrazine took only 7 weeks to stabilize and achieve the maximum removal of ammonium and nitrite, whereas the SBR without the addition of hydrazine took 12 weeks. The amount of Heme C extracted from the biomass indicated that externally added hydrazine accelerated the growth of Anammox bacteria and reduced the release of nitrous oxide gas from the reactors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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