OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) as first screening tool among non-risk newborns in a hospital with high delivery rate.
METHOD: A total of 722 non-risk newborns (1444 ears) were screened with both DPOAE and AABR prior to discharge within one month. Babies who failed AABR were rescreened with AABR ± diagnostic auditory brainstem response tests within one month of age.
RESULTS: The pass rate for AABR (67.9%) was higher than DPOAE (50.1%). Both DPOAE and AABR pass rates improved significantly with increasing age (p-value<0.001). The highest pass rate for both DPOAE and AABR were between the age of 36-48 h, 73.1% and 84.2% respectively. The mean testing time for AABR (13.54 min ± 7.47) was significantly longer than DPOAE (3.52 min ± 1.87), with a p-value of <0.001.
CONCLUSIONS: OAE test is faster and easier than AABR, but with higher false positive rate. The most ideal hearing screening protocol should be tailored according to different centre.
OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the suggested management of the delayed second twin delivery in the Sabah Maternity Hospital regarding its outcome, possible risks, and benefits.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven twin pregnancies with preterm labor (PTL) of the first fetus between 20-30 weeks, and delayed delivery of the second twin were included in this study. Studied women signed informed consent about the possible risks of keeping the live fetus in the hostile intrauterine environment, and benefits of the prolonged gestation for the second twin. Throughout the conservative treatment of the second twin, the studied women were hospitalized with regular follow up for infections, consumptive coagulopathy parameters, and wellbeing of the second twin.
RESULTS: There was significant difference in the gestational age at delivery between the first and second twin (22.6 ± 3.4 versus 34.3 ± 2.5 weeks; respectively, p = .01). There was significant difference in the birth weight between the first and second twin (435 ± 91.2 versus 1472 ± 61.5 g; respectively, p = .004). The rate of the cesarean delivery was significantly high during delivery of the second twin compared with the first twin (23.4% (11/47) versus 0% (0/47); respectively, p = .0001) with high survival rate for the second twin (85.1% (40/47)) after the delayed second twin delivery.
CONCLUSIONS: The birth weight, the gestational age, and the survival rate of the studied second twin significantly increased after the suggested management of the delayed second twin delivery.
METHODS: C. elegans was aliquoted onto the center of assay plates and allowed to migrate towards sepsis (T) or control (C) urine samples spotted on the same plate. The number of worms found in either (T) or (C) was scored at 10-minute intervals over a 60-minute period.
RESULTS: The worms were able to identify the urine (<48 hours) of sepsis patients rapidly within 20 minutes (AUROC=0.67, p=0.012) and infection within 40 minutes (AUROC=0.80, p=0.016).
CONCLUSIONS: CESDA could be further explored for sepsis diagnosis.
METHODS: A total of 71 eligible subjects aged 50 to 55 years from Gombak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo (n=23), α-tocopherol (n=24) or tocotrienol-rich fraction (n=24). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months of supplementation for microarray analysis.
RESULTS: The number of genes altered by α-tocopherol was higher after 6 months (1,410) than after 3 months (273) of supplementation. α-Tocopherol altered the expression of more genes in males (952) than in females (731). Similarly, tocotrienol-rich fraction modulated the expression of more genes after 6 months (1,084) than after 3 months (596) and affected more genes in males (899) than in females (781). α-Tocopherol supplementation modulated pathways involving the response to stress and stimuli, the immune response, the response to hypoxia and bacteria, the metabolism of toxins and xenobiotics, mitosis, and synaptic transmission as well as activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase and complement pathways after 6 months. However, tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation affected pathways such as the signal transduction, apoptosis, nuclear factor kappa B kinase, cascade extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2, immune response, response to drug, cell adhesion, multicellular organismal development and G protein signaling pathways.
CONCLUSION: Supplementation with either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction affected the immune and drug response and the cell adhesion and signal transduction pathways but modulated other pathways differently after 6 months of supplementation, with sex-specific responses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root discs (2 mm thickness) were cut apical to CEJ and sectioned into quadrants. HIFU setup with bowl-shaped piezo ceramic transducer submerged in a water tank was used for exposure on each specimen for 15 s, 30 s or 60 s. The specimens of the control group were left without any HIFU exposure. HIFU was generated with a continuous sinusoidal wave of 120Vpp amplitude, 250 KHZ resonance-frequency and highest ultrasonic pressure of ∼10 bar at the focus. Specimens for SEM were viewed, and micro-topography characterization performed, using AFM and Ra parameter and surface area (SA) calculated by specialized SPM surface analysis software. For nano-indentation testing, experiments were carried out using AFM. Macrophage cell isolation and culturing was performed on cementum to receive the HIFU treatment at different time periods. Raman spectroscopy were scanned to create spectra perpendicular to the cementum substrate to analyze generation of standard spectra for Raman intensity ratio of hydroxyapatite normalized to the peaks ν1 960 cm-1. Data was expressed as means ± standard deviations and analyzed by one-way ANOVA in term of Ra, SA, H and Er. Different points for fluorescence intensity ratio were analyzed by Raman using Wilcoxon rank sum test.
RESULTS: HIFU exposure at 60 s removed the smear layer and most of cementum appeared smoothened. AFM characterisation, showed a slight decrease in the irregularity of the surface as exposure time increased. Intact macrophages can be identified in control and all experimental HIFU groups. The level of fluorescence for the control and HIFU 15 and 30 s were low as compared to HIFU 60 s.
CONCLUSION: If HIFU can be successfully implemented, it may be a possible alternative to current methods used in periodontal therapy to achieve smooth root surfaces.
METHODS: We did a retrospective observational cohort study. We included consecutive people with ACS who were discharged from Scottish hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 and who received DAPT after discharge followed by antiplatelet monotherapy. The rates of cardiovascular events were assessed during each 90-day period of DAPT treatment and 90-day period after stopping DAPT. Cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of death, ACS, transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of cardiovascular events following DAPT cessation.
RESULTS: 1340 patients were included (62% male, mean age 64.9 (13.0) years). Cardiovascular events occurred in 15.7% (n=211) during the DAPT period (mean DAPT duration 175.1 (155.3) days) and in 16.7% (n=188) following DAPT cessation (mean of 2.7 years follow-up). Independent predictors for a cardiovascular event following DAPT cessation were age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08; p<0.001), DAPT duration (HR 0.997; 95% CI 0.995 to 0.998; p<0.001) and having revascularisation therapy during the index admission (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.85; p=0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cardiovascular events was not significantly increased in the early period post-DAPT cessation compared with later periods in this ACS population. Increasing age, DAPT duration and lack of revascularisation therapy were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up after DAPT cessation.
METHODS: Relevant articles written in English only, before January 15, 2017, were identified using an electronic search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Furthermore, a manual search of the related major journals was also conducted to identify more pertinent articles. The relevancy of the articles was verified by screening the title, abstract, and full text if they met the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 articles satisfied the criteria, from which data were extracted for qualitative synthesis.
RESULTS: Among the 37 included articles, 14 were without aging, 15 were natural or artificial accelerated aging, 7 were outdoor weathering, and 1 contained both artificial aging and outdoor weathering. Only 4 studies out of the 14 without aging had significant observations; whereas 9 articles with natural or artificial aging published significant results, and 3 out of 7 outdoor weathering articles showed significant changes in the evaluated silicone elastomers.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the varying research, it seems that the single "ideal" maxillofacial prosthetic material that can provide sufficient resistance against different aging conditions is yet to be identified. Therefore, it is imperative for standardization organizations, the scientific community, and academia to develop modified prosthetic silicones possessing improved physical properties and color stability, limiting the clinical problems regarding degradation of maxillofacial prostheses.
OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the antibacterial properties of 18 medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in day-to-day practice against human pathogenic bacteria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaves, bark, fruits, seeds, roots and rhizomes from collected plants were successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The corresponding 54 extracts were tested against six human pathogenic bacteria by broth microdilution assay. The antibacterial mode of actions of phytoconstituents and their synergistic effect with vancomycin and cefotaxime towards MRSA was determined by time-killing assay and synergistic interaction assay, respectively.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Hexane extract of bark of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl. (Lauraceae) inhibited the growth of MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values below 100 µg/mL. From this plant, cinnamaldehyde evoked at 4 × MIC in 1 h an irreversible decrease of MRSA count Log10 (CFU/mL) from 6 to 0, and was synergistic with vancomycin for MRSA with fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that the medicinal plants in Bangladesh have high potential to improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infection.
METHODS: Eight male subjects shaved their heads prior to expose to dry (30%RH; H30%) and humid (85%RH; H85%) conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C. Total sweat rate, local sweat rates (frontal, vertex, temporal, and occipital regions), active sweat glands on the scalp (2 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, and 1 vertex), and rectal and skin temperatures were measured during leg immersion in 42 °C water for 60 min.
RESULTS: (1) Total sweat rates were greater for H30% (179.4 ± 35.6 g h-1) than for H85% (148.1 ± 27.2 g h-1) (P