Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1447 in total

  1. Ngui LX, Tang IP, Prepageran N, Lai ZW
    Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol., 2019 May;120:184-188.
    PMID: 30844634 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.02.045
    INTRODUCTION: Congenital hearing loss is one of the commonest congenital anomalies. Neonatal hearing screening aims to detect congenital hearing loss early and provide prompt intervention for better speech and language development. The two recommended methods for neonatal hearing screening are otoacoustic emission (OAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR).

    OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) as first screening tool among non-risk newborns in a hospital with high delivery rate.

    METHOD: A total of 722 non-risk newborns (1444 ears) were screened with both DPOAE and AABR prior to discharge within one month. Babies who failed AABR were rescreened with AABR ± diagnostic auditory brainstem response tests within one month of age.

    RESULTS: The pass rate for AABR (67.9%) was higher than DPOAE (50.1%). Both DPOAE and AABR pass rates improved significantly with increasing age (p-value<0.001). The highest pass rate for both DPOAE and AABR were between the age of 36-48 h, 73.1% and 84.2% respectively. The mean testing time for AABR (13.54 min ± 7.47) was significantly longer than DPOAE (3.52 min ± 1.87), with a p-value of <0.001.

    CONCLUSIONS: OAE test is faster and easier than AABR, but with higher false positive rate. The most ideal hearing screening protocol should be tailored according to different centre.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Ganesan S, Vadivelu VM
    Chemosphere, 2019 May;223:668-674.
    PMID: 30802832 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.104
    Hydrazine is an intermediate product of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process where both ammonium and nitrite in wastewater are converted to nitrogen gas by bacteria. In this study the effect of external hydrazine addition (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L) on the start-up period of the Anammox process was studied using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The SBR with an addition of 10 mg/L hydrazine took only 7 weeks to stabilize and achieve the maximum removal of ammonium and nitrite, whereas the SBR without the addition of hydrazine took 12 weeks. The amount of Heme C extracted from the biomass indicated that externally added hydrazine accelerated the growth of Anammox bacteria and reduced the release of nitrous oxide gas from the reactors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Farghali M, Abdelazim I, Abdelrazek K
    J. Matern. Fetal. Neonatal. Med., 2019 May;32(10):1626-1632.
    PMID: 29198155 DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1413547
    BACKGROUND: An increasing number of reports describe the delayed second twin delivery for days, or weeks with good results in the majority of the cases, and different survival rate between centers, without reported randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

    OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the suggested management of the delayed second twin delivery in the Sabah Maternity Hospital regarding its outcome, possible risks, and benefits.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-seven twin pregnancies with preterm labor (PTL) of the first fetus between 20-30 weeks, and delayed delivery of the second twin were included in this study. Studied women signed informed consent about the possible risks of keeping the live fetus in the hostile intrauterine environment, and benefits of the prolonged gestation for the second twin. Throughout the conservative treatment of the second twin, the studied women were hospitalized with regular follow up for infections, consumptive coagulopathy parameters, and wellbeing of the second twin.

    RESULTS: There was significant difference in the gestational age at delivery between the first and second twin (22.6 ± 3.4 versus 34.3 ± 2.5 weeks; respectively, p = .01). There was significant difference in the birth weight between the first and second twin (435 ± 91.2 versus 1472 ± 61.5 g; respectively, p = .004). The rate of the cesarean delivery was significantly high during delivery of the second twin compared with the first twin (23.4% (11/47) versus 0% (0/47); respectively, p = .0001) with high survival rate for the second twin (85.1% (40/47)) after the delayed second twin delivery.

    CONCLUSIONS: The birth weight, the gestational age, and the survival rate of the studied second twin significantly increased after the suggested management of the delayed second twin delivery.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Hussein EA, Hair-Bejo M, Omar AR, Arshad SS, Hani H, Balakrishnan KN, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Apr;129:213-223.
    PMID: 30771470 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.02.017
    Limited deep studies are available in the field of early stages of pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection and tissue tropism of NDV. In this study, 24 specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens of white leghorn breed were infected with Newcastle disease (ND) by intranasal administration of 10⁵ 50% EID50/0.1 mL of velogenic NDV (vNDV). A second group of 15 chickens were kept as a control group. Chickens were monitored every day to record clinical signs. Infected chickens were euthanized by cervical dislocation at successive times, namely at hours (hrs) 2, 4, 6, 12, days 1, 2, 4, and 6 post-inoculation (pi). Whereas, control group chickens were euthanized on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 pi. Tissues of brain, trachea, lung, caecal tonsil, liver, kidney, spleen, heart, proventriculus, intestine, and thymus were collected, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. HS staining, immunoperoxidase staining (IPS) and in situ PCR were applied. It was concluded that at hr 2 pi, virus seemed to be inclined to trachea and respiratory tract. Meanwhile, it attacked caecal tonsils, intestine and bursa of Fabricus. While primary viraemia was ongoing, virus created footing in kidney and thymus. At hr 4 pi, proventriculus, liver, and spleen were attacked. However, at hr 6 pi, brain and heart were involved. Secondary viraemia probably started as early as hr 12 pi since all collected tissues were positive. Tissue tropism was determined in trachea, caecal tonsil, liver, bursa of Fabricius, intestine, proventriculus, lung, spleen, thymus, kidney, heart, and brain.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Hussein EA, Hair-Bejo M, Liew PS, Adamu L, Omar AR, Arshad SS, et al.
    Microb. Pathog., 2019 Apr;129:195-205.
    PMID: 30738178 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.01.049
    Infectious bursal disease is one of an OIE list of notifiable diseases. Chicken is the only host that manifests clinical signs and its pathogenicity is correlated with the distribution of antigens in organs. This study was conducted to determine disease pathogenesis and virus tissue tropism by in situ PCR, immunoperoxidase staining (IPS), and HE staining. Twenty four chickens were infected with very virulent Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (vvIBDV). Fifteen chickens were kept as a control group. Infected chickens were sacrificed at hrs 2, 4, 6, 12, days 1, 2, 4, and 6 post-inoculation (pi). While, control chickens were euthanized on days 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 pi. Different tissues were collected, fixed in 10% buffered formalin, and processed. At hr 2 pi, virus was detected in intestinal, junction of the proventriculus and gizzard, cecal tonsil, liver, kidney, and bursa of Fabricius. At hr 4 pi, virus reached spleen, and at hr 6 pi, it entered thymus. At hr 12 pi, virus concentration increased in positive tissues. The latest invaded tissue was muscle on day 1 pi. Secondary viraemia occurred during 12-24 h pi. In situ PCR was the most sensitive technique to highlight obscure points of infection in this study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Tee LF, Tan TL, Neoh HM, Jamal R
    Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop., 2019 Mar 14;52:e20180300.
    PMID: 30892548 DOI: 10.1590/0037-8682-0300-2018
    INTRODUCTION: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was used as a biological sensor to detect the urine of sepsis patients (CESDA assay).

    METHODS: C. elegans was aliquoted onto the center of assay plates and allowed to migrate towards sepsis (T) or control (C) urine samples spotted on the same plate. The number of worms found in either (T) or (C) was scored at 10-minute intervals over a 60-minute period.

    RESULTS: The worms were able to identify the urine (<48 hours) of sepsis patients rapidly within 20 minutes (AUROC=0.67, p=0.012) and infection within 40 minutes (AUROC=0.80, p=0.016).

    CONCLUSIONS: CESDA could be further explored for sepsis diagnosis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Ghani SMA, Goon JA, Azman NHEN, Zakaria SNA, Hamid Z, Ngah WZW
    Clinics (Sao Paulo), 2019 03 07;74:e688.
    PMID: 30864639 DOI: 10.6061/clinics/2019/e688
    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to compare the differential gene expression resulting from tocotrienol-rich fraction and α-tocopherol supplementation in healthy older adults.

    METHODS: A total of 71 eligible subjects aged 50 to 55 years from Gombak and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were divided into three groups and supplemented with placebo (n=23), α-tocopherol (n=24) or tocotrienol-rich fraction (n=24). Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 3 and 6 months of supplementation for microarray analysis.

    RESULTS: The number of genes altered by α-tocopherol was higher after 6 months (1,410) than after 3 months (273) of supplementation. α-Tocopherol altered the expression of more genes in males (952) than in females (731). Similarly, tocotrienol-rich fraction modulated the expression of more genes after 6 months (1,084) than after 3 months (596) and affected more genes in males (899) than in females (781). α-Tocopherol supplementation modulated pathways involving the response to stress and stimuli, the immune response, the response to hypoxia and bacteria, the metabolism of toxins and xenobiotics, mitosis, and synaptic transmission as well as activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase and complement pathways after 6 months. However, tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation affected pathways such as the signal transduction, apoptosis, nuclear factor kappa B kinase, cascade extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-2, immune response, response to drug, cell adhesion, multicellular organismal development and G protein signaling pathways.

    CONCLUSION: Supplementation with either α-tocopherol or tocotrienol-rich fraction affected the immune and drug response and the cell adhesion and signal transduction pathways but modulated other pathways differently after 6 months of supplementation, with sex-specific responses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Ho AFW, Hao Y, Pek PP, Shahidah N, Yap S, Ng YY, et al.
    Medicine (Baltimore), 2019 Mar;98(10):e14611.
    PMID: 30855446 DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014611
    Studies are divided on the effect of day-night temporal differences on clinical outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). This study aimed to elucidate any differences in OHCA survival between day and night occurrence, and the factors associated with differences in survival.This was a prospective, observational study of OHCA cases across multinational Pan-Asian sites. Cases were divided according to time call received by dispatch centers into day (0700H-1900H) and night (1900H-0659H). Primary outcome was 30-day survival. Secondary outcomes were prehospital and hospital modifiable resuscitative characteristics.About 22,501 out of 55,881 cases occurred at night. Night cases were less likely to be witnessed (40.2% vs. 43.1%, P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Daood U, Fawzy AS
    Arch. Oral Biol., 2019 Feb;98:195-203.
    PMID: 30502562 DOI: 10.1016/j.archoralbio.2018.10.019
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of HIFU on macrophage phenotype, surface micro-topography and nano-scale surface mechanical properties of dental cementum.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Root discs (2 mm thickness) were cut apical to CEJ and sectioned into quadrants. HIFU setup with bowl-shaped piezo ceramic transducer submerged in a water tank was used for exposure on each specimen for 15 s, 30 s or 60 s. The specimens of the control group were left without any HIFU exposure. HIFU was generated with a continuous sinusoidal wave of 120Vpp amplitude, 250 KHZ resonance-frequency and highest ultrasonic pressure of ∼10 bar at the focus. Specimens for SEM were viewed, and micro-topography characterization performed, using AFM and Ra parameter and surface area (SA) calculated by specialized SPM surface analysis software. For nano-indentation testing, experiments were carried out using AFM. Macrophage cell isolation and culturing was performed on cementum to receive the HIFU treatment at different time periods. Raman spectroscopy were scanned to create spectra perpendicular to the cementum substrate to analyze generation of standard spectra for Raman intensity ratio of hydroxyapatite normalized to the peaks ν1 960 cm-1. Data was expressed as means ± standard deviations and analyzed by one-way ANOVA in term of Ra, SA, H and Er. Different points for fluorescence intensity ratio were analyzed by Raman using Wilcoxon rank sum test.

    RESULTS: HIFU exposure at 60 s removed the smear layer and most of cementum appeared smoothened. AFM characterisation, showed a slight decrease in the irregularity of the surface as exposure time increased. Intact macrophages can be identified in control and all experimental HIFU groups. The level of fluorescence for the control and HIFU 15 and 30 s were low as compared to HIFU 60 s.

    CONCLUSION: If HIFU can be successfully implemented, it may be a possible alternative to current methods used in periodontal therapy to achieve smooth root surfaces.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Talal M, Zaidan AA, Zaidan BB, Albahri AS, Alamoodi AH, Albahri OS, et al.
    J Med Syst, 2019 Jan 15;43(3):42.
    PMID: 30648217 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-019-1158-z
    The Internet of Things (IoT) has been identified in various applications across different domains, such as in the healthcare sector. IoT has also been recognised for its revolution in reshaping modern healthcare with aspiring wide range prospects, including economical, technological and social. This study aims to establish IoT-based smart home security solutions for real-time health monitoring technologies in telemedicine architecture. A multilayer taxonomy is driven and conducted in this study. In the first layer, a comprehensive analysis on telemedicine, which focuses on the client and server sides, shows that other studies associated with IoT-based smart home applications have several limitations that remain unaddressed. Particularly, remote patient monitoring in healthcare applications presents various facilities and benefits by adopting IoT-based smart home technologies without compromising the security requirements and potentially large number of risks. An extensive search is conducted to identify articles that handle these issues, related applications are comprehensively reviewed and a coherent taxonomy for these articles is established. A total number of (n = 3064) are gathered between 2007 and 2017 for most reliable databases, such as ScienceDirect, Web of Science and Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineer Xplore databases. Then, the articles based on IoT studies that are associated with telemedicine applications are filtered. Nine articles are selected and classified into two categories. The first category, which accounts for 22.22% (n = 2/9), includes surveys on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, which accounts for 77.78% (n = 7/9), includes articles on the client and server sides of telemedicine architecture. The collected studies reveal the essential requirement in constructing another taxonomy layer and review IoT-based smart home security studies. Therefore, IoT-based smart home security features are introduced and analysed in the second layer. The security of smart home design based on IoT applications is an aspect that represents a crucial matter for general occupants of smart homes, in which studies are required to provide a better solution with patient security, privacy protection and security of users' entities from being stolen or compromised. Innovative technologies have dispersed limitations related to this matter. The existing gaps and trends in this area should be investigated to provide valuable visions for technical environments and researchers. Thus, 67 articles are obtained in the second layer of our taxonomy and are classified into six categories. In the first category, 25.37% (n = 17/67) of the articles focus on architecture design. In the second category, 17.91% (n = 12/67) includes security analysis articles that investigate the research status in the security area of IoT-based smart home applications. In the third category, 10.44% (n = 7/67) includes articles about security schemes. In the fourth category, 17.91% (n = 12/67) comprises security examination. In the fifth category, 13.43% (n = 9/67) analyses security protocols. In the final category, 14.92% (n = 10/67) analyses the security framework. Then, the identified basic characteristics of this emerging field are presented and provided in the following aspects. Open challenges experienced on the development of IoT-based smart home security are addressed to be adopted fully in telemedicine applications. Then, the requirements are provided to increase researcher's interest in this study area. On this basis, a number of recommendations for different parties are described to provide insights on the next steps that should be considered to enhance the security of smart homes based on IoT. A map matching for both taxonomies is developed in this study to determine the novel risks and benefits of IoT-based smart home security for real-time remote health monitoring within client and server sides in telemedicine applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Shuwandy ML, Zaidan BB, Zaidan AA, Albahri AS
    J Med Syst, 2019 Jan 06;43(2):33.
    PMID: 30612191 DOI: 10.1007/s10916-018-1149-5
    The new and groundbreaking real-time remote healthcare monitoring system on sensor-based mobile health (mHealth) authentication in telemedicine has considerably bounded and dispersed communication components. mHealth, an attractive part in telemedicine architecture, plays an imperative role in patient security and privacy and adapts different sensing technologies through many built-in sensors. This study aims to improve sensor-based defence and attack mechanisms to ensure patient privacy in client side when using mHealth. Thus, a multilayer taxonomy was conducted to attain the goal of this study. Within the first layer, real-time remote monitoring studies based on sensor technology for telemedicine application were reviewed and analysed to examine these technologies and provide researchers with a clear vision of security- and privacy-based sensors in the telemedicine area. An extensive search was conducted to find articles about security and privacy issues, review related applications comprehensively and establish the coherent taxonomy of these articles. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases were investigated for articles on mHealth in telemedicine-based sensor. A total of 3064 papers were collected from 2007 to 2017. The retrieved articles were filtered according to the security and privacy of sensor-based telemedicine applications. A total of 19 articles were selected and classified into two categories. The first category, 57.89% (n = 11/19), included survey on telemedicine articles and their applications. The second category, 42.1% (n = 8/19), included articles contributed to the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. The collected studies improved the essential need to add another taxonomy layer and review the sensor-based smartphone authentication studies. This map matching for both taxonomies was developed for this study to investigate sensor field comprehensively and gain access to novel risks and benefits of the mHealth security in telemedicine application. The literature on sensor-based smartphones in the second layer of our taxonomy was analysed and reviewed. A total of 599 papers were collected from 2007 to 2017. In this layer, we obtained a final set of 81 articles classified into three categories. The first category of the articles [86.41% (n = 70/81)], where sensor-based smartphones were examined by utilising orientation sensors for user authentication, was used. The second category [7.40% (n = 6/81)] included attack articles, which were not intensively included in our literature analysis. The third category [8.64% (n = 7/81)] included 'other' articles. Factors were considered to understand fully the various contextual aspects of the field in published studies. The characteristics included the motivation and challenges related to sensor-based authentication of smartphones encountered by researchers and the recommendations to strengthen this critical area of research. Finally, many studies on the sensor-based smartphone in the second layer have focused on enhancing accurate authentication because sensor-based smartphones require sensors that could authentically secure mHealth.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Mazlan-Kepli W, Dawson J, Berry C, Walters M
    Heart, 2019 01;105(1):67-74.
    PMID: 30030335 DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2018-313148
    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether cardiovascular events are increased after cessation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and to explore predictors for recurrent events after DAPT cessation during long-term follow-up.

    METHODS: We did a retrospective observational cohort study. We included consecutive people with ACS who were discharged from Scottish hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 and who received DAPT after discharge followed by antiplatelet monotherapy. The rates of cardiovascular events were assessed during each 90-day period of DAPT treatment and 90-day period after stopping DAPT. Cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of death, ACS, transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of cardiovascular events following DAPT cessation.

    RESULTS: 1340 patients were included (62% male, mean age 64.9 (13.0) years). Cardiovascular events occurred in 15.7% (n=211) during the DAPT period (mean DAPT duration 175.1 (155.3) days) and in 16.7% (n=188) following DAPT cessation (mean of 2.7 years follow-up). Independent predictors for a cardiovascular event following DAPT cessation were age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08; p<0.001), DAPT duration (HR 0.997; 95% CI 0.995 to 0.998; p<0.001) and having revascularisation therapy during the index admission (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.85; p=0.005).

    CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cardiovascular events was not significantly increased in the early period post-DAPT cessation compared with later periods in this ACS population. Increasing age, DAPT duration and lack of revascularisation therapy were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up after DAPT cessation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Rahman AM, Jamayet NB, Nizami MMUI, Johari Y, Husein A, Alam MK
    J Prosthodont, 2019 Jan;28(1):36-48.
    PMID: 30043482 DOI: 10.1111/jopr.12950
    PURPOSE: This systematic review aims to identify and interpret results of studies that evaluated the changes in the physical properties of maxillofacial prosthetic materials (1) without aging, (2) after natural or artificial accelerated aging, and (3) after outdoor weathering.

    METHODS: Relevant articles written in English only, before January 15, 2017, were identified using an electronic search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Furthermore, a manual search of the related major journals was also conducted to identify more pertinent articles. The relevancy of the articles was verified by screening the title, abstract, and full text if they met the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 articles satisfied the criteria, from which data were extracted for qualitative synthesis.

    RESULTS: Among the 37 included articles, 14 were without aging, 15 were natural or artificial accelerated aging, 7 were outdoor weathering, and 1 contained both artificial aging and outdoor weathering. Only 4 studies out of the 14 without aging had significant observations; whereas 9 articles with natural or artificial aging published significant results, and 3 out of 7 outdoor weathering articles showed significant changes in the evaluated silicone elastomers.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the varying research, it seems that the single "ideal" maxillofacial prosthetic material that can provide sufficient resistance against different aging conditions is yet to be identified. Therefore, it is imperative for standardization organizations, the scientific community, and academia to develop modified prosthetic silicones possessing improved physical properties and color stability, limiting the clinical problems regarding degradation of maxillofacial prostheses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Tin TC, Chiew KL, Phang SC, Sze SN, Tan PS
    Comput Intell Neurosci, 2019;2019:8729367.
    PMID: 30719036 DOI: 10.1155/2019/8729367
    Preventive maintenance activities require a tool to be offline for long hour in order to perform the prescribed maintenance activities. Although preventive maintenance is crucial to ensure operational reliability and efficiency of the tool, long hour of preventive maintenance activities increases the cycle time of the semiconductor fabrication foundry (Fab). Therefore, this activity is usually performed when the incoming Work-in-Progress to the equipment is forecasted to be low. The current statistical forecasting approach has low accuracy because it lacks the ability to capture the time-dependent behavior of the Work-in-Progress. In this paper, we present a forecasting model that utilizes machine learning method to forecast the incoming Work-In-Progress. Specifically, our proposed model uses LSTM to forecast multistep ahead incoming Work-in-Progress prediction to an equipment group. The proposed model's prediction results were compared with the results of the current statistical forecasting method of the Fab. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed model performed better than the statistical forecasting method in both hit rate and Pearson's correlation coefficient, r.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Cader RA, Mei Yee AK, Yassin A, Ahmad I, Haron SN
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2018 Dec 25;19(12):3551-3555.
    PMID: 30583682
    Background: Malignancies are among the leading causes of death in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
    patients with studies reporting a higher prevalence of malignancy in SLE patients compared to the general population.
    We wanted to determine the frequency of cancer in a cohort of SLE patients and identify its associated risk factors.
    Methods: Cross-sectional study involving SLE patients attending the nephrology outpatient clinic, Universiti
    Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre between January and June 2014. Results: We recruited 228 patients (207 female,
    21 male), aged 40.48 ± 12.86 years with mean SLE duration of 11.65 ± 6.46 years. Majority (87%) had lupus nephritis
    and were in remission with a median SLEDAI score 2 (0, 14). Majority (89%) were on corticosteroid with either a
    steroid sparing agent like mycophenolate mofetil (15.4%), azathioprine (36.8%) or ciclosporin (15.4%). One hundred
    and sixty (70.2%) patients were either receiving or had received intravenous cyclophosphamide with median dose
    of 5,173.6 ± 3,242.4 mg. Seven female patients were diagnosed with cancer during the course of their SLE with 56
    (34-78) years being median age at malignancy and SLE duration of 4 (0-12) years. Majority (5/7) had lupus nephritis
    and all patients a median dose of prednisolone 10 (2.5, 10) mg with 10 (4-24) years of steroids. Two patients had a
    family history of cancer with majority developing cancer after the diagnosis of SLE. Two patients received intravenous
    cyclophosphamide prior to the development of cancer for their SLE compared to overall cohort of 160. Three patients
    had colorectal cancer, 2 had cervical cancer, 1 had breast cancer, and one patient had germ cell tumour and one thyroid
    cancer. All patients had their cancer successful treated with no signs of recurrence. Conclusion: We found a lower
    occurrence of cancer in our SLE patients as compared with the reported literature.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Hossan MS, Jindal H, Maisha S, Samudi Raju C, Devi Sekaran S, Nissapatorn V, et al.
    Pharm Biol, 2018 Dec;56(1):201-208.
    PMID: 29529970 DOI: 10.1080/13880209.2018.1446030
    CONTEXT: The resistance of bacteria to antibiotics is raising serious concern globally. Asian medicinal plants could improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infections. The antibacterial properties of medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in Bangladesh have not been investigated.

    OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the antibacterial properties of 18 medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in day-to-day practice against human pathogenic bacteria.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaves, bark, fruits, seeds, roots and rhizomes from collected plants were successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The corresponding 54 extracts were tested against six human pathogenic bacteria by broth microdilution assay. The antibacterial mode of actions of phytoconstituents and their synergistic effect with vancomycin and cefotaxime towards MRSA was determined by time-killing assay and synergistic interaction assay, respectively.

    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Hexane extract of bark of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl. (Lauraceae) inhibited the growth of MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values below 100 µg/mL. From this plant, cinnamaldehyde evoked at 4 × MIC in 1 h an irreversible decrease of MRSA count Log10 (CFU/mL) from 6 to 0, and was synergistic with vancomycin for MRSA with fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.3.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that the medicinal plants in Bangladesh have high potential to improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Jung D, Kim YB, Lee JB, Muhamed AMC, Lee JY
    Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 2018 Dec;118(12):2655-2667.
    PMID: 30209544 DOI: 10.1007/s00421-018-3988-7
    PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of humidity on regional sweating secretion and active sweat gland density on the scalp during passive heating in hot environments.

    METHODS: Eight male subjects shaved their heads prior to expose to dry (30%RH; H30%) and humid (85%RH; H85%) conditions at an air temperature of 32 °C. Total sweat rate, local sweat rates (frontal, vertex, temporal, and occipital regions), active sweat glands on the scalp (2 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 occipital, and 1 vertex), and rectal and skin temperatures were measured during leg immersion in 42 °C water for 60 min.

    RESULTS: (1) Total sweat rates were greater for H30% (179.4 ± 35.6 g h-1) than for H85% (148.1 ± 27.2 g h-1) (P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Tan CSY, Fong AYY, Jong YH, Ong TK
    Glob Heart, 2018 12;13(4):241-244.
    PMID: 30213574 DOI: 10.1016/j.gheart.2018.08.003
    BACKGROUND: Warfarin is an anticoagulant indicated for patients who had undergone mechanical heart valve(s) replacement (MHVR). In these patients, time in therapeutic range (TTR) is important in predicting the bleeding and thrombotic risks.
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the anticoagulation control of warfarin using TTR in patients with MHVR in a tertiary health care referral Center.
    METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively by reviewing clinical notes of outpatients who attended international normalized ratio (INR) clinics in November 2015. Patients who had MHVR and who took warfarin were included. The data collected were demographics, relevant laboratory investigations, and patients' prior medical history. TTR was calculated using Rosendaal and traditional methods.
    RESULTS: A total of 103 patients with MHVR were recruited. The mean age was 51.72 ± 13.97 years and 46.6% were male. A total of 54.4% had mitral valve replacement (MVR), whereas 26.2% had aortic valve replacement (AVR). The mean TTR calculated using the Rosendaal method was 57.1%. There was no significant difference among patients with AVR, MVR, and both valves (AMVR) in terms of TTR (AVR vs. MVR vs. AMVR, 62.94 ± 23.08, 54.12 ± 21.62, 57.63 ± 17.47; p = 0.213). The average dose of warfarin for all groups was approximately 3 mg/day. Moreover, MVR, AVR, and AMVR patients who had TTR (Rosendaal method) ≤60% were 58.9%, 37.0%, and 45.0%, respectively. Only 4.8% had minor bleeding, whereas none had stroke in the period of TTR determination.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite a majority of patients having <60% TTR, there were low incidences of bleeding and stroke events in this center. There were no factors found to be associated with INR control in this study.
    Study site: INR clinic, Sarawak Heart Centre, Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  19. Pakalapati H, Arumugasamy SK, Jewaratnam J, Wong YJ, Khalid M
    Biopolymers, 2018 Dec;109(12):e23240.
    PMID: 30489632 DOI: 10.1002/bip.23240
    A statistical approach with D-optimal design was used to optimize the process parameters for polycaprolactone (PCL) synthesis. The variables selected were temperature (50°C-110°C), time (1-7 h), mixing speed (50-500 rpm) and monomer/solvent ratio (1:1-1:6). Molecular weight was chosen as response and was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI TOF). Using the D-optimal method in design of experiments, the interactions between parameters and responses were analysed and validated. The results show a good agreement with a minimum error between the actual and predicted values.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  20. Narayanan SN, Kumar RS
    Acta. Biol. Hung., 2018 Dec;69(4):371-384.
    PMID: 30587025 DOI: 10.1556/018.69.2018.4.1
    In the behavioral science field, many of the oldest tests have still most frequently been used almost in the same way for decades. The subjective influence of human observer and the large inter-observer and interlab differences are substantial among these tests. This necessitates the possibility of using technological innovations for behavioral science to obtain new parameters, results and insights as well. The light-dark box (LDB) test is a characteristic tool used to assess anxiety in rodents. A complete behavioral analysis (including both anxiety and locomotion parameters) is not possible by performing traditional LDB test protocol, as it lacks the usage of a real-time video recording of the test. In the current report, we describe an improved approach to conduct LDB test using a real-time video tracking system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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