METHODS: C. elegans was aliquoted onto the center of assay plates and allowed to migrate towards sepsis (T) or control (C) urine samples spotted on the same plate. The number of worms found in either (T) or (C) was scored at 10-minute intervals over a 60-minute period.
RESULTS: The worms were able to identify the urine (<48 hours) of sepsis patients rapidly within 20 minutes (AUROC=0.67, p=0.012) and infection within 40 minutes (AUROC=0.80, p=0.016).
CONCLUSIONS: CESDA could be further explored for sepsis diagnosis.
METHODS: We did a retrospective observational cohort study. We included consecutive people with ACS who were discharged from Scottish hospitals between January 2008 and December 2013 and who received DAPT after discharge followed by antiplatelet monotherapy. The rates of cardiovascular events were assessed during each 90-day period of DAPT treatment and 90-day period after stopping DAPT. Cardiovascular events were defined as a composite of death, ACS, transient ischaemic attack or stroke. Cox regression was used to identify predictors of cardiovascular events following DAPT cessation.
RESULTS: 1340 patients were included (62% male, mean age 64.9 (13.0) years). Cardiovascular events occurred in 15.7% (n=211) during the DAPT period (mean DAPT duration 175.1 (155.3) days) and in 16.7% (n=188) following DAPT cessation (mean of 2.7 years follow-up). Independent predictors for a cardiovascular event following DAPT cessation were age (HR 1.07; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08; p<0.001), DAPT duration (HR 0.997; 95% CI 0.995 to 0.998; p<0.001) and having revascularisation therapy during the index admission (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.39 to 0.85; p=0.005).
CONCLUSIONS: The rate of cardiovascular events was not significantly increased in the early period post-DAPT cessation compared with later periods in this ACS population. Increasing age, DAPT duration and lack of revascularisation therapy were associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events during long-term follow-up after DAPT cessation.
OBJECTIVE: The present study examines the antibacterial properties of 18 medicinal plants used by the Khyang tribe in day-to-day practice against human pathogenic bacteria.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Leaves, bark, fruits, seeds, roots and rhizomes from collected plants were successively extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol. The corresponding 54 extracts were tested against six human pathogenic bacteria by broth microdilution assay. The antibacterial mode of actions of phytoconstituents and their synergistic effect with vancomycin and cefotaxime towards MRSA was determined by time-killing assay and synergistic interaction assay, respectively.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Hexane extract of bark of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J. Presl. (Lauraceae) inhibited the growth of MRSA, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii with MIC values below 100 µg/mL. From this plant, cinnamaldehyde evoked at 4 × MIC in 1 h an irreversible decrease of MRSA count Log10 (CFU/mL) from 6 to 0, and was synergistic with vancomycin for MRSA with fractional inhibitory concentration index of 0.3.
CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides evidence that the medicinal plants in Bangladesh have high potential to improve the current treatment strategies for bacterial infection.
METHODS: Four electronic full-text databases were systematically searched through September 2017. Data including outcomes of annular closure device/annular repair were extracted. All results were pooled utilising meta-analysis with weighted mean difference and odds ratio as summary statistics.
RESULTS: Four studies met inclusion criteria. Three studies reported the use of Barricaid (ACD) while one study reported the use of Anulex (AR). A total of 24 symptomatic reherniation were reported among 811 discectomies with ACD/AR as compared to 51 out of 645 in the control group (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.20,0.56; I2 = 0%; P
METHODS: Patients with cryptogenic stroke referred between August 2014 and February 2017 had ILRs implanted. Episodes of AF >2 minutes duration were recorded using proprietary algorithms within the ILRs, whereupon clinicians and patients were alerted via remote monitoring. All AF episodes were adjudicated using recorded electrograms. Once AF was detected, patients were counseled for anticoagulation.
RESULTS: Seventy-one patients with cryptogenic stroke, (age 61.9 ± 13.5 years, 77.5% male, mean CHA2DS2VASc score of 4.2 ± 1.3) had ILRs implanted. Time from stroke to the ILR implant was a median of 66 days. Duration of ILR monitoring was 345 ± 229 days. The primary endpoint of AF detection at 6 months was 12.9%; and at 12 months it was 15.2%. Median time to detection of AF was 50 days. The AF episodes were all asymptomatic and lasted a mean of 77 minutes (± 118.9). Anticoagulation was initiated in all but 1 patient found to have AF.
CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of occult AF is high in Asian patients with cryptogenic stroke and comparable to western cohorts. The combination of ILR and remote monitoring is a highly automated, technologically driven, and clinically effective technique to screen for AF.
METHODS: Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits, 20 to 24 weeks old, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups. Modified hyrax expanders were placed across their interfrontal sutures and secured with miniscrew implants located bilaterally in the frontal bone. The hyrax appliances were activated as follows: group 1 (control), 0.5-mm per day expansion for 12 days; group 2, 1-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 10 days; group 3, 2.5-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days, and group 4, 4-mm instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 4 days. After 6 weeks of retention, sutural separation and sutural bone modeling were assessed by microcomputed tomography and quantified. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests and the Spearman rho correlation (P <0.05).
RESULTS: Median amounts of sutural separation ranged from 2.84 to 4.41 mm for groups 1 and 4, respectively. Median bone volume fraction ranged from 59.96% to 69.15% for groups 4 and 3, respectively. A significant correlation (r = 0.970; P <0.01) was observed between the amounts of instant expansion and sutural separation.
CONCLUSIONS: Pending histologic verifications, our findings suggest that the protocol involving 2.5 mm of instant expansion followed by 0.5 mm per day for 7 days is optimal for accelerated sutural expansion. When 4 mm of instant expansion was used, the sutural bone volume fraction was decreased.
METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective observational studies that have investigated the relationship of door-to-balloon delay and clinical outcomes. The main outcomes include mortality and heart failure.
RESULTS: 32 studies involving 299 320 patients contained adequate data for quantitative reporting. Patients with ST-elevation MI who experienced longer (>90 min) door-to-balloon delay had a higher risk of short-term mortality (pooled OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.40 to 1.65) and medium-term to long-term mortality (pooled OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.06). A non-linear time-risk relation was observed (P=0.004 for non-linearity). The association between longer door-to-balloon delay and short-term mortality differed between those presented early and late after symptom onset (Cochran's Q 3.88, P value 0.049) with a stronger relationship among those with shorter prehospital delays.
CONCLUSION: Longer door-to-balloon delay in primary percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-elevation MI is related to higher risk of adverse outcomes. Prehospital delays modified this effect. The non-linearity of the time-risk relation might explain the lack of population effect despite an improved door-to-balloon time in the USA.
CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: PROSPERO (CRD42015026069).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Data for patients hospitalized for an ACS (n = 12,922) were collected on demographics, medical history, event characteristics, socioeconomic and insurance status at discharge. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks' post-hospitalization for an ACS event to assess associated treatment costs from a health sector perspective. Primary outcome was the incurring of costs in the highest quintile by country and index event diagnosis, and identification of associated predictors. Cost data were available for 10,819 patients. Mean length of stay was 10.1 days. The highest-cost countries were China, Singapore, and South Korea. Significant predictors of high-cost care were age, male sex, income, country, prior disease history, hospitalization in 3 months before index event, no dependency before index event, having an invasive procedure, hospital type and length of stay.
CONCLUSIONS: Substantial variability exists in healthcare costs for hospitalized ACS patients across Asia. Of concern is the observation that the highest costs were reported in China, given the rapidly increasing numbers of procedures in recent years.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01361386 .