AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the wound healing ability of a concentrated extract of B. orientale in a hydrogel formulation in healing diabetic ulcer wounds.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extract from the leaves of B. orientale was separated from the crude methanolic extract and subjected to flash column chromatography techniques to produce concentrated fractions. These fractions were tested for phytochemical composition, tannin content, antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The bioactive fraction was formulated into a sodium carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel. The extract-loaded hydrogels were then characterized and tested on excision ulcer wounds of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound size was measured for 14 days. Histopathological studies were conducted on the healed wound tissues to observe for epithelisation, fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis. All possible mean values were subjected to statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA and post-hoc with Tukey's T-test (P<0.05).
RESULTS: One fraction exhibited strong antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The fraction was also highly saturated with tannins, particularly condensed tannins. Fraction W5-1 exhibited stronger antioxidant activity compared to three standards (α-Tocopherol, BHT and Trolox-C). Antibacterial activity was also present, and notably bactericidal towards Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 0.25mg/ml. The extract-loaded hydrogels exhibited shear-thinning properties, with high moisture retention ability. The bioactive fraction at 4% w/w was shown to be able to close diabetic wounds by Day 12 on average. Other groups, including controls, only exhibited wound closure by Day 14 (or not at all). Histopathological studies had also shown that extract-treated wounds exhibited re-epithelisation, higher fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis.
CONCLUSION: The ethnopharmacological effects of using B. orientale as a topical treatment for external wounds was validated and was also significantly effective in treating diabetic ulcer wounds. Thus, B. orientale extract hydrogel may be presented as a potential treatment for diabetic ulcer wounds.
METHODS: EPICOR Asia (Long-tErm follow-uP of antithrombotic management patterns In acute CORonary syndrome patients in Asia) (NCT01361386) is a prospective, multinational, observational study of patients discharged after hospitalization for an ACS, with 2-year follow-up. The aim is to describe short- and long-term (up to 2 years post-index event) AMPs in patients hospitalized for ACS and to record clinical outcomes, healthcare resource use, and self-reported health status. Pre- and in-hospital management, AMPs, and associated outcomes, with particular focus on ischemic and bleeding events, will be recorded during the 2-year follow up.
RESULTS: Between June 2011 and May 2012, 13 005 patients were enrolled. From these, 12 922 patients surviving an ACS (6616 with STEMI, 2570 with NSTEMI, and 3736 with UA) were eligible for inclusion from 219 hospitals across 8 countries and regions in Asia: China (n = 8214), Hong Kong (n = 177), India (n = 2468), Malaysia (n = 100), Singapore (n = 93), South Korea (n = 705), Thailand (n = 957), and Vietnam (n = 208).
CONCLUSIONS: EPICOR Asia will provide information regarding clinical management and AMPs for ACS patients in Asia. Impact of AMPs on clinical outcomes, healthcare resource use, and self-reported health status both during hospitalization and up to 2 years after discharge will also be described.
METHODS: 79 patients with DLBCL (nodal, 59% and extranodal, 41%) treated with rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy were selected. Expression levels of BCR and linked signalling pathway molecules were inter-related with Lymph2Cx-based cell of origin (COO) types and overall survival (OS).
RESULTS: Activated B-cell (ABC) type DLBCL constituted 49% (39/79) compared with germinal centre B-cell (GCB) type DLBCL (29/79; 37%) and revealed poor prognosis (p=0.013). In ABC-DLBCL, high BTK expression exerted poor response to R-CHOP, while OS in ABC-DLBCL with low BTK expression was similar to GCB-DLBCL subtype (p=0.004). High LYN expression coupled with a poor OS for ABC-DLBCL as well as GCB-DLBCL subtypes (p=0.001). Furthermore, high coexpression of BTK/LYN (BTKhigh/LYNhigh) showed poor OS (p=0.019), which linked with upregulation of several genes associated with BCR repertoire and nuclear factor-kappa B pathway (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, high BTK and LYN expression retained prognostic significance against established clinical predictive factors such as age, International Prognostic Index and COO (p<0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide a clear association between high BCR activity in DLBCL and response to therapy in a distinct population. Molecular data provided here will pave the pathway for the provision of promising novel-targeted therapies to patients with DLBCL in Southeast Asia.
BACKGROUND: Data are conflicting on the optimal strategy to reduce CAAKI and related complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
METHODS: The PRESERVE (Prevention of Serious Adverse Events Following Angiography) trial used a 2 × 2 factorial design to randomize 5,177 patients with stage III or IV chronic kidney disease undergoing angiography to IV 1.26% sodium bicarbonate or IV 0.9% sodium chloride and 5 days of oral acetylcysteine or placebo. A subgroup analysis was conducted of the efficacy of these interventions in patients who underwent PCI during the study angiographic examination. The primary endpoint was a composite of death, need for dialysis, or persistent kidney impairment at 90 days; CAAKI was a secondary endpoint.
RESULTS: A total of 1,161 PRESERVE patients (mean age 69 ± 8 years) underwent PCI. The median estimated glomerular filtration rate was 50.7 ml/min/1.73 m2 (interquartile range: 41.7 to 60.1 ml/min/1.73 m2), and 952 patients (82%) had diabetes mellitus. The primary endpoint occurred in 15 of 568 patients (2.6%) in the IV sodium bicarbonate group and 24 of 593 patients (4.0%) in the IV sodium chloride group (odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.33 to 1.24; p for interaction = 0.41) and in 23 of 598 patients (3.8%) in the acetylcysteine group and 16 of 563 patients (2.8%) in the placebo group (odds ratio: 1.37; 95% confidence interval: 0.71 to 2.62; p for interaction = 0.29). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of CAAKI.
CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD undergoing PCI, there was no benefit of IV sodium bicarbonate over IV sodium chloride or of acetylcysteine over placebo for the prevention of CAAKI or intermediate-term adverse outcomes.