Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1447 in total

  1. Al-Salahi OS, Kit-Lam C, Majid AM, Al-Suede FS, Mohammed Saghir SA, Abdullah WZ, et al.
    Microvasc. Res., 2013 Nov;90:30-9.
    PMID: 23899415 DOI: 10.1016/j.mvr.2013.07.007
    Targeting angiogenesis could be an excellent strategy to combat angiogenesis-dependent pathophysiological conditions such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, obesity, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, proliferative retinopathy and atherosclerosis. Recently a number of clinical investigations are being undertaken to assess the potential therapeutic application of various anti-angiogenic agents. Many of these angiogenesis inhibitors are directed against the functions of endothelial cells, which are considered as the building blocks of blood vessels. Similarly, roots of a traditional medicinal plant, Eurycoma longifolia, can be used as an alternative treatment to prevent and treat the angiogenesis-related diseases. In the present study, antiangiogenic potential of partially purified quassinoid-rich fraction (TAF273) of E. longifolia root extract was evaluated using ex vivo and in vivo angiogenesis models and the anti-angiogenic efficacy of TAF273 was investigated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). TAF273 caused significant suppression in sprouting of microvessels in rat aorta with IC50 11.5μg/ml. TAF273 (50μg/ml) showed remarkable inhibition (63.13%) of neovascularization in chorioallantoic membrane of chick embryo. Tumor histology also revealed marked reduction in extent of vascularization. In vitro, TAF273 significantly inhibited the major angiogenesis steps such as proliferation, migration and differentiation of HUVECs. Phytochemical analysis revealed high content of quassinoids in TAF273. Specially, HPLC characterization showed that TAF273 is enriched with eurycomanone, 13α(21)-epoxyeurycomanone and eurycomanol. These results demonstrated that the antiangiogenic activity of TAF273 may be due to its inhibitory effect on endothelial cell proliferation, differentiation and migration which could be attributed to the high content of quassinoids in E. longifolia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  2. Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Bebakar WM, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S3-9.
    PMID: 23647715 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70003-2
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in the ASEAN cohort of the A₁chieve study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  3. Soewondo P, Mohamed M, Jain AB, Sy RA, Khoo CM
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S10-6.
    PMID: 23647712 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70004-4
    To determine the safety and effectiveness of insulin detemir (IDet) in type 2 diabetes patients from the ASEAN cohort of the A1chieve study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  4. Hussein Z, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Goh SY, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S24-9.
    PMID: 23647714 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70006-8
    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of biphasic insulin aspart 30 (BIAsp 30) in ASEAN type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients switched from biphasic human insulin (BHI) in the non-interventional 24-week A₁chieve study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  5. Bebakar WM, Lim-Abrahan MA, Jain AB, Seah D, Soewondo P
    Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract., 2013 Apr;100 Suppl 1:S17-23.
    PMID: 23647713 DOI: 10.1016/S0168-8227(13)70005-6
    To examine the clinical safety and effectiveness of insulin aspart (IAsp) therapy in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients from the ASEAN cohort of the international, 24-week, non-interventional A₁chieve study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  6. Jazayeri SD, Ideris A, Zakaria Z, Yeap SK, Omar AR
    PMID: 22512819 DOI: 10.1016/j.cimid.2012.03.007
    This study evaluates the immune responses of single avian influenza virus (AIV) HA DNA vaccine immunization using attenuated Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium as an oral vaccine carrier and intramuscular (IM) DNA injection. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chicks immunized once by oral gavage with 10(9) Salmonella colony-forming units containing plasmid expression vector encoding the HA gene of A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04 (H5N1) (pcDNA3.1.H5) did not show any clinical manifestations. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer samples collected from the IM immunized chickens were low compared to those immunized with S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5. The highest average antibody titers were detected on day 35 post immunization for both IM and S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 immunized groups, at 4.0±2.8 and 51.2±7.5, respectively. S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 also elicited both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of immunized chickens as early as day 14 after immunization, at 20.5±2.0 and 22.9±1.9%, respectively. Meanwhile, the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in chickens vaccinated intramuscularly were low at 5.9±0.9 and 8.5±1.3%, respectively. Immunization of chickens with S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1.H5 enhanced IL-1β, IL-12β, IL-15 and IL-18 expressions in spleen although no significant differences were recorded in chickens vaccinated via IM and orally with S. typhimurium and S. typhimurium.pcDNA3.1. Hence, single oral administrations of the attenuated S. typhimurium containing pcDNA3.1.H5 showed antibody, T cell and Th1-like cytokine responses against AIV in chickens. Whether the T cell response induced by vaccination is virus-specific and whether vaccination protects against AIV infection requires further study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  7. Farea M, Masudi S, Wan Bakar WZ
    Aust Endod J, 2010 Aug;36(2):48-53.
    PMID: 20666748 DOI: 10.1111/j.1747-4477.2009.00187.x
    The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the apical sealing ability of cold lateral and system B root filling techniques using dye penetration. Eighty-six extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into two experimental groups to be obturated by cold lateral condensation (n = 33) and system B (n = 33). The remaining 20 teeth served as positive and negative controls. The roots were embedded for 72 h in methylene blue dye solution and sectioned transversely for dye penetration evaluation using stereomicroscope. The results of this study showed that cold lateral condensation leaked significantly more (P < 0.001) than system B technique.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  8. Thong YL, Messer HH, Zain RB, Saw LH, Yoong LT
    Dent Traumatol, 2009 Aug;25(4):386-93.
    PMID: 19459923 DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-9657.2008.00631.x
    Progressive replacement resorption following delayed replantation of avulsed teeth has proved to be an intractable clinical problem. A wide variety of therapeutic approaches have failed to result in the predictable arrest of resorption, with a good long-term prognosis for tooth survival. Bisphosphonates are used in the medical management of a range of bone disorders and topically applied bisphosphonate has been reported to inhibit root resorption in dogs. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a bisphosphonate (etidronate disodium) as an intracanal medicament in the root canals of avulsed monkey teeth, placed before replantation after 1 h of extraoral dry storage. Incisors of six Macaca fascicularis monkeys were extracted and stored dry for 1 h. Teeth were then replanted after canal contamination with dental plaque (negative control) or after root canal debridement and placement of etidronate sealed in the canal space. A positive control of calcium hydroxide placed 8-9 days after replantation was also included. All monkeys were sacrificed 8 weeks later and block sections were prepared for histomorphometric assessment of root resorption and periodontal ligament status. Untreated teeth showed the greatest extent of root resorption (46% of the root surface), which was predominantly inflammatory in nature. Calcium hydroxide treated teeth showed the lowest overall level of resorption (<30% of the root surface), while the bisphosphonate-treated group was intermediate (39%). Ankylosis, defined as the extent of the root surface demonstrating direct bony union to both intact and resorbed root surface, was the lowest in the untreated control group (15% of the root surface), intermediate in the calcium hydroxide group (27%) and the highest in the bisphosphonate group (41%). Bony attachment to the tooth root was divided approximately equally between attachment to intact cementum and to previously resorbed dentin. Overall, bisphosphonate resulted in a worse outcome than calcium hydroxide in terms of both root resorption and ankylosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  9. Hor SY, Lee SC, Wong CI, Lim YW, Lim RC, Wang LZ, et al.
    Pharmacogenomics J., 2008 Apr;8(2):139-46.
    PMID: 17876342
    Previously studied candidate genes have failed to account for inter-individual variability of docetaxel and doxorubicin disposition and effects. We genotyped the transcriptional regulators of CYP3A and ABCB1 in 101 breast cancer patients from 3 Asian ethnic groups, that is, Chinese, Malays and Indians, in correlation with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of docetaxel and doxorubicin. While there was no ethnic difference in docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics, ethnic difference in docetaxel- (ANOVA, P=0.001) and doxorubicin-induced (ANOVA, P=0.003) leukocyte suppression was observed, with Chinese and Indians experiencing greater degree of docetaxel-induced myelosuppression than Malays (Bonferroni, P=0.002, P=0.042), and Chinese experiencing greater degree of doxorubicin-induced myelosuppression than Malays and Indians (post hoc Bonferroni, P=0.024 and 0.025). Genotyping revealed both PXR and CAR to be well conserved; only a PXR 5'-untranslated region polymorphism (-24381A>C) and a silent CAR variant (Pro180Pro) were found at allele frequencies of 26 and 53%, respectively. Two non-synonymous variants were identified in HNF4alpha (Met49Val and Thr130Ile) at allele frequencies of 55 and 1%, respectively, with the Met49Val variant associated with slower neutrophil recovery in docetaxel-treated patients (ANOVA, P=0.046). Interactions were observed between HNF4alpha Met49Val and CAR Pro180Pro, with patients who were wild type for both variants experiencing least docetaxel-induced neutropenia (ANOVA, P=0.030). No other significant genotypic associations with pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of either drug were found. The PXR-24381A>C variants were significantly more common in Indians compared to Chinese or Malays (32/18/21%, P=0.035) Inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations of docetaxel and doxorubicin pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics exist, but genotypic variability of the transcriptional regulators PAR, CAR and HNF4alpha cannot account for this variability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  10. Yokoyama K
    Neurotoxicology, 2007 Mar;28(2):364-73.
    PMID: 16730798
    Attention has been paid to neurobehavioral effects of occupational and environmental exposures to chemicals such as pesticides, heavy metals and organic solvents. The area of research that includes neurobehavioral methods and effects in occupational and environmental health has been called "Occupational and Environmental Neurology and Behavioral Medicine." The methods, by which early changes in neurological, cognitive and behavioral function can be assessed, include neurobehavioral test battery, neurophysiological methods, questionnaires and structured interview, biochemical markers and imaging techniques. The author presents his observations of neurobehavioral and neurophysiological effects in Tokyo subway sarin poisoning cases as well as in pesticide users (tobacco farmers) in Malaysia in relation to Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). In sarin cases, a variety effects were observed 6-8 months after exposure, suggesting delayed neurological effects. Studies on pesticide users revealed that organophosphorus and dithiocarbamate affected peripheral nerve conduction and postural balance; subjective symptoms related to GTS were also observed, indicating the effects of nicotine absorbed from wet tobacco leaves. In addition, non-neurological effects of pesticides and other chemicals are presented, in relation to genetic polymorphism and oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  11. Sukeepaisarnjaroen W, Pham T, Tanwandee T, Nazareth S, Galhenage S, Mollison L, et al.
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2015 Jul 28;21(28):8660-9.
    PMID: 26229408 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i28.8660
    To examined the efficacy and safety of treatment with boceprevir, PEGylated-interferon and ribavirin (PR) in hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCVGT1) PR treatment-failures in Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  12. Lai JC, Lai HY, Nalamolu KR, Ng SF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 08 02;189:277-89.
    PMID: 27208868 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.032
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Blechnum orientale Linn. (B. orientale) is a fern traditionally used by the natives as a poultice to treat wounds, boils, ulcers, blisters, abscesses, and sores on the skin.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the wound healing ability of a concentrated extract of B. orientale in a hydrogel formulation in healing diabetic ulcer wounds.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extract from the leaves of B. orientale was separated from the crude methanolic extract and subjected to flash column chromatography techniques to produce concentrated fractions. These fractions were tested for phytochemical composition, tannin content, antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The bioactive fraction was formulated into a sodium carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel. The extract-loaded hydrogels were then characterized and tested on excision ulcer wounds of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound size was measured for 14 days. Histopathological studies were conducted on the healed wound tissues to observe for epithelisation, fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis. All possible mean values were subjected to statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA and post-hoc with Tukey's T-test (P<0.05).

    RESULTS: One fraction exhibited strong antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The fraction was also highly saturated with tannins, particularly condensed tannins. Fraction W5-1 exhibited stronger antioxidant activity compared to three standards (α-Tocopherol, BHT and Trolox-C). Antibacterial activity was also present, and notably bactericidal towards Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 0.25mg/ml. The extract-loaded hydrogels exhibited shear-thinning properties, with high moisture retention ability. The bioactive fraction at 4% w/w was shown to be able to close diabetic wounds by Day 12 on average. Other groups, including controls, only exhibited wound closure by Day 14 (or not at all). Histopathological studies had also shown that extract-treated wounds exhibited re-epithelisation, higher fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis.

    CONCLUSION: The ethnopharmacological effects of using B. orientale as a topical treatment for external wounds was validated and was also significantly effective in treating diabetic ulcer wounds. Thus, B. orientale extract hydrogel may be presented as a potential treatment for diabetic ulcer wounds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  13. Lakshmanan H, Raman J, Pandian A, Kuppamuthu K, Nanjian R, Sabaratam V, et al.
    Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 2016 Aug;79:25-34.
    PMID: 27177820 DOI: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2016.05.010
    Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  14. Tabana YM, Hassan LE, Ahamed MB, Dahham SS, Iqbal MA, Saeed MA, et al.
    Microvasc. Res., 2016 09;107:17-33.
    PMID: 27133199 DOI: 10.1016/j.mvr.2016.04.009
    We recently reported the antineovascularization effect of scopoletin on rat aorta and identified its potential anti-angiogenic activity. Scopoletin could be useful as a systemic chemotherapeutic agent against angiogenesis-dependent malignancies if its antitumorigenic activity is investigated and scientifically proven using a suitable human tumor xenograft model. In the present study, bioassay-guided (anti-angiogenesis) phytochemical investigation was conducted on Nicotiana glauca extract which led to the isolation of scopoletin. Further, anti-angiogenic activity of scopoletin was characterized using ex vivo, in vivo and in silico angiogenesis models. Finally, the antitumorigenic efficacy of scopoletin was studied in human colorectal tumor xenograft model using athymic nude mice. For the first time, an in vivo anticancer activity of scopoletin was reported and characterized using xenograft models. Scopoletin caused significant suppression of sprouting of microvessels in rat aortic explants with IC50 (median inhibitory concentration) 0.06μM. Scopoletin (100 and 200mg/kg) strongly inhibited (59.72 and 89.4%, respectively) vascularization in matrigel plugs implanted in nude mice. In the tumor xenograft model, scopoletin showed remarkable inhibition on tumor growth (34.2 and 94.7% at 100 and 200mg/kg, respectively). Tumor histology revealed drastic reduction of the extent of vascularization. Further, immunostaining of CD31 and NG2 receptors in the histological sections confirmed the antivascular effect of scopoletin in tumor vasculature. In computer modeling, scopoletin showed strong ligand affinity and binding energies toward the following angiogenic factors: protein kinase (ERK1), vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). These results suggest that the antitumor activity of scopoletin may be due to its strong anti-angiogenic effect, which may be mediated by its effective inhibition of ERK1, VEGF-A, and FGF-2.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  15. Armenia A, Munavvar AS, Abdullah NA, Helmi A, Johns EJ
    Br. J. Pharmacol., 2004 Jun;142(4):719-26.
    PMID: 15172958
    1. Diabetes and hypertension are both associated with an increased risk of renal disease and are associated with neuropathies, which can cause defective autonomic control of major organs including the kidney. This study aimed to examine the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype(s) involved in mediating adrenergically induced renal vasoconstriction in a rat model of diabetes and hypertension. 2. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), 220-280 g, were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbitone 7-day poststreptozotocin (55 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) treatment. The reductions in renal blood flow (RBF) induced by increasing frequencies of electrical renal nerve stimulation (RNS), close intrarenal bolus doses of noradrenaline (NA), phenylephrine (PE) or methoxamine were determined before and after administration of nitrendipine (Nit), 5-methylurapidil (5-MeU), chloroethylclonidine (CEC) and BMY 7378. 3. In the nondiabetic SHR group, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 146+/-6 mmHg, RBF was 28.0+/-1.4 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) and blood glucose was 112.3+/-4.7 mg x dl(-1), and in the diabetic SHR Group, MAP was 144+/-3 mmHg, RBF 26.9+/-1.3 ml(-1) min x kg(-1) and blood glucose 316.2+/-10.5 mg x dl(-1). Nit, 5-MeU and BMY 7378 blunted all the adrenergically induced renal vasoconstrictor responses in SHR and diabetic SHR by 25-35% (all P<0.05), but in diabetic rats the responses induced by RNS and NA treated with 5-MeU were not changed. By contrast, during the administration of CEC, vasoconstrictor responses to all agonists were enhanced by 20-25% (all P<0.05) in both the SHR and diabetic SHR. 4. These findings suggest that alpha(1A) and alpha(1D)-adrenoceptor subtypes contribute in mediating the adrenergically induced constriction of the renal vasculature in both the SHR and diabetic SHR. There was also an indication of a greater contribution of presynaptic adrenoceptors, that is, alpha(1B)-, and/or alpha(2)-subtypes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  16. Abdul Nasir NA, Agarwal R, Sheikh Abdul Kadir SH, Vasudevan S, Tripathy M, Iezhitsa I, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(3):e0174542.
    PMID: 28350848 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0174542
    Cataract, a leading cause of blindness, is of special concern in diabetics as it occurs at earlier onset. Polyol accumulation and increased oxidative-nitrosative stress in cataractogenesis are associated with NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP depletion, loss of ATPase functions, calpain activation and proteolysis of soluble to insoluble proteins. Tocotrienol was previously shown to reduce lens oxidative stress and inhibit cataractogenesis in galactose-fed rats. In current study, we investigated anticataract effects of topical tocotrienol and possible mechanisms involved in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. Diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (DV) or tocotrienol (DT). A third group consists of normal, non-diabetic rats were treated with vehicle (NV). All treatments were given topically, bilaterally, twice daily for 8 weeks with weekly slit lamp monitoring. Subsequently, rats were euthanized and lenses were subjected to estimation of polyol accumulation, oxidative-nitrosative stress, NFκB activation, iNOS expression, ATP levels, ATPase activities, calpain activity and total protein levels. Cataract progression was delayed from the fifth week onwards in DT with lower mean of cataract stages compared to DV group (p<0.01) despite persistent hyperglycemia. Reduced cataractogenesis in DT group was accompanied with lower aldose reductase activity and sorbitol level compared to DV group (p<0.01). DT group also showed reduced NFκB activation, lower iNOS expression and reduced oxidative-nitrosative stress compared to DV group. Lenticular ATP and ATPase and calpain 2 activities in DT group were restored to normal. Consequently, soluble to insoluble protein ratio in DT group was higher compared to DV (p<0.05). In conclusion, preventive effect of topical tocotrienol on development of cataract in STZ-induced diabetic rats could be attributed to reduced lens aldose reductase activity, polyol levels and oxidative-nitrosative stress. These effects of tocotrienol invlove reduced NFκB activation, lower iNOS expression, restoration of ATP level, ATPase activities, calpain activity and lens protein levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  17. Osman AY, Saharee AA, Jesse FF, Kadir AA
    Microb. Pathog., 2017 Sep;110:365-374.
    PMID: 28710016 DOI: 10.1016/j.micpath.2017.07.014
    In this study, we developed a mouse model and characterized the effects of intranasal inoculation of virulent Brucella melitensis strain 16M and its lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The effects of the exposure were compared with respective control groups. Both Brucella melitensis-infected and LPS-infected groups showed no significant clinical presentation with minor relevance in the mortality associated with the infection. In Brucella melitensis-infected group, significant histopathological changes in comparison to the LPS infected group with increase bacterial burden in the lungs, reproductive and reticuloendothelial organs were observed. However, both infected groups showed elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β and IL6) and antibody production (IgM an IgG) as early as 3 days post-infection with predominance in LPS infected group. In contrast, low levels of sex related hormonal changes was recorded in both infected groups throughout the experimental period. This is the first detailed investigation comparing the infection progression and host responses in relation to the immunopathophysiological aspects in mouse model after intranasal inoculation with B. melitensis and its lipopolysaccharide. The study revealed a significant difference between infected and control groups with overlap in clinical, pathological, and immunological responses as well as sex related hormonal changes resulting from the infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  18. Mansur SA, Mieczkowska A, Bouvard B, Flatt PR, Chappard D, Irwin N, et al.
    J. Cell. Physiol., 2015 Dec;230(12):3009-18.
    PMID: 26016732 DOI: 10.1002/jcp.25033
    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with a high risk for bone fractures. Although bone mass is reduced, bone quality is also dramatically altered in this disorder. However, recent evidences suggest a beneficial effect of the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) pathways on bone quality. The aims of the present study were to conduct a comprehensive investigation of bone strength at the organ and tissue level; and to ascertain whether enzyme resistant GIP or GLP-1 mimetic could be beneficial in preventing bone fragility in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Streptozotocin-treated mice were used as a model of type 1 diabetes mellitus. Control and streptozotocin-diabetic animals were treated for 21 days with an enzymatic-resistant GIP peptide ([D-Ala(2) ]GIP) or with liraglutide (each at 25 nmol/kg bw, ip). Bone quality was assessed at the organ and tissue level by microCT, qXRI, 3-point bending, qBEI, nanoindentation, and Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy. [D-Ala2]GIP and liraglutide treatment did prevent loss of whole bone strength and cortical microstructure in the STZ-injected mice. However, tissue material properties were significantly improved in STZ-injected animals following treatment with [D-Ala2]GIP or liraglutide. Treatment of STZ-diabetic mice with [D-Ala(2) ]GIP or liraglutide was capable of significantly preventing deterioration of the quality of the bone matrix. Further studies are required to further elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved and to validate whether these findings can be translated to human patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  19. Mohktar MS, Redmond SJ, Antoniades NC, Rochford PD, Pretto JJ, Basilakis J, et al.
    Artif Intell Med, 2015 Jan;63(1):51-9.
    PMID: 25704112 DOI: 10.1016/j.artmed.2014.12.003
    BACKGROUND: The use of telehealth technologies to remotely monitor patients suffering chronic diseases may enable preemptive treatment of worsening health conditions before a significant deterioration in the subject's health status occurs, requiring hospital admission.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a classification algorithm for the early identification of patients, with a background of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), who appear to be at high risk of an imminent exacerbation event. The algorithm attempts to predict the patient's condition one day in advance, based on a comparison of their current physiological measurements against the distribution of their measurements over the previous month.
    METHOD: The proposed algorithm, which uses a classification and regression tree (CART), has been validated using telehealth measurement data recorded from patients with moderate/severe COPD living at home. The data were collected from February 2007 to January 2008, using a telehealth home monitoring unit.
    RESULTS: The CART algorithm can classify home telehealth measurement data into either a 'low risk' or 'high risk' category with 71.8% accuracy, 80.4% specificity and 61.1% sensitivity. The algorithm was able to detect a 'high risk' condition one day prior to patients actually being observed as having a worsening in their COPD condition, as defined by symptom and medication records.
    CONCLUSION: The CART analyses have shown that features extracted from three types of physiological measurements; forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1), arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2) and weight have the most predictive power in stratifying the patients condition. This CART algorithm for early detection could trigger the initiation of timely treatment, thereby potentially reducing exacerbation severity and recovery time and improving the patient's health. This study highlights the potential usefulness of automated analysis of home telehealth data in the early detection of exacerbation events among COPD patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
  20. Zahedifard M, Faraj FL, Paydar M, Looi CY, Hasandarvish P, Hajrezaie M, et al.
    Curr. Pharm. Des., 2015;21(23):3417-26.
    PMID: 25808938
    The anti-carcinogenic effect of the new quinazolinone compound, named MMD, was tested on MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. The synthesis of quinazolinone-based compounds attracted strong attention over the past few decades as an alternative mean to produce analogues of natural products. Quinazolinone compounds sharing the main principal core structures are currently introduced in the clinical trials and pharmaceutical markets as anti-cancer agents. Thus, it is of high clinical interest to identify a new drug that could be used to control the growth and expansion of cancer cells. Quinazolinone is a metabolite derivative resulting from the conjugation of 2-aminobenzoyhydrazide and 5-methoxy-2- hydroxybenzaldehyde based on condensation reactions. In the present study, we analysed the influence of MMD on breast cancer adenoma cell morphology, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, cytochrome c release and caspases activity. MCF-7 is a type of cell line representing the breast cancer adenoma cells that can be expanded and differentiated in culture. Using different in vitro strategies and specific antibodies, we demonstrate a novel role for MMD in the inhibition of cell proliferation and initiation of the programmed cell death. MMD was found to increase cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytosol and this effect was enhanced over time with effective IC50 value of 5.85 ± 0.71 μg/mL detected in a 72-hours treatment. Additionally, MMD induced cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and caused DNA fragmentation with obvious activation of caspase-9 and caspases-3/7. Our results demonstrate a novel role of MMD as an anti-proliferative agent and imply the involvement of mitochondrial intrinsic pathway in the observed apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Time Factors
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