The aim of this study was to characterize multiscale interactions between high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and dentin collagen and associated matrix-metalloproteinases, in addition to the analysis of the effect of HIFU on bacterial biofilms and biological properties. Dentin specimens were subjected to 5, 10 or 20 s HIFU. XPS spectra were acquired and TEM was performed on dentin slabs. Collagen orientation was performed using Raman spectroscopy. Calcium measurements in human dental pulpal cells (hDPCs) were carried out after 7 and 14 days. For macrophages, CD36+ and CD163+ were analysed. Biofilms were analyzed using CLSM. Tandem mass spectroscopy was performed for the detection of hydroxyproline sequences along with human MMP-2 quantification. Phosphorus, calcium, and nitrogen were detected in HIFU specimens. TEM images demonstrated the collagen network appearing to be fused together in the HIFU 10 and 20 s specimens. The band associated with 960 cm-1 corresponds to the stretching ν1 PO43-. The control specimens showed intensive calcium staining followed by HIFU 20 s > HIFU 10 s > HIFU 5 s specimens. Macrophages in the HIFU specimens co-expressed CD80+ and CD163+ cells. CLSM images showed the HIFU treatment inhibiting bacterial growth. SiteScore propensity determined the effect of HIFU on the binding site with a higher DScore representing better site exposure on MMPs. Multiscale mapping of dentin collagen after HIFU treatment showed no deleterious alterations on the organic structure of dentin.
We formulated a pH-sensitive chlorhexidine-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) modified with poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA) and incorporated into experimental resin-based dentin adhesives at 5 and 10 wt%. Nanocarriers were characterized in terms of morphology, physicochemical features, spectral analyses, drug-release kinetics at varying pH and its effect on dentin-bound proteases was investigated. The modified dentin adhesives were characterized for cytotoxicity, antimicrobial activity, degree of conversion (DC) along with CHX release, micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) and nano-leakage expression were studied at different pH values and storage time. CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA nanocarriers exhibited a significant pH-dependent drug release behavior than CHX-loaded/MSN nanocarriers without PLGA modification. The highest percentage of CHX release was seen with 10 wt% CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA doped adhesive at a pH of 5.0. CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA modified adhesives exhibited more profound antibiofilm characteristics against S. mutans and more sustained CHX-release which was pH dependent. After 6 months in artificial saliva at varying pH, the 5 wt% CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA doped adhesive showed excellent bonding under SEM/TEM, higher μTBS, and least nano-leakage expression. The pH-sensitive CHX-loaded/MSN-PLGA could be of crucial advantage for resin-dentin bonding applications especially in reduced pH microenvironment resulting from biofilm formation; and the activation of dentin-bound proteases as a consequence of acid etching and acidic content of bonding resin monomers.