Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

  1. Rajamani L, Cabanban AS, Abdul Rahman R
    Ambio, 2006 Aug;35(5):266-8.
    PMID: 16989512
  2. Fikry M, Yusof YA, M Al-Awaadh A, Abdul Rahman R, Chin NL, Ghazali HM
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2019 Jul 18;8(7).
    PMID: 31323854 DOI: 10.3390/antiox8070226
    Full-fat roasted date seeds are considered an excellent source of antioxidants which can treat many diseases. The specific objectives were to investigate the effect of roasting temperature and time on the hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the roasted date seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity, total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH, browning index and sensory properties of the brew prepared from the full-fat roasted date seeds and to construct descriptive models that could describe this effect. Date seeds were roasted at three temperatures (160, 180 and 200 °C) for different period of times (10, 20 and 30 min) using a natural conventional oven; then grinded and next brewed. Hardness of whole seeds, moisture content of the seeds powder, DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents, extraction yield, pH and browning index and sensory properties of the brew were significantly affected by the roasting conditions. The statistical results indicated that the proposed model could adequately describe the measured properties. Strong correlations have been found among the properties of the brew as well. The producers of the date seeds brew can utilize these results for controlling the roasting process.
  3. Anuar N, Idris NS, Mohd Zin F, Abdul Rahman R, Ahmad I, Ibrahim MI
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 Nov 01;20(11):3353-3359.
    PMID: 31759359 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2019.20.11.3353
    OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of the smoking prevention module towards knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skills among secondary school students in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    METHODS: A quasi experimental interventional study involving 166 non-smokers adolescents, aged 13 to 14 years old were carried out in two schools located in two different suburbs. Both schools had equal number of participants. One school was given the smoking prevention module for intervention while the control school only received the module after the study had been completed. The knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skill score were assessed using a set of validated Malay questionnaires at baseline, two weeks and eight weeks after the intervention. Repeated measure ANCOVA was used to analyse the mean score difference of both groups at baseline and after intervention.

    RESULT: Baseline analysis shows no significant difference in knowledge score between the study groups (p = 0.713) while post intervention, it shows significant inclination of knowledge score in intervention group and the difference was significant after controlling the gender [F(df) = 15.96(1.5), p <0.001]. The mean baseline for refusal skills score in the control and intervention groups were 30.89(6.164) and 28.02(6.241) respectively (p= 0.003). Post intervention, there is a significant difference in the crude mean and the estimated marginal means for smoking refusal skills score between the two groups after controlling for sex [F(df) = 5.66(1.8), p = 0.005].

    CONCLUSION: This smoking prevention module increased the level of knowledge on smoking and its harmful effects and smoking refusal skill among the secondary school students. Thus, it is advocated to be used as one of the standard modules to improve the current method of teaching in delivering knowledge related to harmful effects of smoking and smoking refusal skill to the adolescents in Malaysia.

  4. Haseeb A, Winit-Watjana W, Bakhsh AR, Elrggal ME, Hadi MA, Mously AA, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2016 06 16;6(6):e011401.
    PMID: 27311911 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011401
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led educational intervention to reduce the use of high-risk abbreviations (HRAs) by healthcare professionals.

    DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study consisting of a single group before-and-after study design.

    SETTING: A public emergency hospital in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

    PARTICIPANTS: 660 (preintervention) and then 498 (postintervention) handwritten physician orders, medication administration records (MRAs) and pharmacy dispensing sheets of 482 and 388 patients, respectively, from emergency wards, inpatient settings and the pharmacy department were reviewed.

    INTERVENTION: The intervention consisted of a series of interactive lectures delivered by an experienced clinical pharmacist to all hospital staff members and dissemination of educational tools (flash cards, printed list of HRAs, awareness posters) designed in line with the recommendations of the Institute for Safe Medical Practices and the US Food and Drug Administration. The duration of intervention was from April to May 2011.

    MAIN OUTCOME: Reduction in the incidence of HRAs use from the preintervention to postintervention study period.

    FINDINGS: The five most common abbreviations recorded prior to the interventions were 'IJ for injection' (28.6%), 'SC for subcutaneous' (17.4%), drug name and dose running together (9.7%), 'OD for once daily' (5.8%) and 'D/C for discharge' (4.3%). The incidence of the use of HRAs was highest in discharge prescriptions and dispensing records (72.7%) followed by prescriptions from in-patient wards (47.3%). After the intervention, the overall incidence of HRA was significantly reduced by 52% (ie, 53.6% vs 25.5%; p=0.001). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of HRAs across all three settings: the pharmacy department (72.7% vs 39.3%), inpatient settings (47.3% vs 23.3%) and emergency wards (40.9% vs 10.7%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-led educational interventions can significantly reduce the use of HRAs by healthcare providers. Future research should investigate the long-term effectiveness of such educational interventions through a randomised controlled trial.

  5. Keng PS, Basri M, Ariff AB, Abdul Rahman MB, Abdul Rahman RN, Salleh AB
    Bioresour Technol, 2008 Sep;99(14):6097-104.
    PMID: 18243690 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2007.12.049
    Lipase-catalyzed production of palm esters by alcoholysis of palm oil with oleyl alcohol in n-hexane was performed in 2L stirred-tank reactor (STR). Investigation on the performance of reactor operation was carried out in batch mode STR with single impeller mounted on the centrally located shaft. Rushton turbine (RT) impellers provide the highest reaction yield (95.8%) at lower agitation speed as compared to AL-hydrofoil (AL-H) and 2-bladed elephant ear (EE) impellers. Homogenous enzyme particles suspension was obtained at 250 rpm by using RT impeller. At higher impeller speed, the shear effect on the enzyme particles caused by agitation has decreased the reaction performance. Palm esters reaction mixture in STR follows Newtons' law due to the linear relation between the shear stress (tau) and shear rate (dupsilon/dy). High stability of Lipozyme RM IM was observed as shown by its ability to be repeatedly used to give high percentage yield (79%) of palm esters even after 15 cycles of reaction. The process was successfully scale-up to 75 L STR (50 L working volume) based on a constant impeller tip speed approach, which gave the yield of 97.2% after 5h reaction time.
  6. Saperi BS, Ramli R, Ahmed Z, Muhd Nur A, Ibrahim MI, Rashdi MF, et al.
    Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, 2017;9:107-113.
    PMID: 28223831 DOI: 10.2147/CEOR.S119910
    OBJECTIVE: Facial injury (FI) may occur in isolation or in association with injuries to other parts of the body (facial and other injury [FOI]). The objective of this study was to determine the direct treatment costs incurred during the management of facial trauma.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective cohort study on treatment cost for FIs and FOIs due to road-traffic crashes in two university hospitals in Malaysia was conducted from July 2010 to June 2011. The patients were recruited from emergency departments and reviewed after 6 months from the date of initial treatment. Direct cost analysis, comparison of cost and length of hospital stay, and Injury Severity Score (ISS) were performed.

    RESULTS: A total of 190 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 83 (43.7%) had FI only, and 107 (56.3%) had FOI. The mean ISS was 5.4. The mean length of stay and costs for patients with FI only were 5.8 days with a total cost of US$1,261.96, whereas patients with FOI were admitted for 7.8 days with a total cost of US$1,716.47. Costs doubled if the treatment was performed under general anesthesia compared to local anesthesia.

    CONCLUSION: Treatment of FI and FOI imposes a financial burden on the health care system in Malaysia.

  7. Cheok CY, Mohd Adzahan N, Abdul Rahman R, Zainal Abedin NH, Hussain N, Sulaiman R, et al.
    Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2018 Feb 11;58(3):335-361.
    PMID: 27246698 DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2016.1176009
    Recent rapid growth of the world's population has increased food demands. This phenomenon poses a great challenge for food manufacturers in maximizing the existing food or plant resources. Nowadays, the recovery of health benefit bioactive compounds from fruit wastes is a research trend not only to help minimize the waste burden, but also to meet the intensive demand from the public for phenolic compounds which are believed to have protective effects against chronic diseases. This review is focused on polyphenolic compounds recovery from tropical fruit wastes and its current trend of utilization. The tropical fruit wastes include in discussion are durian (Durio zibethinus), mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.), rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum), mango (Mangifera indica L.), jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), papaya (Carica papaya), passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), dragon fruit (Hylocereus spp), and pineapple (Ananas comosus). Highlights of bioactive compounds in different parts of a tropical fruit are targeted primarily for food industries as pragmatic references to create novel innovative health enhancement food products. This information is intended to inspire further research ideas in areas that are still under-explored and for food processing manufacturers who would like to minimize wastes as the norm of present day industry (design) objective.
  8. Lim JL, Yusof NS, Md Tarekh NA, Abdul Rahman R
    Cureus, 2020 Nov 19;12(11):e11580.
    PMID: 33364104 DOI: 10.7759/cureus.11580
    Dermatomyositis is often presented as paraneoplastic syndrome. The diagnosis of dermatomyositis can prompt clinicians to further investigate the underlying cause, in particular malignancy. This case report illustrates the association of lung adenocarcinoma and dermatomyositis with antecedent presentation of cutaneous and musculoskeletal manifestations, one year prior to the diagnosis of carcinoma.
  9. Abdul Rahman R, Hwen-Yee C, Noordin R
    Filaria journal, 2007;6:10.
    PMID: 17961264
    Anti-filarial IgG4 antibody has been shown to be a good marker for detection of lymphatic filaria infection. Previous studies demonstrated that anti-filarial IgG4 assay using BmR1 recombinant antigen was highly specific and sensitive for detection of brugian filariasis. For bancroftian filariasis, an equivalent assay employing recombinant antigen expressed from the ORF of SXP1 gene has been reported. In order to detect infections by all species of lymphatic filarial, BmR1 and BmSXP recombinant antigens were employed in the development of a pan LF-ELISA.
  10. Noordin R, Itoh M, Kimura E, Abdul Rahman R, Ravindran B, Mahmud R, et al.
    Filaria journal, 2007;6:9.
    PMID: 17961262
    In the global effort to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF), rapid field-applicable tests are useful tools that will allow on-site testing to be performed in remote places and the results to be obtained rapidly. Exclusive reliance on the few existing tests may jeopardize the progress of the LF elimination program, thus the introduction of other rapid tests would be useful to address this issue. Two new rapid immunochromatographic IgG4 cassette tests have been produced, namely WB rapid and panLF rapid, for detection of bancroftian filariasis and all three species of lymphatic filaria respectively. WB rapid was developed using BmSXP recombinant antigen, while PanLF rapid was developed using BmR1 and BmSXP recombinant antigens. A total of 165 WB rapid and 276 panLF rapid tests respectively were evaluated at USM and the rest were couriered to another university in Malaysia (98 WB rapid, 129 panLF rapid) and to universities in Indonesia (56 WB rapid, 62 panLF rapid), Japan (152 of each test) and India (18 of each test) where each of the tests underwent independent evaluations in a blinded manner. The average sensitivities of WB rapid and panLF rapid were found to be 97.6% (94%-100%) and 96.5% (94%-100%) respectively; while their average specificities were both 99.6% (99%-100%). Thus this study demonstrated that both the IgG4 rapid tests were highly sensitive and specific, and would be useful additional tests to facilitate the global drive to eliminate this disease.
  11. New, C.Y., Abdul Rahman, R., Son, R., Mohammed, A.S.
    Food Research, 2018;2(4):378-390.
    The safety level of microwaved foods remains at vague as this subject was less addressed
    scientifically. A study was initiated to address the matter by investigating on the
    survivability of Salmonella and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 in
    microwave heated ready-to-eat (RTE) foods using the Most Probable Number coupled
    Polymerase Chain Reaction (MPN-PCR) technique. A total of 329 samples of various
    ready-to-eat (RTE) convenience meals were collected around Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala
    Lumpur and Selangor regions. Salmonella was positively identified in 66 samples (20.1%,
  12. Cheok CY, Sobhi B, Mohd Adzahan N, Bakar J, Abdul Rahman R, Ab Karim MS, et al.
    Food Chem, 2017 Feb 1;216:10-8.
    PMID: 27596386 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.08.011
    Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is an exotic traditional Southeast Asian condiment prepared using mainly fresh chilies and fermented shrimp paste (belacan) which attributed to strong pungent fishy odor. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation (EBI) exposure on CSP for microorganisms decontamination, and its physicochemical qualities changes. Changes in capsaicinoid contents and volatile compounds were analyzed using HPLC and GC-MS. Mesophilic bacteria, yeast, mold and pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae decreased as irradiation dose increasing from 0 to 10kGy. EBI at 10kGy effectively decontaminated the samples with no significant effects on phenolic and capsaicinoids contents compared to the fresh samples. From 24 compounds, irradiated CSP retained 23 volatile compounds, while thermally treated CSP has only 19 compounds. EBI at 10kGy is effective for decontamination in CSP with lesser destructive effect on volatile compounds and texture compared to thermal treatment.
  13. Mokhtar MN, Azaharuddin I, Abdullah FH, Izaham A, Abdul Rahman R
    Front Med (Lausanne), 2022;9:1058121.
    PMID: 36569164 DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2022.1058121
    Pseudomonas putida is a rare pathogen leading to nosocomial and central nervous system infections. Despite having a low virulence and being a rare organism to cause bacteremia, it can evolve into a multidrug-resistant organism and lead to mortality and morbidity in the intensive care setting. A 64-year-old male gardener was presented with extensive acute subarachnoid hemorrhage with intraventricular extension causing hydrocephalus requiring embolization and coiling following a cerebral angiogram, which showed bilateral posterior circulation aneurysm and left anterior circulation aneurysm. External ventricular drain (EVD) was inserted given the worsening hydrocephalus. During his stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), he was becoming more septic and a full septic workup including a cerebral spinal fluid culture taken from the indwelling catheter of the EVD and was found to be positive for a ceftazidime-sensitive strain of P. putida. Following the treatment with intravenous ceftazidime for 1 week and a revision of the EVD on day 32 of admission, he continued to recover well and showed an improvement in his Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and septic parameters. Eventually, he was able to wean off mechanical ventilation. He was discharged from ICU care to the neurosurgical ward with supplemental oxygen on day 42 of admission. It is necessary to be aware of the possibility of nosocomial P. putida infection, especially in patients with indwelling catheters, and to consider the early initiation of appropriate antibiotic regimens once detected as well as strict precautions in hygiene during the management of these patients to avoid further development of multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains.
  14. Kalok A, Razak Dali W, Sharip S, Abdullah B, Kamarudin M, Dasrilsyah RA, et al.
    Front Public Health, 2023;11:1092724.
    PMID: 36908400 DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1092724
    INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a global pandemic that resulted in devastating health, economic and social disruption. Pregnant mothers are susceptible to COVID-19 complications due to physiological and immunity changes in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the maternal vaccine acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine.

    METHODS: A multi-center study across four teaching hospitals in the Klang Valley, Malaysia was conducted between September 2021 and May 2022. A survey was conducted using a self-administered electronic questionnaire. The survey instruments included; (1) maternal perception and attitude toward COVID-19 vaccination, (2) COVID-19 pregnancy-related anxiety, and 3) generalized anxiety disorder.

    RESULTS: The response rate was 96.6%, with a final number for analysis of 1,272. The majority of our women were Malays (89.5%), with a mean age (standard deviation, SD) of 32.2 (4.6). The maternal vaccine acceptance in our study was 77.1%. Household income (p < 0.001), employment status (p = 0.011), and health sector worker (p = 0.001) were independent predictors of maternal willingness to be vaccinated. COVID-19 infection to self or among social contact and greater COVID-19 pregnancy-related anxiety were associated with increased odds of accepting the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. Women who rely on the internet and social media as a source of vaccine information were more likely to be receptive to vaccination (adjusted odd ratio, AOR 1.63; 95% CI 1.14-2.33). Strong correlations were observed between maternal vaccine acceptance and the positive perception of (1) vaccine information (p < 0.001), (2) protective effects of vaccine (p < 0.001), and (3) getting vaccinated as a societal responsibility (p < 0.001).

    DISCUSSION: The high maternal vaccine acceptance rate among urban pregnant women in Malaysia is most likely related to their high socio-economic status. Responsible use of the internet and social media, alongside appropriate counseling by health professionals, is essential in reducing vaccine hesitancy among pregnant women.

  15. Abdul Rahman N, Ramli R, Abdul Rahman R, Hussaini HM, Abdul Hamid AL
    Geriatr Gerontol Int, 2010 Jan;10(1):64-9.
    PMID: 20102384 DOI: 10.1111/j.1447-0594.2009.00561.x
    Road traffic accidents are the main cause of trauma in Malaysia. It has been shown that there was an increase in admissions for trauma patients older than 60 years in the last decade. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern of maxillofacial injuries in the geriatric patients referred to Seremban Hospital, Malaysia.
  16. Mohd Adzahan, N., Mat Hashim, D., Muhammad, K., Abdul Rahman, R., Ghazali, Z., Hashim, K.
    Changes to the physicochemical properties of wheat, sago and tapioca starches subjected to gamma ray, electron beam and microwave irradiations and the conditions that lead to wheat starch having leaching behaviour similar to sago or tapioca starch were studied. The properties were characterised through swelling and leaching behaviours of the starch granules and retrogradation following pasting. The leaching of wheat starch increased tremendously and resulted in amylose to amylopectin ratios in the leachate similar to that of native sago and tapioca starches. This observation is significant as wheat starch is known to have a leachate composition of mostly amylose. This opens up the possibility of utilising wheat starch in snacks where tapioca and sago starch are commonly used. It was observed that the required conditions for such changes were exposure to microwave for 8 and 10 minutes, electron beam at 5 and 10 kGy and gamma ray at 5 kGy.
  17. Sobhi, B., Noranizan, M., Ab Karim, S., Abdul Rahman, R., Bakar, J., Ghazali, Z.
    Chili shrimp paste (CSP) is a favorite condiment in Southeast Asia. Microbial spoilage makes CSP unsuitable for consumption within several days. Thermal treatment was applied to produce microbiologically safe CSP. The effect of heating process on physicochemical and sensorial properties of CSP was studied. Heating at the optimum condition (21.6 min, 80 ˚C) has been shown effective and reliable in controlling microorganisms in CSP. Complete inactivation of peroxidase activities could not be accomplished at the optimal point, and significant reduction of the total phenolic and capsaicinoids contents was observed. Sensorial evaluation indicated that thermally processed CSP was less preferred by panelists when compared to freshly prepared samples of dry weight respectively.
  18. Liza, M.S., Abdul Rahman, R., Mandana, B., Jinap, S., Rahmat, A., Zaidul, I.S.M., et al.
    Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SC-CO2) of bioactive flavonoid from Strobilanthes crispus (Pecah Kaca) was performed to study the effects of various parameters such as pressure, temperature and dynamic extraction time on the yield and composition of bioactive flavonoid. The results were also compared with those obtained by conventional Soxhlet extraction in lab conditions. The results from SFE showed that the effect of extraction variables on extraction yields decreased in the following order: pressure, temperature and dynamic extraction time. The extraction pressure played a dominant role in the yield of the sample while the effect of time could be ignored. This study also revealed that both Soxhlet extraction and SC-CO2 extraction can be used to obtain flavonoid compound. Under the optimum conditions, the highest bioactive flavonoid compound content was obtained at 3.98% and eight flavonoid compounds were identified by HPLC.
  19. Abdul Afiq, M.J., Abdul Rahman, R., Che Man, Y.B., AL-Kahtani, H.A., Mansor, T.S.T.
    Date palm is an important plant in arid regions with more than 20 varieties reported all over the world. Date seed is a byproduct of date fruit industry which is normally being discarded, used as animal feed ingredient or turned into non-caffeinated coffee by the Arabs. About 11-18% of date fruit weight is the seed which is composed of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat, ash and protein. In addition, the antioxidant content in date seed oil (DSO) was found to be comparable with olive oil, which can be as a good source of antioxidant in order to fulfill the consumers demand. Oleic acid is the major fatty acid found in DSO, followed by lauric, linoleic, palmitic and myristic acid. However, different varieties of date fruits have different fatty acid compositions. This paper reviewed the potential use of date seed and date seed oil in order to discover and develop its usage and find out the suitable application of these seed and oil.
  20. Zainal Abidin, M., Shamsudin, R., Othman, Z., Abdul Rahman, R.
    Cantaloupes continue to ripen after harvesting which is caused by ethylene production due to climacteric behaviour during postharvest storage. In this study, the cantaloupe fruits harvested at commercial maturity were evaluated for quality attributes during three weeks of storage at 10°C and a relative humidity (RH) of 90±5%. In addition, fresh-cut samples were stored for a further 19 days at 2°C and 87% RH. The fresh-cut samples were prepared on a weekly basis by dipping into deionised water (control) at 2°C for 1 minute. The effect of postharvest storage of cantaloupe on the physico-chemical properties and microbial activity was observed prior to fresh-cut processing. It was found that firmness, luminosity (L*), and titratable acidity (TA) decreased, while total soluble solids (TSS), pH, TSS:TA ratio, microbial activity (total plate count (TPC) and yeast and mould (YM)) of the fresh-cut increased over the postharvest storage period of the fruit. Meanwhile, the orange colour and the intensity (hue angle, hab, and chromaticity) of the flesh did not differ significantly during storage. The cantaloupe stored for three weeks at a low temperature indicated a successful potential for fresh-cut processing due to good maintenance of the product quality.
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