Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Zamrus SNH, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Quah CK, Loh WS, Alitheen NB, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Mar 19;12(1):31.
    PMID: 29556774 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0398-1
    BACKGROUND: Curcumin is one of the leading compound extracted from the dry powder of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae family), which possess several pharmacological properties. However, in vivo administration exhibited limited applications in cancer therapies.

    RESULTS: Twenty-four curcumin derivatives have synthesized, which comprises cyclohexanone 1-10, acetone 11-17 and cyclopentanone 18-24 series. All the curcuminoids were synthesized by the acid or base catalyzed Claisen Schmidt condenstion reactions, in which β-diketone moiety of curcumin was modified with mono-ketone. These curcuminoids 1-24 were screened against HeLa, K562, MCF-7 (an estrogen-dependent) and MDA-MB-231 (an estrogen-independent) cancer cell lines. Among them, acetone series 11-17 were found to be more selective and potential cytotoxic agents. The compound 14 was exhibited (IC50 = 3.02 ± 1.20 and 1.52 ± 0.60 µg/mL) against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Among the cyclohexanone series, the compound 4 exhibited (IC50 = 11.04 ± 2.80, 6.50 ± 01.80, 8.70 ± 3.10 and 2.30 ± 1.60 µg/mL) potential cytotoxicity against four proposed cancer cell lines, respectively. All the curcucminoids were characterized with the detailed1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The structure of compound 4 was confirmed by using the single X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we are going to report the first time spectral data of (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (1). Structure-activity relationships revealed that the mono-carbonyl with 2,5-dimethoxy substituted curcuminoids could be an essential for the future drugs against cancer diseases.

    CONCLUSIONS: Curcuminoids with diferuloyl(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyl) moiety with mono carbonyl exhibiting potential cytotoxic properties. The compound 14 was exhibited (IC50 = 3.02 ± 1.20 and 1.52 ± 0.60 µg/mL) against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines.

  2. Yeap S, Akhtar MN, Lim KL, Abu N, Ho WY, Zareen S, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:983-92.
    PMID: 25733816 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S65468
    Anthraquinones are an important class of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. In this study, anthraquinone derivative 1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2- carboxylic acid (DHAQC) (2) was synthesized with 32% yield through the Friedel-Crafts condensation reaction. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of DHAQC (2) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were further investigated. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that DHAQC (2) exhibited potential cytotoxicity and selectivity in the MCF-7 cell line, comparable with the naturally occurring anthraquinone damnacanthal. DHAQC (2) showed a slightly higher IC50 (inhibitory concentration with 50% cell viability) value in the MCF-7 cell line compared to damnacanthal, but it is more selective in terms of the ratio of IC50 on MCF-7 cells and normal MCF-10A cells. (selective index for DHAQC (2) was 2.3 and 1.7 for damnacanthal). The flow cytometry cell cycle analysis on the MCF-7 cell line treated with the IC50 dose of DHAQC (2) for 48 hours showed that DHAQC (2) arrested MCF-7 cell line at the G2/M phase in association with an inhibited expression of PLK1 genes. Western blot analysis also indicated that the DHAQC (2) increased BAX, p53, and cytochrome c levels in MCF-7 cells, which subsequently activated apoptosis as observed in annexin V/propidium iodide and cell cycle analyses. These results indicate that DHAQC (2) is a synthetic, cytotoxic, and selective anthraquinone, which is less toxic than the natural product damnacanthal, and which demonstrates potential in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
  3. Yahya N, Akhtar MN, Koziol K
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2012 Oct;12(10):8116-22.
    PMID: 23421187
    Magnetic nanoparticles in the hollow region of carbon nanotubes have attraction due to their changing physical electrical and magnetic properties. Nickel zinc ferrite plays an important role in many applications due to its superior magnetic properties. Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals were encapsulated in multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The magnetic nano crystals were prepared using a sol-gel self combustion method at the sintering temperature of 750 degrees C and were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM and VSM. Initial permeability, Q-factor and relative loss factor were measured by impedance vector network analyzer. XRD patterns were used for the phase identification. FESEM images show morphology and dimensions of the grains of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals and Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in MWCNTs. TEM images were used to investigate single crystal and encapsulation of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in the MWCNTs. VSM results confirmed super paramagnetic behaviour of encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals. It was also attributed that encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in MWCNTs showed a higher initial permeability (51.608), Q-factor (67.069), and low loss factor (0.0002) as compared to Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals. The new encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in the MWCNTs may have potential applications in electronic and medical industries.
  4. Yahya N, Akhtar MN, Nasir N, Shafie A, Jabeli MS, Koziol K
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2012 Oct;12(10):8100-9.
    PMID: 23421185
    In seabed logging the magnitude of electromagnetic (EM) waves for the detection of a hydrocarbon reservoir in the marine environment is very important. Having a strong EM source for exploration target 4000 m below the sea floor is a very challenging task. A new carbon nanotubes (CNT) fibres/aluminium based EM transmitter is developed and NiZn ferrite as magnetic feeders was used in a scaled tank to evaluate the presence of oil. Resistive scaled tank experiments with a scale factor of 2000 were carried out. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) were done to characterize the synthesized magnetic feeders. Single phase Ni0.76Mg0.04Zn0.2Fe2O4, obtained by the sol-gel method and sintered at 700 degrees C in air, has a [311] major peak. FESEM results show nanoparticles with average diameters of 17-45 nm. Samples which have a high Q-factor (approximately 50) was used as magnetic feeders for the EM transmitter. The magnitude of the EM waves of this new EM transmitter increases up to 400%. A curve fitting method using MATLAB software was done to evaluate the performance of the new EM transmitter. The correlation value with CNT fibres/aluminium-NiZnFe2O4 base transmitter shows a 152.5% increase of the magnetic field strength in the presence of oil. Modelling of the scale tank which replicates the marine environment was done using the Finite Element Method (FEM). In conclusion, FEM was able to delineate the presence of oil with greater magnitude of E-field (16.89%) and the B field (4.20%) due to the new EM transmitter.
  5. Yahya N, Al Habashi RM, Koziol K, Borkowski RD, Akhtar MN, Kashif M, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2011 Mar;11(3):2652-6.
    PMID: 21449447
    Aluminum substituted yttrium iron garnet nano particles with compositional variation of Y(3.0-x) A1(x)Fe5O12, where x = 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 were prepared using sol gel technique. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the best garnet phase appeared when the sintering temperature was 800 degrees C. Nano-crystalline particles with high purity and sizes ranging from 20 to 100 nm were obtained. It was found that the aluminum substitution had resulted in a sharp fall of the d-spacing when x = 2, which we speculated is due to the preference of the aluminum atoms to the smaller tetrahedron and octahedron sites instead of the much larger dodecahedron site. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and electron diffraction (ED) patterns showed single crystal nanoparticles were obtained from this method. The magnetic measurement gave moderate values of initial permeability; the highest value of 5.3 was shown by sample Y3Fe5O12 at more than 100 MHz which was attributed to the morphology of the microstructure which appeared to be homogeneous. This had resulted in an easy movement of domain walls. The substitution of aluminum for yttrium is speculated to cause a cubic to rhombodedral structural change and had weakened the super-exchange interactions thus a fall of real permeability was observed. This might have created a strain in the sub-lattices and had subsequently caused a shift of resonance frequencies to more than 1.8 GHz when x > 0.5.
  6. Voon FL, Sulaiman MR, Akhtar MN, Idris MF, Akira A, Perimal EK, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2017 Jan 05;794:127-134.
    PMID: 27845065 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.11.009
    Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. had been traditionally used as herbs to treat pain and rheumatism. Cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone) is a compound isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.. Previous study had shown the potential of cardamonin in inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro. Thus, the possible therapeutic effect of cardamonin in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints is postulated. This study was performed to investigate the anti-arthritic properties of cardamonin in rat model of induced RA, particularly on the inflammatory and pain response of RA. Rheumatoid arthritis paw inflammation was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in Sprague Dawley rats. Using four doses of cardamonin (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0mg/kg), anti-arthritic activity was evaluated through the paw edema, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia responses. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the plasma level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Histological slides were prepared from the harvested rat paws to observe the arthritic changes in the joints. Behavioral, biochemical, and histological studies showed that cardamonin demonstrated significant inhibition on RA-induced inflammatory and pain responses as well as progression of joint destruction in rats. ELISA results showed that there was significant inhibition in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in plasma of the cardamonin-treated RA rats. Overall, cardamonin possesses potential anti-arthritic properties in CFA-induced RA rat model.
  7. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Tasrip NA, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2010 Oct;81(7):855-8.
    PMID: 20546845 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.05.009
    The anti-inflammatory activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation test in mice. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of 1 at a dose of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan. It was also demonstrated that 1 at similar doses significantly suppressed granulomatous tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test.
  8. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Zakaria ZA, Mokhtar F, Akhtar MN, Lajis NH, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2009 Jun;80(4):230-2.
    PMID: 19535012 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.02.002
    We have investigated the antinociceptive activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot plate test in mice. 1 given by intraperitoneal route produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the test models used. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 1 in the hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action.
  9. Shaari K, Zareen S, Akhtar MN, Lajis NH
    Nat Prod Commun, 2011 Mar;6(3):343-8.
    PMID: 21485271
    Phytochemical investigations on the methanolic extract of Melicope ptelefolia Champ ex Benth. resulted in the isolation of three new compounds, identified as 3beta-stigmast-5-en-3-ol butyl tridecanedioate (melicoester) (1), (2Z, 6Z, 10Z, 14Z, 18Z, 22Z, 26E)-3', 7', 11', 15', 19', 23', 27', 31'-octamethyldotriaconta-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30-octadecanoate (melicopeprenoate) (2) and p-O-geranyl-7"-acetoxy coumaric acid (3). The compounds were isolated along with twenty-one other known compounds, lupeol (4), oleanolic acid (5), kokusaginine (6) genistein (7), p-O-geranyl coumaric acid (8), 4-stigmasten-3-one (9), 3beta-hydroxystigma-5-en-7-one (10) cis-phytyl palmitate (11), dodecane, dodecan-1-ol, ceryl alcohol, hentriacontanoic acid, eicosane, n-amyl alcohol, caprylic alcohol, octatriacontane, nonatriacontane, hexatriencontan-1-ol, methyl octacosanoate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside. Structures of all the compounds were established on the basis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, as well as comparison with reported data.
  10. Rizwan K, Rasool N, Rehman R, Mahmood T, Ayub K, Rasheed T, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Jul 17;12(1):84.
    PMID: 30019193 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0451-0
    A variety of imine derivatives have been synthesized via Suzuki cross coupling of N-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(3-bromothiophen-2-yl)methanimine with various arylboronic acids in moderate to good yields (58-72%). A wide range of electron donating and withdrawing functional groups were well tolerated in reaction conditions. To explore the structural properties, Density functional theory (DFT) investigations on all synthesized molecules (3a-3i) were performed. Conceptual DFT reactivity descriptors and molecular electrostatic potential analyses were performed by using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method to explore the reactivity and reacting sites of all derivatives (3a-3i).
  11. Rizwan K, Zubair M, Rasool N, Mahmood T, Ayub K, Alitheen NB, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 May 04;12(1):49.
    PMID: 29728881 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0404-7
    Thiophene derivatives have shown versatile pharmacological activities. The Suzuki reaction proved a convenient method for C-C bond formations in organic molecules. In the present research work novel derivatives of 2,5-dibromo-3-methylthiophene (3a-k and 3l-p) has been synthesized, via Suzuki coupling reaction in low to moderate yields. A wide range of functional groups were well tolerated in reaction. Density functional theory investigations on all synthesized derivatives (3a-3p) were performed in order to explore the structural properties. The pharmaceutical potential of synthesized compounds was investigated through various bioassays (antioxidant, antibacterial, antiurease activities). The compounds 3l, 3g, 3j, showed excellent antioxidant activity (86.0, 82.0, 81.3%), respectively by scavenging DPPH. Synthesized compounds showed promising antibacterial activity against tested strains. 3b, 3k, 3a, 3d and 3j showed potential antiurease activity with 67.7, 64.2, 58.8, 54.7 and 52.1% inhibition at 50 µg/ml. Results indicated that synthesized molecules could be a potential source of pharmaceutical agents.
  12. Rauf A, Shahzad S, Bajda M, Yar M, Ahmed F, Hussain N, et al.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2015 Sep 1;23(17):6049-58.
    PMID: 26081763 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.05.038
    In this study 36 new compounds were synthesized by condensing barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid and respective anilines (bearing different substituents) in the presence of triethyl orthoformate in good yields. In vitro urease inhibition studies against jack bean urease revealed that barbituric acid derived compounds (1-9 and 19-27) were found to exhibit low to moderate activity however thiobarbituric acid derived compounds (10-18 and 28-36) showed significant inhibition activity at low micro-molar concentrations. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds (15), (12), (10), (36), (16) and (35) showed excellent urease inhibition with IC50 values 8.53 ± 0.027, 8.93 ± 0.027, 12.96 ± 0.13, 15 ± 0.098, 18.9 ± 0.027 and 19.7 ± 0.63 μM, respectively, even better than the reference compound thiourea (IC50 = 21 ± 0.011). The compound (11) exhibited comparable activity to the standard with IC50 value 21.83 ± 0.19 μM. In silico molecular docking studies for most active compounds (10), (12), (15), (16), (35) and (36) and two inactive compounds (3) and (6) were performed to predict the binding patterns.
  13. Rajajendram R, Tham CL, Akhtar MN, Sulaiman MR, Israf DA
    Mediators Inflamm., 2015;2015:176926.
    PMID: 26300589 DOI: 10.1155/2015/176926
    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The interaction between airway epithelium and inflammatory mediators plays a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In vitro studies evaluated the inhibitory effects of 3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (DMPF-1), a synthetic chalcone analogue, upon inflammation in the A549 lung epithelial cell line. DMPF-1 selectively inhibited TNF-α-stimulated CC chemokine secretion (RANTES, eotaxin-1, and MCP-1) without any effect upon CXC chemokine (GRO-α and IL-8) secretion. Western blot analysis further demonstrated that the inhibitory activity resulted from disruption of p65NF-κB nuclear translocation without any effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged BALB/c mice with DMPF-1 (0.2-100 mg/kg) demonstrated significant reduction in the secretion and gene expression of CC chemokines (RANTES, eotaxin-1, and MCP-1) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13). Furthermore, DMPF-1 treatment inhibited eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, peripheral blood total IgE, and airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the potential of DMPF-1, a nonsteroidal compound, as an antiasthmatic agent for further pharmacological evaluation.
  14. Ping CP, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Akhtar MN, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf Ali DA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 03;23(9).
    PMID: 30177603 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092237
    Pain is one of the most common cause for hospital visits. It plays an important role in inflammation and serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. Analgesics are used to manage pain and provide comfort to patients. However, prolonged usage of pain treatments like opioids and NSAIDs are accompanied with undesirable side effects. Therefore, research to identify novel compounds that produce analgesia with lesser side effects are necessary. The present study investigated the antinociceptive potentials of a natural compound, cardamonin, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Our findings showed that intraperitoneal and oral administration of cardamonin (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of pain in abdominal writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The present study also demonstrated that cardamonin produced significant analgesia in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. In the thermal-induced nociception model, cardamonin exhibited significant increase in response latency time of animals subjected to hot-plate thermal stimuli. The rota-rod assessment confirmed that the antinociceptive activities elicited by cardamonin was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the compound. In conclusion, the present findings showed that cardamonin exerted significant peripheral and central antinociception through chemical- and thermal-induced nociception in mice through the involvement of TRPV₁, glutamate, and opioid receptors.
  15. Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Ming OH, Khalid S, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2011 Mar;108(3):155-62.
    PMID: 20955360 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00635.x
    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of zerumbone in chemical behavioural models of nociception in mice. Zerumbone given through intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced dose-related antinociception when assessed on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. In addition, the i.p. administration of zerumbone exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of capsaicin and bradykinin. Likewise, zerumbone given by i.p. route reduced the nociception produced by i.pl. injection of glutamate and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The antinociception caused by zerumbone in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with l-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor). However, the antinociception of zerumbone was enhanced by methylene blue (non-specific gyanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Together, these results indicate that zerumbone produces pronounced antinociception against chemical models of nociception in mice. It also strongly suggests that the l-arginine-nitric oxide-cGMP-PKC-K(+) ATP channel pathways, the TRPV1 and kinin B2 receptors play an important role in the zerumbone-induced antinociception.
  16. Nasir N, Yahya N, Kashif M, Daud H, Akhtar MN, Zaid HM, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2011 Mar;11(3):2551-4.
    PMID: 21449424
    This is our initial response towards preparation of nano-inductors garnet for high operating frequencies strontium iron garnet (Sr3Fe5O12) denoted as SrIG and yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12) denoted as YIG. The garnet nano crystals were prepared by novel sol-gel technique. The phase and crystal structure of the prepared samples were identified by using X-ray diffraction analysis. SEM images were done to reveal the surface morphology of the samples. Raman spectra was taken for yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12). The magnetic properties of the samples namely initial permeability (micro), relative loss factor (RLF) and quality factor (Q-Factor) were done by using LCR meter. From the XRD profile, both of the Y3Fe5O12 and Sr3Fe5O12 samples showed single phase garnet and crystallization had completely occurred at 900 degrees C for the SrIG and 950 degrees C for the YIG samples. The YIG sample showed extremely low RLF value (0.0082) and high density 4.623 g/cm3. Interesting however is the high Q factor (20-60) shown by the Sr3Fe5O12 sample from 20-100 MHz. This high performance magnetic property is attributed to the homogenous and cubical-like microstructure. The YIG particles were used as magnetic feeder for EM transmitter. It was observed that YIG magnetic feeder with the EM transmitter gave 39% higher magnetic field than without YIG magnetic feeder.
  17. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Khalivulla SI, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, Ong HM, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2011 Jun;108(6):400-5.
    PMID: 21214864 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00670.x
    The possible mechanisms of action in the antinociceptive activity induced by systemic administration (intraperitoneal, i.p.) of flavokawin B (FKB) were analysed using chemical models of nociception in mice. It was demonstrated that i.p. administration of FKB to the mice at 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10 mg/kg produced significant dose-related reduction in the number of abdominal constrictions. The antinociception induced by FKB in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthase or glibenclamide, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor, but was enhanced by methylene blue, the non-specific guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. FKB also produced dose-dependent inhibition of licking response caused by intraplantar injection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator (PKC). Together, these data indicate that the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/PKC/ATP-sensitive K(+) channel pathway possibly participated in the antinociceptive action induced by FKB.
  18. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Zakaria ZA, Perimal EK, Khalid S, Mohd PA, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2010 Nov 25;647(1-3):103-9.
    PMID: 20826146 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.08.030
    The present study examined the potential antinociceptive activity of flavokawin B (6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone), a synthetic chalcone using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models in mice. It was demonstrated that flavokawin B (FKB; 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) administered via both oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition in the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, with the i.p. route producing antinociception of approximately 7-fold more potent than the p.o. route. It was also demonstrated that FKB produced significant inhibition in the two phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test. In addition, the same treatment of flavokawin B (FKB) exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin. Likewise, this compound also induced a significant increase in the response latency period to thermal stimuli in the hot plate test and its antinociceptive effect was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative action. Moreover, the antinociception effect of the FKB in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot plate test was not affected by pretreatment of non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. The present results indicate that FKB produced pronounced antinociception effect against both chemical and thermal models of pain in mice that exhibited both peripheral and central analgesic activity.
  19. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 2013 Dec;114-115:58-63.
    PMID: 24201054 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.10.019
    The present study investigated the analgesic effect of a novel synthetic cyclohexanone derivative, 2,6-bis-4-(hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzilidine)-cyclohexanone or BHMC in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in mice, when evaluated using Randall-Selitto mechanical analgesiometer. It was also demonstrated that pretreatment of naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor blocker), nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI, selective κ-opioid receptor blocker), but not β-funaltrexamine (β-FN, selective μ-opioid receptor blocker) and naltrindole hydrochloride (NTI, selective δ-opioid receptor blocker), reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of BHMC. In addition, the analgesic effect of BHMC was also reverted by pretreatment of 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, soluble guanosyl cyclase blocker) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) but not Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase blocker). Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the systemic administration of BHMC attenuated chronic constriction, injury-induced neuropathic pain. We also suggested that the possible mechanisms include κ-opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide-independent cyclic guanosine monophosphate activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel opening.
  20. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Mar;110(3):275-82.
    PMID: 21967232 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00804.x
    This study investigated the potential antinociceptive efficacy of a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHMC), using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception test models in mice. BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) administered via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice with an ID(50) of 0.15 (0.13-0.18) mg/kg. It was also demonstrated that BHMC produced significant inhibition in both neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phases (second phase) of the formalin-induced paw licking test with an ID(50) of 0.35 (0.27-0.46) mg/kg and 0.07 (0.06-0.08) mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, BHMC also exerted significant increase in the response latency period in the hot-plate test. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of the BHMC in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot-plate test was antagonized by pre-treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Together, these results indicate that the compound acts both centrally and peripherally. In addition, administration of BHMC exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociception induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin with ID(50) of 0.66 (0.41-1.07) mg/kg and 0.42 (0.38-0.51) mg/kg, respectively. Finally, it was also shown that BHMC-induced antinociception was devoid of toxic effects and its antinociceptive effect was associated with neither muscle relaxant nor sedative action. In conclusion, BHMC at all doses investigated did not cause any toxic and sedative effects and produced pronounced central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. The central antinociceptive activity of BHMC was possibly mediated through activation of the opioid system as well as inhibition of the glutamatergic system and TRPV1 receptors, while the peripheral antinociceptive activity was perhaps mediated through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators.
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