Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 2015;15(7):905-15.
    PMID: 26179368
    Flavokawain A is a chalcone that can be found in the kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) extract. The kava-kava plant has been reported to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities. The state of the immune system, and the inflammatory process play vital roles in the progression of cancer. The immunomodulatary effects and the anti-inflammatory effects of flavokawain A in a breast cancer murine model have not been studied yet. Thus, this study aimed to elucidate the basic mechanism as to how flavokawain A regulates and enhance the immune system as well as impeding the inflammatory process in breast cancer-challenged mice. Based on our study, it is interesting to note that flavokawain A increased the T cell population; both Th1 cells and CTLs, aside from the natural killer cells. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 were also elevated in the serum of flavokawain A-treated mice. Apart from that, flavokawain A also decreased the weight and volume of the tumor, and managed to induce apoptosis in them. In terms of inflammation, flavokawain A-treated mice had reduced level of major pro-inflammatory mediators; NO, iNOS, NF-KB, ICAM and COX-2. Overall, flavokawain A has the potential to not only enhance antitumor immunity, but also prevents the inflammatory process in a cancer-prone microenvironment.
  2. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Ho WY, Abdullah MP, et al.
    PMID: 26922065 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-1046-8
    The kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum) is traditionally consumed by the pacific islanders and has been linked to be involved in several biological activities. Flavokawain B is a unique chalcone, which can be found in the roots of the kava-kava plant. In this study, the operational mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of a synthetic Flavokawain B (FKB) on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 was investigated.
  3. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Khalivulla SI, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, Ong HM, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2011 Jun;108(6):400-5.
    PMID: 21214864 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00670.x
    The possible mechanisms of action in the antinociceptive activity induced by systemic administration (intraperitoneal, i.p.) of flavokawin B (FKB) were analysed using chemical models of nociception in mice. It was demonstrated that i.p. administration of FKB to the mice at 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 and 10 mg/kg produced significant dose-related reduction in the number of abdominal constrictions. The antinociception induced by FKB in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with L-arginine, the substrate for nitric oxide synthase or glibenclamide, the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor, but was enhanced by methylene blue, the non-specific guanylyl cyclase inhibitor. FKB also produced dose-dependent inhibition of licking response caused by intraplantar injection of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator (PKC). Together, these data indicate that the NO/cyclic guanosine monophosphate/PKC/ATP-sensitive K(+) channel pathway possibly participated in the antinociceptive action induced by FKB.
  4. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Perimal EK, Khalid MH, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2012 Mar;110(3):275-82.
    PMID: 21967232 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2011.00804.x
    This study investigated the potential antinociceptive efficacy of a novel synthetic curcuminoid analogue, 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (BHMC), using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception test models in mice. BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0 mg/kg) administered via intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced significant dose-related inhibition in the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction test in mice with an ID(50) of 0.15 (0.13-0.18) mg/kg. It was also demonstrated that BHMC produced significant inhibition in both neurogenic (first phase) and inflammatory phases (second phase) of the formalin-induced paw licking test with an ID(50) of 0.35 (0.27-0.46) mg/kg and 0.07 (0.06-0.08) mg/kg, respectively. Similarly, BHMC also exerted significant increase in the response latency period in the hot-plate test. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of the BHMC in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot-plate test was antagonized by pre-treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Together, these results indicate that the compound acts both centrally and peripherally. In addition, administration of BHMC exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociception induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin with ID(50) of 0.66 (0.41-1.07) mg/kg and 0.42 (0.38-0.51) mg/kg, respectively. Finally, it was also shown that BHMC-induced antinociception was devoid of toxic effects and its antinociceptive effect was associated with neither muscle relaxant nor sedative action. In conclusion, BHMC at all doses investigated did not cause any toxic and sedative effects and produced pronounced central and peripheral antinociceptive activities. The central antinociceptive activity of BHMC was possibly mediated through activation of the opioid system as well as inhibition of the glutamatergic system and TRPV1 receptors, while the peripheral antinociceptive activity was perhaps mediated through inhibition of various inflammatory mediators.
  5. Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Ming OH, Khalid S, et al.
    Basic Clin. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 2011 Mar;108(3):155-62.
    PMID: 20955360 DOI: 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2010.00635.x
    This study investigated the antinociceptive effects of zerumbone in chemical behavioural models of nociception in mice. Zerumbone given through intraperitoneal route (i.p.) produced dose-related antinociception when assessed on acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test in mice. In addition, the i.p. administration of zerumbone exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic pain induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of capsaicin and bradykinin. Likewise, zerumbone given by i.p. route reduced the nociception produced by i.pl. injection of glutamate and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The antinociception caused by zerumbone in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by i.p. pre-treatment of mice with l-arginine (nitric oxide precursor) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive K(+) channel inhibitor). However, the antinociception of zerumbone was enhanced by methylene blue (non-specific gyanylyl cyclase inhibitor). Together, these results indicate that zerumbone produces pronounced antinociception against chemical models of nociception in mice. It also strongly suggests that the l-arginine-nitric oxide-cGMP-PKC-K(+) ATP channel pathways, the TRPV1 and kinin B2 receptors play an important role in the zerumbone-induced antinociception.
  6. Rauf A, Shahzad S, Bajda M, Yar M, Ahmed F, Hussain N, et al.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2015 Sep 1;23(17):6049-58.
    PMID: 26081763 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2015.05.038
    In this study 36 new compounds were synthesized by condensing barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid and respective anilines (bearing different substituents) in the presence of triethyl orthoformate in good yields. In vitro urease inhibition studies against jack bean urease revealed that barbituric acid derived compounds (1-9 and 19-27) were found to exhibit low to moderate activity however thiobarbituric acid derived compounds (10-18 and 28-36) showed significant inhibition activity at low micro-molar concentrations. Among the synthesized compounds, compounds (15), (12), (10), (36), (16) and (35) showed excellent urease inhibition with IC50 values 8.53 ± 0.027, 8.93 ± 0.027, 12.96 ± 0.13, 15 ± 0.098, 18.9 ± 0.027 and 19.7 ± 0.63 μM, respectively, even better than the reference compound thiourea (IC50 = 21 ± 0.011). The compound (11) exhibited comparable activity to the standard with IC50 value 21.83 ± 0.19 μM. In silico molecular docking studies for most active compounds (10), (12), (15), (16), (35) and (36) and two inactive compounds (3) and (6) were performed to predict the binding patterns.
  7. Akhtar MN, Lam KW, Abas F, Maulidiani, Ahmad S, Shah SA, et al.
    Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 2011 Jul 1;21(13):4097-103.
    PMID: 21641207 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.04.065
    Bioassay-guided extraction of the stem bark of Knema laurina showed the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity of DCM and hexane fractions. Further repeated column chromatography of hexane and DCM fractions resulted in the isolation and purification of five alkenyl phenol and salicylic acid derivatives. New compounds, (+)-2-hydroxy-6-(10'-hydroxypentadec-8'(E)-enyl)benzoic acid (1) and 3-pentadec-10'(Z)-enylphenol (2), along with known 3-heptadec-10'(Z)-enylphenol (3), 2-hydroxy-6-(pentadec-10'(Z)-enyl)benzoic acid (4), and 2-hydroxy-6-(10'(Z)-heptadecenyl)benzoic acid (5) were isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Compounds (1-5) were tested for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by the 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and chemical derivatizations. Compound 5 showed strong acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity with IC(50) of 0.573 ± 0.0260 μM. Docking studies of compound 5 indicated that the phenolic compound with an elongated side chain could possibly penetrate deep into the active site of the enzyme and arrange itself through π-π interaction, H-bonding, and hydrophobic contacts with some critical residues along the complex geometry of the active gorge.
  8. Abu N, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Akhtar MN, Abdullah MP, Omar AR, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2013;13(1):102.
    PMID: 24148263 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2867-13-102
    Plant-based compounds have been in the spotlight in search of new and promising drugs. Flavokawain A, B and C are naturally occurring chalcones that have been isolated from several medicinal plants; namely the piper methysticum or commercially known as the kava-kava. Multiple researches have been done to evaluate the bioactivities of these compounds. It has been shown that all three flavokawains may hold promising anti-cancer effects. It has also been revealed that both flavokawain A and B are involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest in several cancer cell lines. Nevertheless, flavokawain B was shown to be more effective in treating in vitro cancer cell lines as compared to flavokawain A and C. Flavokawain B also exerts antinociceptive effects as well as anti-inflammation properties. This mini-review attempts to discuss the biological properties of all the flavokawains that have been reported.
  9. Ali NM, Yeap SK, Abu N, Lim KL, Ky H, Pauzi AZM, et al.
    Cancer Cell Int., 2017;17:30.
    PMID: 28239299 DOI: 10.1186/s12935-017-0400-3
    AIMS: Curcumin is a lead compound of the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. Chemically, curcumin is 1,3-dicarbonyl class of compound, which exhibits keto-enol tautomerism. Despite of its strong biological properties, curcumin has yet been recommended as a therapeutic agent because of its poor bioavailability.

    MAIN METHODS: A curcumin derivative (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (DK1) was synthesized and its cytotoxicity was tested on breast cancer cell MCF-7 and normal cell MCF-10A using MTT assay. Meanwhile, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis on MCF-7 cell were evaluated using flow cytometry. Regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis related genes expression was investigated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blot and caspases activity analyses. Activation of oxidative stress on MCF-7 were evaluated by measuring ROS and GSH levels.

    KEY FINDINGS: DK1 was found to possess selective cytotoxicity on breast cancer MCF-7 cell than normal MCF-10A cell. Flow cytometry cell cycle and AnnexinV/PI analyses reported that DK1 effectively arrested MCF-7 at G2/M phase and induced apoptosis after 72 h of incubation than curcumin. Upregulation of p53, p21 and downregulation of PLK-1 subsequently promote phosphorylation of CDC2 which were found contributed to the arrest of G2/M phase. Moreover, increased of reactive oxygen species and reduced of antioxidant glutathione level correlate with apoptosis observed with raised of cytochrome c and active caspase 9.

    SIGNIFICANCE: DK1 was found to be more effective in inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis against MCF-7 cell with much higher selectivity index of MCF-10A/MCF-7 than curcumin, which might be contributed by the overexpression of p53 protein.

  10. Zamrus SNH, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Quah CK, Loh WS, Alitheen NB, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Mar 19;12(1):31.
    PMID: 29556774 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0398-1
    BACKGROUND: Curcumin is one of the leading compound extracted from the dry powder of Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae family), which possess several pharmacological properties. However, in vivo administration exhibited limited applications in cancer therapies.

    RESULTS: Twenty-four curcumin derivatives have synthesized, which comprises cyclohexanone 1-10, acetone 11-17 and cyclopentanone 18-24 series. All the curcuminoids were synthesized by the acid or base catalyzed Claisen Schmidt condenstion reactions, in which β-diketone moiety of curcumin was modified with mono-ketone. These curcuminoids 1-24 were screened against HeLa, K562, MCF-7 (an estrogen-dependent) and MDA-MB-231 (an estrogen-independent) cancer cell lines. Among them, acetone series 11-17 were found to be more selective and potential cytotoxic agents. The compound 14 was exhibited (IC50 = 3.02 ± 1.20 and 1.52 ± 0.60 µg/mL) against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. Among the cyclohexanone series, the compound 4 exhibited (IC50 = 11.04 ± 2.80, 6.50 ± 01.80, 8.70 ± 3.10 and 2.30 ± 1.60 µg/mL) potential cytotoxicity against four proposed cancer cell lines, respectively. All the curcucminoids were characterized with the detailed1H NMR, IR, UV-Vis, and mass spectroscopic techniques. The structure of compound 4 was confirmed by using the single X-ray crystallography. Additionally, we are going to report the first time spectral data of (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-methoxybenzylidene)cyclohexanone (1). Structure-activity relationships revealed that the mono-carbonyl with 2,5-dimethoxy substituted curcuminoids could be an essential for the future drugs against cancer diseases.

    CONCLUSIONS: Curcuminoids with diferuloyl(4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamoyl) moiety with mono carbonyl exhibiting potential cytotoxic properties. The compound 14 was exhibited (IC50 = 3.02 ± 1.20 and 1.52 ± 0.60 µg/mL) against MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines.

  11. Rizwan K, Zubair M, Rasool N, Mahmood T, Ayub K, Alitheen NB, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 May 04;12(1):49.
    PMID: 29728881 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0404-7
    Thiophene derivatives have shown versatile pharmacological activities. The Suzuki reaction proved a convenient method for C-C bond formations in organic molecules. In the present research work novel derivatives of 2,5-dibromo-3-methylthiophene (3a-k and 3l-p) has been synthesized, via Suzuki coupling reaction in low to moderate yields. A wide range of functional groups were well tolerated in reaction. Density functional theory investigations on all synthesized derivatives (3a-3p) were performed in order to explore the structural properties. The pharmaceutical potential of synthesized compounds was investigated through various bioassays (antioxidant, antibacterial, antiurease activities). The compounds 3l, 3g, 3j, showed excellent antioxidant activity (86.0, 82.0, 81.3%), respectively by scavenging DPPH. Synthesized compounds showed promising antibacterial activity against tested strains. 3b, 3k, 3a, 3d and 3j showed potential antiurease activity with 67.7, 64.2, 58.8, 54.7 and 52.1% inhibition at 50 µg/ml. Results indicated that synthesized molecules could be a potential source of pharmaceutical agents.
  12. Rizwan K, Rasool N, Rehman R, Mahmood T, Ayub K, Rasheed T, et al.
    Chem Cent J, 2018 Jul 17;12(1):84.
    PMID: 30019193 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-018-0451-0
    A variety of imine derivatives have been synthesized via Suzuki cross coupling of N-(4-bromophenyl)-1-(3-bromothiophen-2-yl)methanimine with various arylboronic acids in moderate to good yields (58-72%). A wide range of electron donating and withdrawing functional groups were well tolerated in reaction conditions. To explore the structural properties, Density functional theory (DFT) investigations on all synthesized molecules (3a-3i) were performed. Conceptual DFT reactivity descriptors and molecular electrostatic potential analyses were performed by using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method to explore the reactivity and reacting sites of all derivatives (3a-3i).
  13. Yeap S, Akhtar MN, Lim KL, Abu N, Ho WY, Zareen S, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:983-92.
    PMID: 25733816 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S65468
    Anthraquinones are an important class of naturally occurring biologically active compounds. In this study, anthraquinone derivative 1,3-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone-2- carboxylic acid (DHAQC) (2) was synthesized with 32% yield through the Friedel-Crafts condensation reaction. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity of DHAQC (2) in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells were further investigated. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that DHAQC (2) exhibited potential cytotoxicity and selectivity in the MCF-7 cell line, comparable with the naturally occurring anthraquinone damnacanthal. DHAQC (2) showed a slightly higher IC50 (inhibitory concentration with 50% cell viability) value in the MCF-7 cell line compared to damnacanthal, but it is more selective in terms of the ratio of IC50 on MCF-7 cells and normal MCF-10A cells. (selective index for DHAQC (2) was 2.3 and 1.7 for damnacanthal). The flow cytometry cell cycle analysis on the MCF-7 cell line treated with the IC50 dose of DHAQC (2) for 48 hours showed that DHAQC (2) arrested MCF-7 cell line at the G2/M phase in association with an inhibited expression of PLK1 genes. Western blot analysis also indicated that the DHAQC (2) increased BAX, p53, and cytochrome c levels in MCF-7 cells, which subsequently activated apoptosis as observed in annexin V/propidium iodide and cell cycle analyses. These results indicate that DHAQC (2) is a synthetic, cytotoxic, and selective anthraquinone, which is less toxic than the natural product damnacanthal, and which demonstrates potential in the induction of apoptosis in the breast cancer MCF-7 cell line.
  14. Abu N, Mohamed NE, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Akhtar MN, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2015;9:1401-17.
    PMID: 25834398 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S67976
    Flavokawain B (FKB) is a naturally occurring chalcone that can be isolated through the root extracts of the kava-kava plant (Piper methysticum). It can also be synthesized chemically to increase the yield. This compound is a promising candidate as a biological agent, as it is reported to be involved in a wide range of biological activities. Furthermore, FKB was reported to have antitumorigenic effects in several cancer cell lines in vitro. However, the in vivo antitumor effects of FKB have not been reported on yet. Breast cancer is one of the major causes of cancer-related deaths in the world today. Any potential treatment should not only impede the growth of the tumor, but also modulate the immune system efficiently and inhibit the formation of secondary tumors. As presented in our study, FKB induced apoptosis in 4T1 tumors in vivo, as evidenced by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling and hematoxylin and eosin staining of the tumor. FKB also regulated the immune system by increasing both helper and cytolytic T-cell and natural killer cell populations. In addition, FKB also enhanced the levels of interleukin 2 and interferon gamma but suppressed interleukin 1B. Apart from that, FKB was also found to inhibit metastasis, as evaluated by clonogenic assay, bone marrow smearing assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and proteome profiler analysis. All in all, FKB may serve as a promising anticancer agent, especially in treating breast cancer.
  15. Ali NM, Akhtar MN, Ky H, Lim KL, Abu N, Zareen S, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2016;10:1897-907.
    PMID: 27358555 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S102164
    Known as naturally occurring biologically active compounds, flavokawain A and B are the leading chalcones that possess anticancer properties. Another flavokawain derivative, (E)-1-(2'-Hydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(4-methylthio)phenyl)prop-2-ene-1-one (FLS) was characterized with (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance, electron-impact mas spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, and ultraviolet ((1)H NMR, EI-MS, IR, and UV) spectroscopic techniques. FLS cytotoxic efficacy against human cancer cells (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and MCF-10A) resulted in the reduction of IC50 values in a time- and dose-dependent mode with high specificity on MCF-7 (IC50 of 36 μM at 48 hours) against normal breast cell MCF-10A (no IC50 detected up to 180 μM at 72 hours). Light, scanning electron, and fluorescent microscopic analysis of MCF-7 cells treated with 36 μM of FLS displayed cell shrinkage, apoptotic body, and DNA fragmentation. Additionally, induction of G2/M cell arrest within 24 hours and apoptosis at subsequent time points was discovered via flow cytometry analysis. The roles of PLK-1, Wee-1, and phosphorylation of CDC-2 in G2/M arrest and proapoptotic factors (Bax, caspase 9, and p53) in promotion of apoptosis of FLS against MCF-7 cells were discovered using fluorometric, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blot analysis. Interestingly, the presence of SCH3 (thiomethyl group) on ring B structure contributed to the selective cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells compared to other chalcones, flavokawain A and B. Overall, our data suggest potential therapeutic value for flavokawain derivative FLS to be further developed as a new anticancer drug.
  16. Danish M, Khanday WA, Hashim R, Sulaiman NS, Akhtar MN, Nizami M
    Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2017 May;139:280-290.
    PMID: 28167440 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2017.02.001
    Box-Behnken model of response surface methodology was used to study the effect of adsorption process parameters for Rhodamine B (RhB) removal from aqueous solution through optimized large surface area date stone activated carbon. The set experiments with three input parameters such as time (10-600min), adsorbent dosage (0.5-10g/L) and temperature (25-50°C) were considered for statistical significance. The adequate relation was found between the input variables and response (removal percentage of RhB) and Fisher values (F- values) along with P-values suggesting the significance of various term coefficients. At an optimum adsorbent dose of 0.53g/L, time 593min and temperature 46.20°C, the adsorption capacity of 210mg/g was attained with maximum desirability. The negative values of Gibb(')s free energy (ΔG) predicted spontaneity and feasibility of adsorption; whereas, positive Enthalpy change (ΔH) confirmed endothermic adsorption of RhB onto optimized large surface area date stone activated carbons (OLSADS-AC). The adsorption data were found to be the best fit on the Langmuir model supporting monolayer type of adsorption of RhB with maximum monolayer layer adsorption capacity of 196.08mg/g.
  17. Mohamad AS, Akhtar MN, Zakaria ZA, Perimal EK, Khalid S, Mohd PA, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2010 Nov 25;647(1-3):103-9.
    PMID: 20826146 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2010.08.030
    The present study examined the potential antinociceptive activity of flavokawin B (6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone), a synthetic chalcone using chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models in mice. It was demonstrated that flavokawin B (FKB; 0.3, 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) administered via both oral (p.o.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition in the abdominal constrictions induced by acetic acid, with the i.p. route producing antinociception of approximately 7-fold more potent than the p.o. route. It was also demonstrated that FKB produced significant inhibition in the two phases of the formalin-induced paw licking test. In addition, the same treatment of flavokawin B (FKB) exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive induced by intraplantar injections of glutamate and capsaicin. Likewise, this compound also induced a significant increase in the response latency period to thermal stimuli in the hot plate test and its antinociceptive effect was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative action. Moreover, the antinociception effect of the FKB in the formalin-induced paw licking test and the hot plate test was not affected by pretreatment of non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. The present results indicate that FKB produced pronounced antinociception effect against both chemical and thermal models of pain in mice that exhibited both peripheral and central analgesic activity.
  18. Voon FL, Sulaiman MR, Akhtar MN, Idris MF, Akira A, Perimal EK, et al.
    Eur. J. Pharmacol., 2017 Jan 05;794:127-134.
    PMID: 27845065 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2016.11.009
    Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. had been traditionally used as herbs to treat pain and rheumatism. Cardamonin (2',4'-dihydroxy-6'-methoxychalcone) is a compound isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.. Previous study had shown the potential of cardamonin in inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in vitro. Thus, the possible therapeutic effect of cardamonin in the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) joints is postulated. This study was performed to investigate the anti-arthritic properties of cardamonin in rat model of induced RA, particularly on the inflammatory and pain response of RA. Rheumatoid arthritis paw inflammation was induced by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in Sprague Dawley rats. Using four doses of cardamonin (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, and 5.0mg/kg), anti-arthritic activity was evaluated through the paw edema, mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia responses. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the plasma level of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Histological slides were prepared from the harvested rat paws to observe the arthritic changes in the joints. Behavioral, biochemical, and histological studies showed that cardamonin demonstrated significant inhibition on RA-induced inflammatory and pain responses as well as progression of joint destruction in rats. ELISA results showed that there was significant inhibition in TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 levels in plasma of the cardamonin-treated RA rats. Overall, cardamonin possesses potential anti-arthritic properties in CFA-induced RA rat model.
  19. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Khalid MH, Tasrip NA, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2010 Oct;81(7):855-8.
    PMID: 20546845 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2010.05.009
    The anti-inflammatory activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith was investigated using carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tissue formation test in mice. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of 1 at a dose of 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg produced significant dose-dependent inhibition of paw edema induced by carrageenan. It was also demonstrated that 1 at similar doses significantly suppressed granulomatous tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma test.
  20. Sulaiman MR, Perimal EK, Zakaria ZA, Mokhtar F, Akhtar MN, Lajis NH, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2009 Jun;80(4):230-2.
    PMID: 19535012 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.02.002
    We have investigated the antinociceptive activity of zerumbone (1), a natural cyclic sesquiterpene isolated from Zingiber zerumbet Smith, in acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing test and hot plate test in mice. 1 given by intraperitoneal route produced significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effect in all the test models used. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of 1 in the hot plate test was reversed by the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, suggesting that the opioid system is involved in its analgesic mechanism of action.
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