Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 45 in total

  1. Ismail N, Jambari NN, Zareen S, Akhtar MN, Shaari K, Zamri-Saad M, et al.
    Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol., 2012 Mar 1;259(2):257-62.
    PMID: 22266348 DOI: 10.1016/j.taap.2012.01.003
    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The current use of corticosteroids in the management of asthma has recently raised issues regarding safety and lack of responsiveness in 5-10% of asthmatic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a non-steroidal small molecule that has cysteinyl leukotriene (cysLT) inhibitory activity, upon attenuation of allergic lung inflammation in an acute murine model. Mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and treated with several intraperitoneal doses (100, 20, 2 and 0.2mg/kg) of 2,4,6,-trihydroxy-3-geranylacetophenone (tHGA). Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, blood and lung samples were obtained and respiratory function was measured. OVA sensitization increased pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary allergic inflammation was significantly reduced at doses of 100, 20 and 2mg/kg with no effect at the lowest dose of 0.2mg/kg. The beneficial effects in the lung were associated with reduced eosinophilic infiltration and reduced secretion of Th2 cytokines and cysLTs. Peripheral blood reduction of total IgE was also a prominent feature. Treatment with tHGA significantly attenuated altered airway hyperresponsiveness as measured by the enhanced pause (Penh) response to incremental doses of methacholine. These data demonstrate that tHGA, a synthetic non-steroidal small molecule, can prevent acute allergic inflammation. This proof of concept opens further avenues of research and development of tHGA as an additional option to the current armamentarium of anti-asthma therapeutics.
  2. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Ho WY, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e105244.
    PMID: 25286005 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105244
    INTRODUCTION: The kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) is traditionally known as the pacific elixir by the pacific islanders for its role in a wide range of biological activities. The extract of the roots of this plant contains a variety of interesting molecules including Flavokawain A and this molecule is known to have anti-cancer properties. Breast cancer is still one of the leading diagnosed cancers in women today. The metastatic process is also very pertinent in the progression of tumorigenesis.

    METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.

    RESULTS: We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.

    CONCLUSIONS: FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.

  3. Ming-Tatt L, Khalivulla SI, Akhtar MN, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav., 2013 Dec;114-115:58-63.
    PMID: 24201054 DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2013.10.019
    The present study investigated the analgesic effect of a novel synthetic cyclohexanone derivative, 2,6-bis-4-(hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzilidine)-cyclohexanone or BHMC in a mouse model of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain. It was demonstrated that intraperitoneal administration of BHMC (0.03, 0.1, 0.3 and 1.0mg/kg) exhibited dose-dependent inhibition of chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain in mice, when evaluated using Randall-Selitto mechanical analgesiometer. It was also demonstrated that pretreatment of naloxone (non-selective opioid receptor blocker), nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI, selective κ-opioid receptor blocker), but not β-funaltrexamine (β-FN, selective μ-opioid receptor blocker) and naltrindole hydrochloride (NTI, selective δ-opioid receptor blocker), reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of BHMC. In addition, the analgesic effect of BHMC was also reverted by pretreatment of 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, soluble guanosyl cyclase blocker) and glibenclamide (ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker) but not Nω-nitro-l-arginine (l-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase blocker). Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the systemic administration of BHMC attenuated chronic constriction, injury-induced neuropathic pain. We also suggested that the possible mechanisms include κ-opioid receptor activation and nitric oxide-independent cyclic guanosine monophosphate activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channel opening.
  4. Ismail N, Akhtar MN, Ismail M, Zareen S, Shah SA, Lajis NH, et al.
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2015;29(16):1571-4.
    PMID: 25471591 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.985676
    The stem bark extracts of Knema laurina inhibited the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)- and aggregated amyloid β-peptide 1-42 length (Aβ(1-42))-induced cell death in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of 250 μM H2O2 or 20 μM Aβ(1-42) to the cells for 24 h reduced 50% of cell viability. Pretreatment of cells with ethyl acetate extract (EAE) or n-butanol extract (BE) at 300 μg/mL and then exposure to H2O2 protected the cells against the neurotoxic effects of H2O2. Besides, methanolic extract (ME) at 1 and 10 μg/mL exerted neuroprotective effect on Aβ(1-42)-induced toxicity to the cells. These results showed that EAE, BE and ME exhibited neuroprotective activities against H2O2- and Aβ(1-42)-induced cell death. Flavonoids (3-6) and β-sitosterol glucoside (8) were isolated from the EAE. Compound 1 was isolated from hexane extract, and compounds 2 and 7 were isolated from dichloromethane extract. All these observations provide the possible evidence for contribution in the neuroprotective effects.
  5. Shaari K, Zareen S, Akhtar MN, Lajis NH
    Nat Prod Commun, 2011 Mar;6(3):343-8.
    PMID: 21485271
    Phytochemical investigations on the methanolic extract of Melicope ptelefolia Champ ex Benth. resulted in the isolation of three new compounds, identified as 3beta-stigmast-5-en-3-ol butyl tridecanedioate (melicoester) (1), (2Z, 6Z, 10Z, 14Z, 18Z, 22Z, 26E)-3', 7', 11', 15', 19', 23', 27', 31'-octamethyldotriaconta-2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, 30-octadecanoate (melicopeprenoate) (2) and p-O-geranyl-7"-acetoxy coumaric acid (3). The compounds were isolated along with twenty-one other known compounds, lupeol (4), oleanolic acid (5), kokusaginine (6) genistein (7), p-O-geranyl coumaric acid (8), 4-stigmasten-3-one (9), 3beta-hydroxystigma-5-en-7-one (10) cis-phytyl palmitate (11), dodecane, dodecan-1-ol, ceryl alcohol, hentriacontanoic acid, eicosane, n-amyl alcohol, caprylic alcohol, octatriacontane, nonatriacontane, hexatriencontan-1-ol, methyl octacosanoate, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol glucoside. Structures of all the compounds were established on the basis of MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectral data, as well as comparison with reported data.
  6. Gaaz TS, Sulong AB, Akhtar MN, Kadhum AA, Mohamad AB, Al-Amiery AA
    Molecules, 2015;20(12):22833-47.
    PMID: 26703542 DOI: 10.3390/molecules201219884
    The aim of this review was to analyze/investigate the synthesis, properties, and applications of polyvinyl alcohol-halloysite nanotubes (PVA-HNT), and their nanocomposites. Different polymers with versatile properties are attractive because of their introduction and potential uses in many fields. Synthetic polymers, such as PVA, natural polymers like alginate, starch, chitosan, or any material with these components have prominent status as important and degradable materials with biocompatibility properties. These materials have been developed in the 1980s and are remarkable because of their recyclability and consideration of the natural continuation of their physical and chemical properties. The fabrication of PVA-HNT nanocomposites can be a potential way to address some of PVA's limitations. Such nanocomposites have excellent mechanical properties and thermal stability. PVA-HNT nanocomposites have been reported earlier, but without proper HNT individualization and PVA modifications. The properties of PVA-HNT for medicinal and biomedical use are attracting an increasing amount of attention for medical applications, such as wound dressings, drug delivery, targeted-tissue transportation systems, and soft biomaterial implants. The demand for alternative polymeric medical devices has also increased substantially around the world. This paper reviews individualized HNT addition along with crosslinking of PVA for various biomedical applications that have been previously reported in literature, thereby showing the attainability, modification of characteristics, and goals underlying the blending process with PVA.
  7. Kamaldin MN, Akhtar MN, Mohamad AS, Lajis N, Perimal EK, Akira A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Apr 10;18(4):4209-20.
    PMID: 23612473 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18044209
    Previous studies have shown that systemic administration of 6'-hydroxy-2',4'-dimethoxychalcone (flavokawin B, FKB) exerts significant peripheral and central antinociceptive effects in laboratory animals. However, the mechanisms underlying these peripheral and central antinociceptive effects have yet to be elucidated. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the participation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)/potassium (K+) channels pathway in the peripheral antinociception induced by FKB. It was demonstrated that intraplantar (i.pl.) administration of FKB (150, 250, 375 and 500 µg/paw) resulted in dose-dependent peripheral antinociception against mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia test model in rats. The possibility of FKB having either a central or a systemic effect was excluded since administration of FKB into the right paw did not elicit antinociception in the contralateral paw. Furthermore, peripheral antinociception induced by FKB (500 µg/paw) was significantly reduced when L-arginine (25 µg/paw, i.pl.), Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ; 50 µg/paw, i.pl.), glibenclamide (300 µg/paw, i.pl.), tetraethylammonium (300 µg/paw, i.pl.) and charybdotoxin (3 µg/paw, i.pl.) were injected before treatment. Taken together, our present data suggest that FKB elicits peripheral antinociception when assessed in the mechanical hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan. In addition, it was also demonstrated that this effect was mediated through interaction of the NO/cGMP/K+ channels signaling pathway.
  8. Hasan A, Abbas A, Akhtar MN
    Molecules, 2011 Sep 13;16(9):7789-802.
    PMID: 22143543 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16097789
    A series of 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines was synthesized by dissolving the corresponding 4-alkoxychalcones in glacial acetic acid containing a few drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid. This step was followed by the addition of (3,4-dimethylphenyl) hydrazaine hydrochloride. Finally the target compounds were precipitated by pouring the reaction mixture onto crushed ice. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazolines bearing homologous alkoxy groups were found to possess fluorescence properties in the blue region of the visible spectrum when irradiated with ultraviolet radiation. The fluorescent behavior of these compounds was studied by UV-Vis and emission spectroscopy, performed at room temperature.
  9. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Alitheen NB
    Molecules, 2013 Aug 27;18(9):10367-77.
    PMID: 23985955 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910367
    Breast cancer is becoming more prominent in women today. As of now, there are no effective treatments in treating metastatic breast cancer. We have tested the cytotoxic and anti-migration effects of BHAQ, a synthesized anthraquinone, on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. Anthraquinones are an interesting class of molecules that display a wide spectrum of biological applications, including anticancer properties. Cellular inhibition was tested through a MTT assay, double acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and FACS cell cycle analysis. Inhibition of migration was tested by the wound healing method, and migration through a Boyden chamber. BHAQ was cytotoxic towards both cell lines in a dose dependent and possibly cell-dependent manner. Additionally, BHAQ also inhibited the migration of the highly metastatic MDA-MB231 cell line.
  10. Akhtar MN, Zareen S, Yeap SK, Ho WY, Lo KM, Hasan A, et al.
    Molecules, 2013 Aug 20;18(8):10042-55.
    PMID: 23966087 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180810042
    Naturally occurring anthraquinones, damnacanthal (1) and nordamnacanthal (2) were synthesized with modified reaction steps and investigated for their cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, respectively. Intermediate analogues 2-bromomethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (5, IC50 = 5.70 ± 0.21 and 8.50 ± 1.18 mg/mL), 2-hydroxymethyl-1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (6, IC50 = 12.10 ± 0.14 and 14.00 ± 2.13), 2-formyl-1,3-dimethoxyantharquinone (7, IC50 = 13.10 ± 1.02 and 14.80 ± 0.74), 1,3-dimethoxy-2-methylanthraquinone (4, IC50 = 9.40 ± 3.51 and 28.40 ± 2.33), and 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (3, IC50 = 25.60 ± 0.42 and 28.40 ± 0.79) also exhibited moderate cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, respectively. Other structurally related compounds like 1,3-dihydroxyanthraquinone (13a, IC50 = 19.70 ± 0.35 and 14.50 ± 1.28), 1,3-dimethoxyanthraquinone (13b, IC50 = 6.50 ± 0.66 and 5.90 ± 0.95) were also showed good cytotoxicity. The target compound damnacanthal (1) was found to be the most cytotoxic against the MCF-7 and K-562 cancer cell lines, with IC50 values of 3.80 ± 0.57 and 5.50 ± 1.26, respectively. The structures of all compounds were elucidated with the help of detailed spectroscopic techniques.
  11. Ahmad G, Rasool N, Ikram HM, Gul Khan S, Mahmood T, Ayub K, et al.
    Molecules, 2017 Jan 27;22(2).
    PMID: 28134790 DOI: 10.3390/molecules22020190
    The present study describes palladium-catalyzed one pot Suzuki cross-coupling reaction to synthesize a series of novel pyridine derivatives 2a-2i, 4a-4i. In brief, Suzuki cross-coupling reaction of 5-bromo-2-methylpyridin-3-amine (1) directly or via N-[5-bromo-2-methylpyridine-3-yl]acetamide (3) with several arylboronic acids produced these novel pyridine derivatives in moderate to good yield. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out for the pyridine derivatives 2a-2i and 4a-4i by using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis with the help of GAUSSIAN 09 suite programme. The frontier molecular orbitals analysis, reactivity indices, molecular electrostatic potential and dipole measurements with the help of DFT methods, described the possible reaction pathways and potential candidates as chiral dopants for liquid crystals. The anti-thrombolytic, biofilm inhibition and haemolytic activities of pyridine derivatives were also investigated. In particular, the compound 4b exhibited the highest percentage lysis value (41.32%) against clot formation in human blood among all newly synthesized compounds. In addition, the compound 4f was found to be the most potent against Escherichia coli with an inhibition value of 91.95%. The rest of the pyridine derivatives displayed moderate biological activities.
  12. Ismail NI, Ming-Tatt L, Lajis N, Akhtar MN, Akira A, Perimal EK, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Aug 22;21(8).
    PMID: 27556438 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21081077
    The antinociceptive effects produced by intraperitoneal administration of a novel synthetic chalcone, 3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (DMFP), were investigated in several mouse models of induced nociception. The administration of DMFP (0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 5.0 mg/kg) produced significant attenuation on the acetic acid-induced abdominal-writhing test. It also produced a significant increase in response latency time in the hot-plate test and a marked reduction in time spent licking the injected paw in both phases of the formalin-induced paw-licking test. In addition, it was also demonstrated that DMFP exhibited significant inhibition of the neurogenic nociceptive response induced by intraplantar injections of capsaicin and glutamate. Moreover, the antinociceptive effect of DMFP in the acetic acid-induced abdominal-writhing test and the hot-plate test was not antagonized by pretreatment with a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Finally, DMFP did not show any toxic effects and/or mortality in a study of acute toxicity and did not interfere with motor coordination during the Rota-rod test. Our present results show that DMFP exhibits both peripheral and central antinociceptive effects. It was suggested that its peripheral antinociceptive activity is associated with attenuated production and/or release of NO and various pro-inflammatory mediators, while central antinociceptive activity seems to be unrelated to the opioidergic system, but could involve, at least in part, an interaction with the inhibition of capsaicin-sensitive fibers and the glutamatergic system.
  13. Ikram HM, Rasool N, Zubair M, Khan KM, Abbas Chotana G, Akhtar MN, et al.
    Molecules, 2016 Jul 27;21(8).
    PMID: 27472312 DOI: 10.3390/molecules21080977
    The present study describes several novel 2,5-biaryl-3-hexylthiophene derivatives (3a-i) synthesized via a Pd(0)-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction in moderate to good yields. The novel compounds were also analyzed for their anti-thrombolytic, haemolytic, and biofilm inhibition activities. In addition, the anti-tumor activity was also evaluated in vitro for newly-synthesized compounds, where 3-hexyl-2,5-bis(4-(methylthio)phenyl)thiophene exhibited the best anti-tumor activity against 4T1 cells with IC50 value of 16 μM. Moreover, 2,5-bis(4-methylphenyl)-3-hexylthiophene showed the highest activity against MCF-7 cells with an IC50 value of 26.2 μM. On the other hand, the compound 2,5-bis(4-chloropheny)-3-hexylthiophene exhibited excellent biofilm inhibition activity. Furthermore, the compound 2,5-bis(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-3-hexylthiophene also exhibited better anti-thrombolytic and hemolytic activity results as compared to the other newly-synthesized compounds.
  14. Ping CP, Tengku Mohamad TAS, Akhtar MN, Perimal EK, Akira A, Israf Ali DA, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 03;23(9).
    PMID: 30177603 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092237
    Pain is one of the most common cause for hospital visits. It plays an important role in inflammation and serves as a warning sign to avoid further injury. Analgesics are used to manage pain and provide comfort to patients. However, prolonged usage of pain treatments like opioids and NSAIDs are accompanied with undesirable side effects. Therefore, research to identify novel compounds that produce analgesia with lesser side effects are necessary. The present study investigated the antinociceptive potentials of a natural compound, cardamonin, isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda (L) Mansf. using chemical and thermal models of nociception. Our findings showed that intraperitoneal and oral administration of cardamonin (0.3, 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg) produced significant and dose-dependent inhibition of pain in abdominal writhing responses induced by acetic acid. The present study also demonstrated that cardamonin produced significant analgesia in formalin-, capsaicin-, and glutamate-induced paw licking tests. In the thermal-induced nociception model, cardamonin exhibited significant increase in response latency time of animals subjected to hot-plate thermal stimuli. The rota-rod assessment confirmed that the antinociceptive activities elicited by cardamonin was not related to muscle relaxant or sedative effects of the compound. In conclusion, the present findings showed that cardamonin exerted significant peripheral and central antinociception through chemical- and thermal-induced nociception in mice through the involvement of TRPV₁, glutamate, and opioid receptors.
  15. Aziz MNM, Hussin Y, Che Rahim NF, Nordin N, Mohamad NE, Yeap SK, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Jan 05;23(1).
    PMID: 29303982 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23010075
    Osteosarcoma is one of the primary malignant bone tumors that confer low survival rates for patients even with intensive regime treatments. Therefore, discovery of novel anti-osteosarcoma drugs derived from natural products that are not harmful to the normal cells remains crucial. Curcumin is one of the natural substances that have been extensively studied due to its anti-cancer properties and is pharmacologically safe considering its ubiquitous consumption for centuries. However, curcumin suffers from a poor circulating bioavailability, which has led to the development of a chemically synthesized curcuminoid analog, namely (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2-en-1-one (DK1). In this study, the cytotoxic effects of the curcumin analog DK1 was investigated in both U-2OS and MG-63 osteosarcoma cell lines using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and cell death was microscopically examined via acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) double staining. Flow cytometer analysis including Annexin V/Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC), cell cycle analysis and JC-1 were adapted to determine the mode of cell death. Subsequently in order to determine the mechanism of cell death, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and proteome profiling was carried out to measure the expression of several apoptotic-related genes and proteins. Results indicated that DK1 induced U-2 OS and MG-63 morphological changes and substantially reduced cell numbers through induction of apoptosis. Several apoptotic genes and proteins were steadily expressed after treatment with DK1; including caspase 3, caspase 9, and BAX, which indicated that apoptosis occurred through a mitochondria-dependent signaling pathway. In conclusion, DK1 could be considered as a potential candidate for an anti-osteosarcoma drug in the near future, contingent upon its ability to induce apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines.
  16. Abu Bakar A, Akhtar MN, Mohd Ali N, Yeap SK, Quah CK, Loh WS, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Mar 08;23(3).
    PMID: 29518053 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23030616
    Flavokawain B (1) is a natural chalcone extracted from the roots of Piper methysticum, and has been proven to be a potential cytotoxic compound. Using the partial structure of flavokawain B (FKB), about 23 analogs have been synthesized. Among them, compounds 8, 13 and 23 were found in new FKB derivatives. All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, thus establishing the structure-activity relationship. The FKB derivatives 16 (IC50 = 6.50 ± 0.40 and 4.12 ± 0.20 μg/mL), 15 (IC50 = 5.50 ± 0.35 and 6.50 ± 1.40 μg/mL) and 13 (IC50 = 7.12 ± 0.80 and 4.04 ± 0.30 μg/mL) exhibited potential cytotoxic effects on the MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. However, the methoxy group substituted in position three and four in compound 2 (IC50 = 8.90 ± 0.60 and 6.80 ± 0.35 μg/mL) and 22 (IC50 = 8.80 ± 0.35 and 14.16 ± 1.10 μg/mL) exhibited good cytotoxicity. The lead compound FKB (1) showed potential cytotoxicity (IC50 = 7.70 ± 0.30 and 5.90 ± 0.30 μg/mL) against two proposed breast cancer cell lines. It is evident that the FKB skeleton is unique for anticancer agents, additionally, the presence of halogens (Cl and F) in position 2 and 3 also improved the cytotoxicity in FKB series. These findings could help to improve the future drug discovery process to treat breast cancer. A molecular dynamics study of active compounds revealed stable interactions within the active site of Janus kinase. The structures of all compounds were determined by ¹H-NMR, EI-MS, IR and UV and X-ray crystallographic spectroscopy techniques.
  17. Rajajendram R, Tham CL, Akhtar MN, Sulaiman MR, Israf DA
    Mediators Inflamm., 2015;2015:176926.
    PMID: 26300589 DOI: 10.1155/2015/176926
    Asthma is associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. The interaction between airway epithelium and inflammatory mediators plays a key role in the pathogenesis of asthma. In vitro studies evaluated the inhibitory effects of 3-(2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-(5-methylfuran-2-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (DMPF-1), a synthetic chalcone analogue, upon inflammation in the A549 lung epithelial cell line. DMPF-1 selectively inhibited TNF-α-stimulated CC chemokine secretion (RANTES, eotaxin-1, and MCP-1) without any effect upon CXC chemokine (GRO-α and IL-8) secretion. Western blot analysis further demonstrated that the inhibitory activity resulted from disruption of p65NF-κB nuclear translocation without any effects on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Treatment of ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged BALB/c mice with DMPF-1 (0.2-100 mg/kg) demonstrated significant reduction in the secretion and gene expression of CC chemokines (RANTES, eotaxin-1, and MCP-1) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13). Furthermore, DMPF-1 treatment inhibited eosinophilia, goblet cell hyperplasia, peripheral blood total IgE, and airway hyperresponsiveness in ovalbumin-sensitized and ovalbumin-challenged mice. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate the potential of DMPF-1, a nonsteroidal compound, as an antiasthmatic agent for further pharmacological evaluation.
  18. Yahya N, Akhtar MN, Nasir N, Shafie A, Jabeli MS, Koziol K
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2012 Oct;12(10):8100-9.
    PMID: 23421185
    In seabed logging the magnitude of electromagnetic (EM) waves for the detection of a hydrocarbon reservoir in the marine environment is very important. Having a strong EM source for exploration target 4000 m below the sea floor is a very challenging task. A new carbon nanotubes (CNT) fibres/aluminium based EM transmitter is developed and NiZn ferrite as magnetic feeders was used in a scaled tank to evaluate the presence of oil. Resistive scaled tank experiments with a scale factor of 2000 were carried out. X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) were done to characterize the synthesized magnetic feeders. Single phase Ni0.76Mg0.04Zn0.2Fe2O4, obtained by the sol-gel method and sintered at 700 degrees C in air, has a [311] major peak. FESEM results show nanoparticles with average diameters of 17-45 nm. Samples which have a high Q-factor (approximately 50) was used as magnetic feeders for the EM transmitter. The magnitude of the EM waves of this new EM transmitter increases up to 400%. A curve fitting method using MATLAB software was done to evaluate the performance of the new EM transmitter. The correlation value with CNT fibres/aluminium-NiZnFe2O4 base transmitter shows a 152.5% increase of the magnetic field strength in the presence of oil. Modelling of the scale tank which replicates the marine environment was done using the Finite Element Method (FEM). In conclusion, FEM was able to delineate the presence of oil with greater magnitude of E-field (16.89%) and the B field (4.20%) due to the new EM transmitter.
  19. Yahya N, Akhtar MN, Koziol K
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2012 Oct;12(10):8116-22.
    PMID: 23421187
    Magnetic nanoparticles in the hollow region of carbon nanotubes have attraction due to their changing physical electrical and magnetic properties. Nickel zinc ferrite plays an important role in many applications due to its superior magnetic properties. Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals were encapsulated in multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The magnetic nano crystals were prepared using a sol-gel self combustion method at the sintering temperature of 750 degrees C and were characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM and VSM. Initial permeability, Q-factor and relative loss factor were measured by impedance vector network analyzer. XRD patterns were used for the phase identification. FESEM images show morphology and dimensions of the grains of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals and Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in MWCNTs. TEM images were used to investigate single crystal and encapsulation of Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in the MWCNTs. VSM results confirmed super paramagnetic behaviour of encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals. It was also attributed that encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in MWCNTs showed a higher initial permeability (51.608), Q-factor (67.069), and low loss factor (0.0002) as compared to Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals. The new encapsulated Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4 single crystals in the MWCNTs may have potential applications in electronic and medical industries.
  20. Nasir N, Yahya N, Kashif M, Daud H, Akhtar MN, Zaid HM, et al.
    J Nanosci Nanotechnol, 2011 Mar;11(3):2551-4.
    PMID: 21449424
    This is our initial response towards preparation of nano-inductors garnet for high operating frequencies strontium iron garnet (Sr3Fe5O12) denoted as SrIG and yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12) denoted as YIG. The garnet nano crystals were prepared by novel sol-gel technique. The phase and crystal structure of the prepared samples were identified by using X-ray diffraction analysis. SEM images were done to reveal the surface morphology of the samples. Raman spectra was taken for yttrium iron garnet (Y3Fe5O12). The magnetic properties of the samples namely initial permeability (micro), relative loss factor (RLF) and quality factor (Q-Factor) were done by using LCR meter. From the XRD profile, both of the Y3Fe5O12 and Sr3Fe5O12 samples showed single phase garnet and crystallization had completely occurred at 900 degrees C for the SrIG and 950 degrees C for the YIG samples. The YIG sample showed extremely low RLF value (0.0082) and high density 4.623 g/cm3. Interesting however is the high Q factor (20-60) shown by the Sr3Fe5O12 sample from 20-100 MHz. This high performance magnetic property is attributed to the homogenous and cubical-like microstructure. The YIG particles were used as magnetic feeder for EM transmitter. It was observed that YIG magnetic feeder with the EM transmitter gave 39% higher magnetic field than without YIG magnetic feeder.
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