Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Darwish M, Aris A, Puteh MH, Jusoh MNH, Abdul Kadir A
    J Environ Manage, 2017 Dec 01;203(Pt 2):861-866.
    PMID: 26935149 DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.02.033
    Struvite precipitation has been widely applied for the removal of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) from wastewater. Due to the high cost of phosphorus (P) reagents, the current research trend was directed to find alternative sources of P, in order to maintain a sustainable NH4-N removal process. The current study investigated waste bones ashes as alternative sources of P. Different types of bones' ashes were characterized, in which the ash produced from waste fish bones was the highest in P content (17%wt.). The optimization of the factors affecting P extraction from ash by acidic leaching showed that applying 2M H2SO4 and 1.25 kg H2SO4/kg ash achieved the highest P recovery (95%). Thereafter, the recovered P was successfully used in struvite precipitation, which achieved more than 90% NH4-N removal and high purity struvite.
  2. Reddy AVB, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Bin Aris A, Abdul Majid Z
    J Sep Sci, 2017 Aug;40(15):3086-3093.
    PMID: 28581679 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201700252
    An extremely sensitive and simple gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and completely validated for the analysis of five process-related impurities, viz., 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile, in atenolol. The separation of impurities was accomplished on a BPX-5 column with dimensions of 50 m × 0.25 mm i.d. and 0.25 μm film thickness. The method validation was performed following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines in which the method was capable to quantitate 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at 0.3 ppm, and methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile at 0.35 ppm with respect to 10 mg/mL of atenolol. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.3-10 ppm for 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 0.35-10 ppm for methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile. The correlation coefficient in each case was found ≥0.998. The repeatability and recovery values were acceptable, and found between 89.38% and 105.60% for all five impurities under optimized operating conditions. The method developed here is simple, selective, and sensitive with apparently better resolution than the reported methods. Hence, the method is a straightforward and good quality control tool for the quantitation of selected impurities at trace concentrations in atenolol.
  3. Aris A, Din MF, Salim MR, Yunus S, Abu Bakar WA
    Water Sci Technol, 2002;46(9):255-62.
    PMID: 12448476
    In Malaysia, most colored wastewater from dyeing factories is discharged to the environment causing serious problems. In this paper the influence of several reacting conditions, i.e. H2O2, pH, Ultraviolet (UV) intensity and dye concentration, on the performance of the immobilized system is discussed. The pH of the solution was varied from 3 to 11 while H2O2 concentration tested was from 10(-4) M to 5 x 10(-2) M. UV was tested at 365 nm and 254 nm, while dye concentration ranged from 2.5 x 10(-4) M to 10(-3) M. The influence of the reacting conditions was assessed based on absorbance. Using an OG concentration of 10(-3) M, the degradation increases from 17.8% to 49.7%. Optimum concentration of H2O2 was found to be 5 x 10(-3) M for degradation. Increasing the intensity of the UV light via shorter light wavelength also improves the performance of the system. Increasing the concentration of the dye reduces the overall performance of the system. Using the dye concentration of 2.5 x 10(-4) M (H2O2 = 10(-2) M, lambda = 254 nm, pH = 11), gives a degradation of 93.2%. At dye concentration of 10(-3) M, the performance was reduced to 53.1%.
  4. Al-Amri A, Salim MR, Aris A
    Water Sci Technol, 2011;64(7):1398-405.
    PMID: 22179635 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2011.421
    A study has been carried out to define the effect of drastic temperature changes on the performance of lab-scale hollow-fibre MBR in treating municipal wastewater at a flux of 10 L m(-2) h(-1) (LMH). The objectives of the study were to estimate the activated sludge properties, the removal efficiencies of COD and NH(3)-N and the membrane fouling tendency under critical conditions of drastic temperature changes (23, 33, 42 & 33 °C) and MLSS concentration ranged between 6,382 and 8,680 mg/L. The study exhibited that the biomass reduction, the low sludge settleability and the supernatant turbidity were results of temperature increase. The temperature increase led to increase in SMP carbohydrate and protein, and to decrease in EPS carbohydrate and protein. The BRE of COD dropped from 80% at 23 °C to 47% at 42 °C, while the FRE was relatively constant at about 90%. Both removal efficiencies of NH(3)-N trended from about 100% at 33 °C to less than 50% at 42 °C. TMP and BWP ascended critically with temperature increase up to 336 and 304 mbar respectively by the end of the experiment. The values of suspended solids (SS) and the turbidity in the final effluent were negligible. The DO in the mixed liquor was varying with temperature change, while the pH was within the range of 6.7-8.3.
  5. Praveena SM, Ahmed A, Radojevic M, Abdullah MH, Aris AZ
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2008 Jul;81(1):52-6.
    PMID: 18506379 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-008-9460-3
    Spatial variations in estuarine intertidal sediment have been often related to such environmental variables as salinity, sediment types, heavy metals and base cations. However, there have been few attempts to investigate the difference condition between high and low tides relationships and to predict their likely responses in an estuarine environment. This paper investigates the linkages between environmental variables and tides of estuarine intertidal sediment in order to provide a basis for describing the effect of tides in the Mengkabong lagoon, Sabah. Multivariate statistical technique, principal components analysis (PCA) was employed to better interpret information about the sediment and its controlling factors in the intertidal zone. The calculation of Geoaccumulation Index (I(geo)) suggests the Mengkabong mangrove sediments are having background concentrations for Al, Cu, Fe, and Zn and unpolluted for Pb. Extra efforts should therefore pay attention to understand the mechanisms and quantification of different pathways of exchange within and between intertidal zones.
  6. Praveena SM, Aris AZ
    Environ Geochem Health, 2018 Apr;40(2):749-762.
    PMID: 28929262 DOI: 10.1007/s10653-017-0021-8
    This study aims to determine the status of potentially toxic element concentrations of road dust in a medium-sized city (Rawang, Malaysia). This study adopts source identification via enrichment factor, Pearson correlation analysis, and Fourier spectral analysis to identify sources of potentially toxic element concentrations in road dust in Rawang City, Malaysia. Health risk assessment was conducted to determine potential health risks (carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks) among adults and children via multiple pathways (i.e., ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation). Mean of potentially toxic element concentrations were found in the order of Pb > Zn > Cr(IV) > Cu > Ni > Cd > As > Co. Source identification revealed that Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Ni, and Cr(IV) are associated with anthropogenic sources in industrial and highly populated areas in northern and southern Rawang, cement factories in southern Rawang, as well as the rapid development and population growth in northwestern Rawang, which have resulted in high traffic congestion. Cobalt, Fe, and As are related to geological background and lithologies in Rawang. Pathway orders for both carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks are ingestion, dermal contact, and inhalation, involving adults and children. Non-carcinogenic health risks in adults were attributed to Cr(IV), Pb, and Cd, whereas Cu, Cd, Cr(IV), Pb, and Zn were found to have non-carcinogenic health risks for children. Cd, Cr(IV), Pb, and As may induce carcinogenic risks in adults and children, and the total lifetime cancer risk values exceeded incremental lifetime.
  7. Omar, N. A., Praveena, S. M., Hashim, Z., Aris, A. Z.
    Rice is a carbohydrate, one of the plant-based foods that can accumulate heavy metal from soil and the irrigation water. Since total heavy metal always overestimates the amount of heavy metal available in rice, bioavailability of heavy metal is always preferred. Many studies have been done and found that in vitro methods offer an appealing alternative to human and animal studies. They can be simple, rapid, low in cost and may provide insights which not achievable in the in vivo studies. In vitro digestion model for rice may differ from other in vitro digestion models applied in soil or other type of foods studies. This review aims to provide an overview of in vitro digestion model used to determine bioavailability of heavy metal in rice, summarize health risk assessment application of heavy metal in rice studies and highlight the importance of health risk assessment to be included in the studies. Future exploration of in vitro digestion model and health risk assessment application on the bioavailability of heavy metal in rice was also suggested.
  8. Aris A, Sulaiman S, Che Hasan MK
    Enferm Clin, 2019 09;29 Suppl 2:16-23.
    PMID: 31208927 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.04.004
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether music therapy affects immediate postoperative well-being among patients who had undergone TKA surgery in the recovery unit.

    METHOD: A randomized controlled trial was conducted recruiting patients from Hospital Melaka, Malaysia. Postoperative TKA patients with good hearing and visual acuity, fully conscious and prescribed with patients controlled analgesia (PCA) were randomized to either intervention or control groups using a sealed envelope. Patients in the intervention group received usual care with additional music therapy during recovery, while patients in the control group received the usual care provided by the hospital. Two factors identified affecting mental well-being were the pain (measured using numerical rating scale) and anxiety (measured using a visual analog scale) at five different minutes' points (0, 10, 20, 30, and 60).

    RESULTS: A total of 56 (control: 28, intervention: 28) postoperative TKA patients consented in the study. There was no difference in baseline characteristics between the two groups (p>0.05). Using Mann-Whitney U tests, patients in music therapy group showed significantly lower numerical pain score at 60min (p=0.045) whereas there was no significant difference between the two groups at all time points for anxiety scores (p>0.05). In the intervention group, Friedman tests showed that there was a significant difference in numerical pain (χ2=36.957, df=4, p<0.001) and anxiety score across times (χ2=18.545, p=0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found that pain score decreases over time among patients in the music therapy group while no effect is seen for anxiety. It is suggested that music therapy could not affect postoperative TKA patients' mental well-being. Nonetheless, patients reported better pain score despite the small sample.

  9. Aris A, Sulaiman S, Che Hasan MK
    Enferm Clin, 2021 04;31 Suppl 2:S10-S15.
    PMID: 33849138 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2020.10.006
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of music on physiological outcomes for post-operative TKA patients in the recovery unit. Fifty-six patients from Hospital Melaka were randomized equally into intervention (IG) and control groups (CG). IG received the usual care and listened to selected music for 60min, while the CG received only the usual care. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured on arrival and after 10, 20, 30, and 60min in the recovery unit. A significant difference between groups was observed in RR upon arrival (U=276.5, p=0.029) and after 10min (U=291, p=0.45). Meanwhile, there were significant differences in DBP (F=3.158, p=0.032), RR (χ2=15.956, p=0.003) and SpO2 (χ2=14.084, p=0.007) over time in the IG. Overall, listening to music immediately after TKA has an effect on DBP, RR, and SpO2.
  10. How SW, Lim SY, Lim PB, Aris AM, Ngoh GC, Curtis TP, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2018 May;77(9-10):2274-2283.
    PMID: 29757179 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2018.143
    Intensive aeration for nitrification is a major energy consumer in sewage treatment plants (STPs). Low-dissolved-oxygen (low-DO) nitrification has the potential to lower the aeration demand. However, the applicability of low-DO nitrification in the tropical climate is not well-understood. In this study, the potential of low-DO nitrification in tropical setting was first examined using batch kinetic experiments. Subsequently, the performance of low-DO nitrification was investigated in a laboratory-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) for 42 days using real tropical sewage. The batch kinetic experiments showed that the seed sludge has a relatively high oxygen affinity. Thus, the rate of nitrification was not significantly reduced at low DO concentrations (0.5 mg/L). During the operation of the low-DO nitrification SBR, 90% of NH4-N was removed. The active low-DO nitrification was mainly attributed to the limited biodegradable organics in the sewage. Fluorescence in-situ hybridisation and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed the nitrifiers were related to Nitrospira genus and Nitrosomonadaceae family. Phylogenetic analysis suggests 47% of the operational taxonomic units in Nitrospira genus are closely related to a comammox bacteria. This study has demonstrated active low-DO nitrification in tropical setting, which is a more sustainable process that could significantly reduce the energy footprint of STPs.
  11. How SW, Sin JH, Wong SYY, Lim PB, Mohd Aris A, Ngoh GC, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2020 Jan;81(1):71-80.
    PMID: 32293590 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2020.077
    Many developing countries, mostly situated in the tropical region, have incorporated a biological nitrogen removal process into their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Existing wastewater characteristic data suggested that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) in tropical wastewater is not sufficient for denitrification. Warm wastewater temperature (30 °C) in the tropical region may accelerate the hydrolysis of particulate settleable solids (PSS) to provide slowly-biodegradable COD (sbCOD) for denitrification. This study aimed to characterize the different fractions of COD in several sources of low COD-to-nitrogen (COD/N) tropical wastewater. We characterized the wastewater samples from six WWTPs in Malaysia for 22 months. We determined the fractions of COD in the wastewater by nitrate uptake rate experiments. The PSS hydrolysis kinetic coefficients were determined at tropical temperature using an oxygen uptake rate experiment. The wastewater samples were low in readily-biodegradable COD (rbCOD), which made up 3-40% of total COD (TCOD). Most of the biodegradable organics were in the form of sbCOD (15-60% of TCOD), which was sufficient for complete denitrification. The PSS hydrolysis rate was two times higher than that at 20 °C. The high PSS hydrolysis rate may provide sufficient sbCOD to achieve effective biological nitrogen removal at WWTPs in the tropical region.
  12. Ab Razak NH, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    Public Health, 2016 Feb;131:103-11.
    PMID: 26715317 DOI: 10.1016/j.puhe.2015.11.006
    Information about the quality of drinking water, together with analysis of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) analysis and health risk assessment (HRA) remain limited. The aims of this study were: (1) to ascertain the level of KAP regarding heavy metal contamination of drinking water in Pasir Mas; (2) to determine the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cd) in drinking water in Pasir Mas; and (3) to estimate the health risks (non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic) caused by heavy metal exposure through drinking water using hazard quotient and lifetime cancer risk.
  13. Omar NA, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    Food Chem, 2015 Dec 1;188:46-50.
    PMID: 26041162 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.087
    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal<1), whereas total Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCRTotal) values were higher than the acceptable range (LCRTotal values >1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.
  14. Lim CK, Bay HH, Neoh CH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Oct;20(10):7243-55.
    PMID: 23653315 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1725-7
    In this study, the adsorption behavior of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from aqueous solution onto macrocomposite (MC) was investigated under various experimental conditions. The adsorbent, MC, which consists of a mixture of zeolite and activated carbon, was found to be effective in removing AO7. The MC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, point of zero charge, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. A series of experiments were performed via batch adsorption technique to examine the effect of the process variables, namely, contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. The dye equilibrium adsorption was investigated, and the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. For the kinetic study, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model were used to fit the experimental data. The adsorption kinetic was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectral and high performance liquid chromatography analysis were carried out before and after the adsorption process. For the phytotoxicity test, treated AO7 was found to be less toxic. Thus, the study indicated that MC has good potential use as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.
  15. Lim CK, Bay HH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Jul;20(7):5056-66.
    PMID: 23334551 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1476-5
    Reactive dyes account for one of the major sources of dye wastes in textile effluent. In this study, decolorization of the monoazo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by the Enterococcus faecalis strain ZL that isolated from a palm oil mill effluent treatment plant has been investigated. Decolorization efficiency of azo dye is greatly affected by the types of nutrients and the size of inoculum used. In this work, one-factor-at-a-time (method and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize these operational factors and also to study the combined interaction between them. Analysis of AO7 decolorization was done using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum condition via RSM for the color removal of AO7 was found to be as follows: yeast extract, 0.1% w/v, glycerol concentration of 0.1% v/v, and inoculum density of 2.5% v/v at initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L at 37 °C. Decolorization efficiency of 98% was achieved in only 5 h. The kinetic of AO7 decolorization was found to be first order with respect to dye concentration with a k value of 0.87/h. FTIR, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, FESEM, and HPLC findings indicated that the decolorization of AO7 was mainly due to the biosorption as well as biodegradation of the bacterial cells. In addition, HPLC analyses also showed the formation of sulfanilic acid as a possible degradation product of AO7 under facultative anaerobic condition. This study explored the ability of E. faecalis strain ZL in decolorizing AO7 by biosorption as well as biodegradation process.
  16. Mohd-Aris A, Muhamad-Sofie MHN, Zamri-Saad M, Daud HM, Ina-Salwany MY
    Vet World, 2019 Nov;12(11):1806-1815.
    PMID: 32009760 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.1806-1815
    Fish diseases are often caused either by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or a combination of these pathogens. Of these, bacterial fish diseases are considered to be a major problem in the aquaculture industry. Hence, the prevention of such diseases by proper vaccination is one of the integral strategies in fish health management, aimed at reducing the fish mortality rate in the aquaculture farms. Vaccination offers an effective yet low-cost solution to combat the risk of disease in fish farming. An appropriate vaccination regime to prevent bacterial diseases offers a solution against the harmful effects of antibiotic applications. This review discusses the role of live-attenuated vaccine in controlling bacterial diseases and the development of such vaccines and their vaccination strategy. The current achievements and potential applications of live-attenuated and combined vaccines are also highlighted. Vaccine development is concluded to be a demanding process, as it must satisfy the requirements of the aquaculture industry.
  17. Tariq FS, Samsuri AW, Karam DS, Aris AZ, Jamilu G
    Environ Monit Assess, 2019 Mar 21;191(4):232.
    PMID: 30900076 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7359-6
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) and Fe-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA) on the bioavailability and mobility of As, Cd, and Mn in mine tailings. The amendments were added to the tailings at 0, 5, 10, or 20% (w/w) and the mixtures were incubated for 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The CaCl2 extractable As, Cd, and Mn in the amended tailings were determined at each interval of incubation period. In addition, the tailings mixture was leached with simulated rain water (SRW) every week from 0 day (D 0) until day 60 (D 60). The results showed that both RHA and Fe-RHA application significantly decreased the CaCl2-extractable Cd and Mn but increased that of As in the tailings throughout the incubation period. Consequently, addition of both RHA and Fe-RHA leached out higher amount of As from the tailings but decreased Cd and Mn concentration compared to the controls. The amount of As leached from the Fe-RHA-amended tailings was less than that from RHA-amended tailings. Application of both RHA and Fe-RHA could be an effective way in decreasing the availability of cationic heavy metals (Cd and Mn) in the tailings but these amendments could result in increasing the availability of anionic metalloid (As). Therefore, selection of organic amendments to remediate metal-contaminated tailings must be done with great care because the outcomes might be different among the elements.
  18. Aris AM, Elegbe EO, Krishna R
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Apr;33(2):204-5.
    PMID: 1621133
    Intubation was difficult and traumatic in a 40-year-old patient presented for emergency oesophagoscopy because the diagnosis of stylohyoid ligament calcification was not suspected. High probability of stylohyoid ligament calcification should be suspected when there is difficulty in lifting the epiglottis and fibre-optic laryngoscopy is suggested as the best way to tackle this problem to prevent trauma and possible risk of regurgitation and aspiration especially in emergency situation.
  19. Hadibarata T, Yusoff AR, Aris A, Kristanti RA
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(4):728-32.
    PMID: 22894109
    Armillaria sp. F022, a white rot fungus isolated from tropical rain forest (Samarinda, Indonesia) was used to biodegrade naphthalene in cultured medium. Transformation of naphthalene by Armillaria sp. F022 which is able to use naphthalene, a two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a source of carbon and energy was investigated. The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites, biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts. The identification of metabolites suggests that Armillaria sp. F022 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-4 positions to give 1,4-naphthoquinone. The intermediate 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylic acid, and the characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol were identified in the long-term incubation. A part from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles, benzoic acid was identified as the next intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Armillaria sp. F022. Neither phthalic acid, catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Armillaria sp. F022 were detected during the incubation.
  20. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Morsid NA, Aris A, Zainal H, Pojan NH, et al.
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Mar;31(2):81-8.
    PMID: 19455262 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.2.1353876
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
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