Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 37 in total

  1. Chen CX, Aris A, Yong EL, Noor ZZ
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2022 Jan;29(4):4787-4802.
    PMID: 34775565 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-021-17365-x
    Many advanced technologies have shown encouraging results in removing antibiotics from domestic wastewater. However, as activated sludge treatment is the most common sewage treatment system employed worldwide, improving its effect on antibiotic removal would be more desirable. Understanding the removal mechanisms, kinetics and factors that affect antibiotic removal in the activated sludge process is important as it would allow us to improve the treatment performance. Although these have been discussed in various literature covering different types of antibiotics and wastewater, a specific review on antibiotics and domestic wastewater is clearly missing. This review paper collates, discusses and analyses the removal of antibiotics from sewage in the activated sludge process along with the removal mechanisms and kinetics. The antibiotics are categorised into six classes: β-lactam, dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, fluoroquinolone, macrolide, sulfonamides and tetracycline. Furthermore, the factors affecting the system performance with regard to antibiotic removal are examined.
  2. Reddy AVB, Yusop Z, Jaafar J, Bin Aris A, Abdul Majid Z
    J Sep Sci, 2017 Aug;40(15):3086-3093.
    PMID: 28581679 DOI: 10.1002/jssc.201700252
    An extremely sensitive and simple gas chromatography with mass spectrometry method was developed and completely validated for the analysis of five process-related impurities, viz., 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate, and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile, in atenolol. The separation of impurities was accomplished on a BPX-5 column with dimensions of 50 m × 0.25 mm i.d. and 0.25 μm film thickness. The method validation was performed following International Conference on Harmonisation guidelines in which the method was capable to quantitate 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid at 0.3 ppm, and methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile at 0.35 ppm with respect to 10 mg/mL of atenolol. The method was linear over the concentration range of 0.3-10 ppm for 4-hydroxy-l-phenylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenylacetonitrile, and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 0.35-10 ppm for methyl-4-hydroxyphenylacetate and 2-[4-{(2RS)-2-hydroxy-3-[(1-methylethyl)amino]propoxy}phenyl]acetonitrile. The correlation coefficient in each case was found ≥0.998. The repeatability and recovery values were acceptable, and found between 89.38% and 105.60% for all five impurities under optimized operating conditions. The method developed here is simple, selective, and sensitive with apparently better resolution than the reported methods. Hence, the method is a straightforward and good quality control tool for the quantitation of selected impurities at trace concentrations in atenolol.
  3. Aris A. Z., Ismail F. A., Ng, H. Y., Praveena, S. M.
    This study was conducted using crab shells as a biosorbent to remove Cu and Cd with different initial concentrations of 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L in a biosorption treatment process. Crab shells were selected as biosorbents due to their abundance in the environment and ready availability as waste products from the market place. This study aimed to determine the ability of Scylla Serrata shells to remove Cu and Cd in an aqueous solution, as well as to provide a comparison of the removal rate between the two metals. The data were incorporated into hydrochemical software, PHREEQC, to investigate the chemical speciation distribution of each heavy metal. The shells of S. serrata were found to have a significant (p< 0.05) ability to remove Cu and Cd following the treatment. After six hours of treatment, the crab shells had removed 60 to 80% of both metals. However, the highest removal percentage was achieved for Cu with up to 94.7% removal rate in 5 mg/L initial Cu concentration, while 85.1% of Cd was removed in 1 mg/L initial solution, respectively. It can be concluded that the shells of S. serrata could remove Cu and Cd better with significant results (p
  4. Zakaria ZA, Sulaiman MR, Morsid NA, Aris A, Zainal H, Pojan NH, et al.
    Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol, 2009 Mar;31(2):81-8.
    PMID: 19455262 DOI: 10.1358/mf.2009.31.2.1353876
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of the aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models. The extract, at concentrations of 10, 50 and 100%, was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in distilled water (dH2O) for 72 h. The extract solutions were administered subcutaneously in mice/rats 30 min prior to the tests. The extract exhibited significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (P < 0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests, respectively. Overall, these activities occurred in a concentration-dependent manner, except for the 50% concentration of the extract, which was not effective in the abdominal constriction test. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects and thus supported traditional claims of its medicinal uses.
  5. Zakaria ZA, Gopalan HK, Zainal H, Mohd Pojan NH, Morsid NA, Aris A, et al.
    Yakugaku Zasshi, 2006 Nov;126(11):1171-8.
    PMID: 17077618
    AIM: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of chloroform extract of Solanum nigrum leaves using various animal models.

    METHODS: The extract was prepared by soaking (1:20; w/v) the air-dried powdered leaves (20 g) in chloroform for 72 hrs followed by evaporation (40 degrees C) under reduced pressure to dryness (1.26 g) and then dissolved (1:50; w/v) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The supernatant, considered as the stock solution with dose of 200 mg/kg, was diluted using DMSO to 20 and 100 mg/kg, and all doses were administered (s.c.; 10 ml/kg) in mice/rats 30 min prior to tests.

    RESULTS: The extract exhibited significant (p<0.05) antinociceptive activity when assessed using the abdominal constriction, hot plate and formalin tests. The extract also produced significant (p<0.05) anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities when assessed using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia tests. Overall, the activities occurred in a dose-independent manner.

    CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that the lipid-soluble extract of S. nigrum leaves possessed antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic properties and confirmed the traditional claims.

  6. Lim CK, Bay HH, Neoh CH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Oct;20(10):7243-55.
    PMID: 23653315 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1725-7
    In this study, the adsorption behavior of azo dye Acid Orange 7 (AO7) from aqueous solution onto macrocomposite (MC) was investigated under various experimental conditions. The adsorbent, MC, which consists of a mixture of zeolite and activated carbon, was found to be effective in removing AO7. The MC were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, point of zero charge, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis. A series of experiments were performed via batch adsorption technique to examine the effect of the process variables, namely, contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH. The dye equilibrium adsorption was investigated, and the equilibrium data were fitted to Langmuir, Freundlich, and Tempkin isotherm models. The Langmuir isotherm model fits the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich isotherm model. For the kinetic study, pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion model were used to fit the experimental data. The adsorption kinetic was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that the adsorption process is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectral and high performance liquid chromatography analysis were carried out before and after the adsorption process. For the phytotoxicity test, treated AO7 was found to be less toxic. Thus, the study indicated that MC has good potential use as an adsorbent for the removal of azo dye from aqueous solution.
  7. Tariq FS, Samsuri AW, Karam DS, Aris AZ, Jamilu G
    Environ Monit Assess, 2019 Mar 21;191(4):232.
    PMID: 30900076 DOI: 10.1007/s10661-019-7359-6
    This study was conducted to determine the effects of rice husk ash (RHA) and Fe-coated rice husk ash (Fe-RHA) on the bioavailability and mobility of As, Cd, and Mn in mine tailings. The amendments were added to the tailings at 0, 5, 10, or 20% (w/w) and the mixtures were incubated for 0, 7, 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The CaCl2 extractable As, Cd, and Mn in the amended tailings were determined at each interval of incubation period. In addition, the tailings mixture was leached with simulated rain water (SRW) every week from 0 day (D 0) until day 60 (D 60). The results showed that both RHA and Fe-RHA application significantly decreased the CaCl2-extractable Cd and Mn but increased that of As in the tailings throughout the incubation period. Consequently, addition of both RHA and Fe-RHA leached out higher amount of As from the tailings but decreased Cd and Mn concentration compared to the controls. The amount of As leached from the Fe-RHA-amended tailings was less than that from RHA-amended tailings. Application of both RHA and Fe-RHA could be an effective way in decreasing the availability of cationic heavy metals (Cd and Mn) in the tailings but these amendments could result in increasing the availability of anionic metalloid (As). Therefore, selection of organic amendments to remediate metal-contaminated tailings must be done with great care because the outcomes might be different among the elements.
  8. Omar, N. A., Praveena, S. M., Hashim, Z., Aris, A. Z.
    Rice is a carbohydrate, one of the plant-based foods that can accumulate heavy metal from soil and the irrigation water. Since total heavy metal always overestimates the amount of heavy metal available in rice, bioavailability of heavy metal is always preferred. Many studies have been done and found that in vitro methods offer an appealing alternative to human and animal studies. They can be simple, rapid, low in cost and may provide insights which not achievable in the in vivo studies. In vitro digestion model for rice may differ from other in vitro digestion models applied in soil or other type of foods studies. This review aims to provide an overview of in vitro digestion model used to determine bioavailability of heavy metal in rice, summarize health risk assessment application of heavy metal in rice studies and highlight the importance of health risk assessment to be included in the studies. Future exploration of in vitro digestion model and health risk assessment application on the bioavailability of heavy metal in rice was also suggested.
  9. Hasan ZAE, Mohd Zainudin NAI, Aris A, Ibrahim MH, Yusof MT
    J Appl Microbiol, 2020 Oct;129(4):991-1003.
    PMID: 32324939 DOI: 10.1111/jam.14674
    AIMS: Agro-based wastes were evaluated as a medium for mass micropropagule production and optimal efficacy of Trichoderma asperellum B1092 in controlling Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and promoting tomato growth. This study focused on biological control because pathogen persistence in the soil makes the disease difficult to control.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: Rice bran, biochar, empty fruit bunches, coconut fibres, compost, top soil and mixed soil were evaluated as media for mass multiplication of T. asperellum, which is effective in controlling plant pathogens. Yielding the most colony forming units (CFU) among the media, coconut fibre was deemed most suitable for promoting sporulation. After 120 days on the medium, T. asperellum B1902 produced 9·053 × 105  CFU per gram coconut fibre; oil palm empty fruit bunches was second highest (7·406 × 105  CFU per gram). In field tests of T. asperellum B1092 against F. oxysporum f. sp lycopersici (causing Fusarium wilt of cherry tomato), B1092 significantly promoted plant growth compared to the control. The efficacy of this formulation resulted in increased growth of roots and shoots tomato plants and total lycopene, sugar, K, N, Ca, P and Mg content after 120 days.

    CONCLUSIONS: Trichoderma asperellum B1092 showed great field potential for improving productivity and quality of tomatoes and in controlling Fusarium wilt of cherry tomato.

    SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This innovative approach using a cheap agro-waste to control the persistent soil-borne Fusarium pathogen of cherry tomato should increase soil survival rate of Trichoderma and has potential for upscaling in the field for other crops.

  10. Lim CK, Bay HH, Aris A, Abdul Majid Z, Ibrahim Z
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2013 Jul;20(7):5056-66.
    PMID: 23334551 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-013-1476-5
    Reactive dyes account for one of the major sources of dye wastes in textile effluent. In this study, decolorization of the monoazo dye, Acid Orange 7 (AO7) by the Enterococcus faecalis strain ZL that isolated from a palm oil mill effluent treatment plant has been investigated. Decolorization efficiency of azo dye is greatly affected by the types of nutrients and the size of inoculum used. In this work, one-factor-at-a-time (method and response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize these operational factors and also to study the combined interaction between them. Analysis of AO7 decolorization was done using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum condition via RSM for the color removal of AO7 was found to be as follows: yeast extract, 0.1% w/v, glycerol concentration of 0.1% v/v, and inoculum density of 2.5% v/v at initial dye concentration of 100 mg/L at 37 °C. Decolorization efficiency of 98% was achieved in only 5 h. The kinetic of AO7 decolorization was found to be first order with respect to dye concentration with a k value of 0.87/h. FTIR, desorption study, UV-Vis spectral analysis, FESEM, and HPLC findings indicated that the decolorization of AO7 was mainly due to the biosorption as well as biodegradation of the bacterial cells. In addition, HPLC analyses also showed the formation of sulfanilic acid as a possible degradation product of AO7 under facultative anaerobic condition. This study explored the ability of E. faecalis strain ZL in decolorizing AO7 by biosorption as well as biodegradation process.
  11. Ibrahim Z, Amin MF, Yahya A, Aris A, Umor NA, Muda K, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2009;60(3):683-8.
    PMID: 19657163 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2009.440
    Microbial flocs formed from raw textile wastewater in a prototype Aerobic Biofilm Reactor (ABR) system were characterised and studied for their potential use in the treatment of textile wastewater. After 90-100 days of operation, microbial flocs of loose irregular structures were obtained from the reactor with good settling velocity of 33 m/h and sludge volume index (SVI) of 48.2 mL/g. Molecular analysis of the flocs using PCR-amplified 16S rDNA sequence showed 98% homology to those of Bacillus sp, Paenibacillus sp and Acromobacter sp. Detection of Ca(2+)(131 mg/g) and Fe(2+)(131 mg/g) using atomic absorption spectrometer might be implicated with the flocs formation. In addition, presence of Co(2+) and Ni(2+) were indicative of the flocs ability to accumulate at least a fraction of the metals' present in the wastewater. When the flocs were used for the treatment of raw textile wastewater, they showed good removal of COD and colour about 55% and 70% respectively, indicating their potential application.
  12. Ibrahim Z, Amin MF, Yahya A, Aris A, Muda K
    Water Sci Technol, 2010;61(5):1279-88.
    PMID: 20220250 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2010.021
    Textile wastewater, one of the most polluted industrial effluents, generally contains substantial amount of dyes and chemicals that will cause increase in the COD, colour and toxicity of receiving water bodies if not properly treated. Current treatment methods include chemical and biological processes; the efficiency of the biological treatment method however, remains uncertain since the discharged effluent is still highly coloured. In this study, granules consisting mixed culture of decolourising bacteria were developed and the physical and morphological characteristics were determined. After the sixth week of development, the granules were 3-10 mm in diameter, having good settling property with settling velocity of 70 m/h, sludge volume index (SVI) of 90 to 130 mL/g, integrity coefficient of 3.7, and density of 66 g/l. Their abilities to treat sterilised raw textile wastewater were evaluated based on the removal efficiencies of COD (initial ranging from 200 to 3,000 mg/L), colour (initial ranging from 450 to 2000 ADMI) of sterilised raw textile wastewater with pH from 6.8 to 9.4. Using a sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment cycle with hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h, maximum removal of colour and COD achieved was 90% and 80%, respectively.
  13. How SW, Sin JH, Wong SYY, Lim PB, Mohd Aris A, Ngoh GC, et al.
    Water Sci Technol, 2020 Jan;81(1):71-80.
    PMID: 32293590 DOI: 10.2166/wst.2020.077
    Many developing countries, mostly situated in the tropical region, have incorporated a biological nitrogen removal process into their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Existing wastewater characteristic data suggested that the soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) in tropical wastewater is not sufficient for denitrification. Warm wastewater temperature (30 °C) in the tropical region may accelerate the hydrolysis of particulate settleable solids (PSS) to provide slowly-biodegradable COD (sbCOD) for denitrification. This study aimed to characterize the different fractions of COD in several sources of low COD-to-nitrogen (COD/N) tropical wastewater. We characterized the wastewater samples from six WWTPs in Malaysia for 22 months. We determined the fractions of COD in the wastewater by nitrate uptake rate experiments. The PSS hydrolysis kinetic coefficients were determined at tropical temperature using an oxygen uptake rate experiment. The wastewater samples were low in readily-biodegradable COD (rbCOD), which made up 3-40% of total COD (TCOD). Most of the biodegradable organics were in the form of sbCOD (15-60% of TCOD), which was sufficient for complete denitrification. The PSS hydrolysis rate was two times higher than that at 20 °C. The high PSS hydrolysis rate may provide sufficient sbCOD to achieve effective biological nitrogen removal at WWTPs in the tropical region.
  14. Muda K, Aris A, Salim MR, Ibrahim Z, Yahya A, van Loosdrecht MC, et al.
    Water Res, 2010 Aug;44(15):4341-50.
    PMID: 20580402 DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2010.05.023
    Microbial granular sludge that is capable to treat textile wastewater in a single reactor under intermittent anaerobic and aerobic conditions was developed in this study. The granules were cultivated using mixed sewage and textile mill sludge in combination with anaerobic granules collected from an anaerobic sludge blanket reactor as seed. The granules were developed in a single sequential batch reactor (SBR) system under alternating anaerobic and aerobic condition fed with synthetic textile wastewater. The characteristics of the microbial granular sludge were monitored throughout the study period. During this period, the average size of the granules increased from 0.02 +/- 0.01 mm to 2.3 +/- 1.0 mm and the average settling velocity increased from 9.9 +/- 0.7 m h(-1) to 80 +/- 8 m h(-1). This resulted in an increased biomass concentration (from 2.9 +/- 0.8 g L(-1) to 7.3 +/- 0.9 g L(-1)) and mean cell residence time (from 1.4 days to 8.3 days). The strength of the granules, expressed as the integrity coefficient also improved. The sequential batch reactor system demonstrated good removal of COD and ammonia of 94% and 95%, respectively, at the end of the study. However, only 62% of color removal was observed. The findings of this study show that granular sludge could be developed in a single reactor with an intermittent anaerobic-aerobic reaction phase and is capable in treating the textile wastewater.
  15. Aris AM, Elegbe EO, Krishna R
    Singapore Med J, 1992 Apr;33(2):204-5.
    PMID: 1621133
    Intubation was difficult and traumatic in a 40-year-old patient presented for emergency oesophagoscopy because the diagnosis of stylohyoid ligament calcification was not suspected. High probability of stylohyoid ligament calcification should be suspected when there is difficulty in lifting the epiglottis and fibre-optic laryngoscopy is suggested as the best way to tackle this problem to prevent trauma and possible risk of regurgitation and aspiration especially in emergency situation.
  16. Aris A, Sulaiman S, Che Hasan MK
    Enferm Clin, 2021 04;31 Suppl 2:S10-S15.
    PMID: 33849138 DOI: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2020.10.006
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of music on physiological outcomes for post-operative TKA patients in the recovery unit. Fifty-six patients from Hospital Melaka were randomized equally into intervention (IG) and control groups (CG). IG received the usual care and listened to selected music for 60min, while the CG received only the usual care. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR) and oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured on arrival and after 10, 20, 30, and 60min in the recovery unit. A significant difference between groups was observed in RR upon arrival (U=276.5, p=0.029) and after 10min (U=291, p=0.45). Meanwhile, there were significant differences in DBP (F=3.158, p=0.032), RR (χ2=15.956, p=0.003) and SpO2 (χ2=14.084, p=0.007) over time in the IG. Overall, listening to music immediately after TKA has an effect on DBP, RR, and SpO2.
  17. Aziz MA, Norman S, Mohamed Zaid S, Simarani K, Sulaiman R, Mohd Aris A, et al.
    Arch Microbiol, 2023 Jan 28;205(2):76.
    PMID: 36708390 DOI: 10.1007/s00203-023-03417-y
    Wastewater monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 has attracted considerable attention worldwide to complement the existing clinical-based surveillance system. In this study, we report our first successful attempt to prove the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 genes in Malaysian urban wastewater. A total of 18 wastewater samples were obtained from a regional sewage treatment plant that received municipal sewage between February 2021 and May 2021. Using the quantitative PCR assay targeting the E and RdRp genes of SARS-CoV-2, we confirmed that both genes were detected in the raw sewage, while no viral RNA was found in the treated sewage. We were also able to show that the trend of COVID-19 cases in Kuala Lumpur and Selangor was related to the changes in SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels in the wastewater samples. Overall, our study highlights that monitoring wastewater for SARS-CoV-2 should help local health professionals to obtain additional information on the rapid and silent circulation of infectious agents in communities at the regional level.
  18. Omar NA, Praveena SM, Aris AZ, Hashim Z
    Food Chem, 2015 Dec 1;188:46-50.
    PMID: 26041162 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.04.087
    Little is known about the bioavailability of heavy metal contamination and its health risks after rice ingestion. This study aimed to determine bioavailability of heavy metal (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Co, Al, Fe, Zn and Pb) concentrations in cooked rice and human Health Risk Assessment (HRA). The results found Zn was the highest (4.3±0.1 mg/kg), whereas As showed the lowest (0.015±0.001 mg/kg) bioavailability of heavy metal concentration in 22 varieties of cooked rice. For single heavy metal exposure, no potential of non carcinogenic health risks was found, while carcinogenic health risks were found only for As. Combined heavy metal exposures found that total Hazard Quotient (HQtotal) values for adult were higher than the acceptable range (HQTotal<1), whereas total Lifetime Cancer Risk (LCRTotal) values were higher than the acceptable range (LCRTotal values >1×10(-4)) for both adult and children. This study is done to understand that the inclusion of bioavailability heavy metal into HRA produces a more realistic estimation of human heavy metal exposure.
  19. Hadibarata T, Yusoff AR, Aris A, Kristanti RA
    J Environ Sci (China), 2012;24(4):728-32.
    PMID: 22894109
    Armillaria sp. F022, a white rot fungus isolated from tropical rain forest (Samarinda, Indonesia) was used to biodegrade naphthalene in cultured medium. Transformation of naphthalene by Armillaria sp. F022 which is able to use naphthalene, a two ring-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) as a source of carbon and energy was investigated. The metabolic pathway was elucidated by identifying metabolites, biotransformation studies and monitoring enzyme activities in cell-free extracts. The identification of metabolites suggests that Armillaria sp. F022 initiates its attack on naphthalene by dioxygenation at its C-1 and C-4 positions to give 1,4-naphthoquinone. The intermediate 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and salicylic acid, and the characteristic of the meta-cleavage of the resulting diol were identified in the long-term incubation. A part from typical metabolites of naphthalene degradation known from mesophiles, benzoic acid was identified as the next intermediate for the naphthalene pathway of this Armillaria sp. F022. Neither phthalic acid, catechol and cis,cis-muconic acid metabolites were detected in culture extracts. Several enzymes (manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, 1,2-dioxygenase and 2,3-dioxygenase) produced by Armillaria sp. F022 were detected during the incubation.
  20. Aris A, Sharratt PN
    Environ Technol, 2006 Oct;27(10):1153-61.
    PMID: 17144264
    The effect of initial dissolved oxygen concentration (IDOC) on Fenton's reagent degradation of a dyestuff, Reactive Black 5 was explored in this study. The study was designed, conducted and analysed based on Central Composite Rotatable Design using a 3-1 lab-scale reactor. The participation of O2 in the process was experimentally observed and appears to be affected by the dosage of the reagents used in the study. The IDOC was found to have a significant influence on the process. Reducing the IDOC from 7.5 mg l(-1) to 2.5 mg l(-1) increased the removal of TOC by an average of about 10%. Reduction of IDOC from 10 mg l(-1) to 0 mg l(-1) enhanced the TOC removal by about 30%. The negative influence of IDOC is likely to be caused by the competition between the O2 and the reagents for the organoradicals. A model describing the relationship between initial TOC removal, reagent dosage and IDOC has also been developed.
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