Chicken plasma protein hydrolysate (CPPH) was prepared by trypsin with angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity of 53.5% ± 0.14% and the degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 16.22% ± 0.21% at 1 mg·ml-1; then, five proteases, including pepsin, trypsin, papain, alcalase, and neutrase, were employed to improve ACE inhibitory ability by catalyzing plastein reaction. The results indicated that trypsin-catalyzed plastein reaction showed the highest ACE inhibitory activity. The exogenous amino acids of leucine, histidine, tyrosine, valine, and cysteine were selected to modify the CPPH. The leucine-modified plastein reaction released the highest ACE inhibitory activity. The effects of four reaction parameters on plastein reaction were studied, and the optimal conditions with the purpose of obtaining the most powerful ACE inhibitory peptides from modified products were obtained by response surface methodology (RSM). The maximum ACE inhibition rate of the modified hydrolysate reached 82.07% ± 0.03% prepared at concentration of hydrolysates of 30%, reaction time of 4.9 hr, pH value of 8.0, temperature of 40°C, and E/S ratio of 5,681.62 U·g-1. The results indicated that trypsin-catalyzed plastein reaction increased ACE inhibitory activity of chicken plasma protein hydrolysates by 28.57%.
Many species of birds gradually adapt to urbanization and colonize cities successfully. However, their nest site selection and competitive relationship in an urban community remain little known. Understanding the impact of urbanization on birds and the competitive relationship has important implications for the conservation and management of wildlife in urban ecosystems. Here, we undertook a systematic study to quantify nests in all species of birds in an urbanizing area of Nanchang, China. A total of 363 nests were detected in surveys including 340 nests of 16 bird species and 23 unidentified species nests. We mainly analyzed 5 dominant breeding birds with a sample size of >10 during the two breeding seasons (From April to July in 2016 and 2017), which included the light-vented bulbul, Chinese blackbird, scaly-breasted munia, spotted dove and grey-capped greenfinch. Most birds (93.66%) nested in the tree of artificial green belts, which seems to be the best breeding habitat for urban birds. Our results suggested that birds' breeding success relies on the trade-off between the benefit and the expense of specific stresses from habitats. The nest site selection of birds is also affected by the life habit of urban predators. Furthermore, competition among species can influence their distributions and utilization of environmental resources when birds nest in cities. We confirmed that the niche differentiation of five bird species in an urban environment makes them coexist successfully by utilizing various resources.