Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE) using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.
In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), cytogenetics play an important role in diagnosis, allocation of treatment and prognosis. Conventional cytogenetic analysis, involving mainly karyotyping in our experience, has not been successful in a large proportion of cases due to inadequate metaphase spreads and poor chromosome morphology. Our aim is to develop a highly sensitive and specific method to screen simultaneously for the four most frequent fusion transcripts resulting from specific chromosomal translocations, namely, both the CML- and ALLtype BCR-ABL transcripts of t(9;22), E2A-PBX1 transcript of t(1;19), the MLL-AF4 transcript of t(4;11) and TEL-AML1 (also termed ETV6-CBFA2) of the cryptic t(12;21). A multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction protocol (RT-PCR) was developed and tested out on archival bone marrow samples and leukaemia cell lines. In all samples with a known translocation detected by cytogenetic techniques, the same translocation was identified by the multiplex-PCR assay. Multiplex RT-PCR assay is an effective, sensitive, accurate and cost-effective diagnostic tool which can improve our ability to accurately and rapidly risk-stratify patients with childhood ALL.
Here we examine the organ level toxicology of both carbon black (CB) and silver nanoparticles (AgNP). We aim to determine metal-specific effects to respiratory function, inflammation and potential interactions with lung lining fluid (LLF). C57Bl6/J male mice were intratracheally instilled with saline (control), low (0.05 μg/g) or high (0.5 μg/g) doses of either AgNP or CB 15 nm nanospheres. Lung histology, cytology, surfactant composition and function, inflammatory gene expression, and pulmonary function were measured at 1, 3, and 7 days post-exposure. Acutely, high dose CB resulted in an inflammatory response, increased neutrophilia and cytokine production, without alteration in surfactant composition or respiratory mechanics. Low dose CB had no effect. Neither low nor high dose AgNPs resulted in an acute inflammatory response, but there was an increase in work of breathing. Three days post-exposure with CB, a persistent neutrophilia was noted. High dose AgNP resulted in an elevated number of macrophages and invasion of lymphocytes. Additionally, AgNP treated mice displayed increased expression of IL1B, IL6, CCL2, and IL10. However, there were no significant changes in respiratory mechanics. At day 7, inflammation had resolved in AgNP-treated mice, but tissue stiffness and resistance were significantly decreased, which was accompanied by an increase in surfactant protein D (SP-D) content. These data demonstrate that the presence of metal alters the response of the lung to nanoparticle exposure. AgNP-surfactant interactions may alter respiratory function and result in a delayed immune response, potentially due to modified airway epithelial cell function.
Multiple studies have examined the direct cellular toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). However, the lung is a complex biological system with multiple cell types and a lipid-rich surface fluid; therefore, organ level responses may not depend on direct cellular toxicity. We hypothesized that interaction with the lung lining is a critical determinant of organ level responses. Here, we have examined the effects of low dose intratracheal instillation of AgNPs (0.05 μg/g body weight) 20 and 110 nm diameter in size, and functionalized with citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Both size and functionalization were significant factors in particle aggregation and lipid interaction in vitro. One day post-intratracheal instillation lung function was assessed, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue collected. There were no signs of overt inflammation. There was no change in surfactant protein-B content in the BAL but there was loss of surfactant protein-D with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-stabilized particles. Mechanical impedance data demonstrated a significant increase in pulmonary elastance as compared to control, greatest with 110 nm PVP-stabilized particles. Seven days post-instillation of PVP-stabilized particles increased BAL cell counts, and reduced lung function was observed. These changes resolved by 21 days. Hence, AgNP-mediated alterations in the lung lining and mechanical function resolve by 21 days. Larger particles and PVP stabilization produce the largest disruptions. These studies demonstrate that low dose AgNPs elicit deficits in both mechanical and innate immune defense function, suggesting that organ level toxicity should be considered.
Persons with disabilities (PWD) are susceptible to malnutrition. Caregivers or teachers in rehabilitation centres may not be adequately trained in nutrition management of PWD. The aims of this study were (i) to assess the nutrition knowledge, attitude and practice among teachers in community-based rehabilitation centres for PWD; and (ii) to evaluate changes in the nutrition knowledge and attitude of the teachers before and after exposure to a training workshop on nutrition management for PWD.
From the start of the school milk feeding programme in February 1985 to October 1986, a total of 2,766 children aged six to nine years from 12 primary schools in Ulu Selangor were followed-up for about two years. The children's weight and height were monitored at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the study. The study shows that there is a reduction in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in terms of underweight (15.3% to 8.6%), stunting (16.3% to 8.3%) and wasting (2.6% to 1.7%) from the start of the school feeding programme to two years later. Associated with this there was an improvement in the attendance rate of the children during the same period. As there was no major developmental change in Ulu Selangor during that period, it is likely that the reduction in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and the improvement of the attendance rate among the children are due to the impact of the school milk feeding programme.
Between 1976 and 1979, hand radiographs of 112 Malay children, 55 males and 57 females aged from 12 to 28 months, from higher socio-economic class families were obtained and studied by two radiologists. These children were part of a longitudinal study on growth and development. A total of 268 hand and wrist radiographs were taken, which the radiologists read independently of each other using the Greulich and Pyle Atlas. The bone age was then compared with the chronological age and the difference, if any, was noted and 'scored'. It was found that 83.4% of cases for males and 94.8% of cases for females matched within the +/- 6 months discrepancy range. For practical purposes therefore, our population may use the Greulich-Pyle Atlas with a good degree of confidence. Typical hand radiographs of male and female Malay children at 12, 18 and 24 months of age are also presented and these may be used as standards for Malaysian children at the respective age groups.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study shows that for boys and girls, there is a progressive increase in the left mid-upper arm circumference from birth to six years of age. However the rate of growth is not even, being most rapid during the first four month of infancy, then rapidly decreases during the middle third of infancy and thereafter it decreases slowly and by the second year of life, there is hardly any increase in the arm circumference. The left triceps skinfold thickness curves for boys and girls rise rapidly after birth to reach a peak at about three to five months before commencing to decline and then flatten off from the second year of life. The study also shows that on the whole, boys have slightly bigger arm circumference than girls during the first two years of life. From two years of age, girls on the average have more fat than boys. However this difference is statistically not significant at the ages tested. This paper also presents the left mid-upper arm circumference and left triceps skinfold percentile charts of Malaysian boys and girls from birth to six years of age.
The relationship between the timing of maternal tetanus toxoid immunization and the presence of protective antitoxin in placental cord blood was investigated among women admitted to the obstetrical service of the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The 1st dose was given between 13-39 weeks of gestation, with a median of 29 weeks. The 2nd dose was given an average of 4 weeks later. Protection was conferred on 80% or more of newborns whose mothers received their 1st tetanus toxoid injection 60 days or more before delivery. Protective levels were seen in all cord blood samples from infants whose mothers had received their 1st injection 90 days before delivery. Similarly,protective titers were found in 100% of cord blood samples when the 2nd maternal injection was give 60 days or more before delivery. There was no significant degree of protection when immunization was carried out less than 20 days before delivery. A single-dose schedule provided no protection when less than 70 days before delivery. Cord and maternal antiotoxin titers differed by no more than 1 2-fold dilution for almost all of the individual paired sera. A cord: maternal antitoxin ratio of 2 was more likely to occur with increasing time between the 2nd injection and delivery. Overall, these findings indicate that the 1st injection of a 2-dose maternal tetanus toxoid schedule should be given at least 60 days and preferably 90 days before delivery.
1,256 malnourished children, aged seven to ten years, were selected for study, 575 from Kuala Langat, 416 from Wilayah Persekutuan and 265 from Ulu Selangor. Ninety-three percent of the children were from low socioeconomic groups with large family size, and most of their parents had only primary or no formal education. During the study period, children in Kuala Langat received daily milk supplementation for five days per week, those in Wilayah Persekutuan for two days per week, while those in Ulu Selangor did not receive any milk supplementation. The study shows that a majority of the malnourished primary school children liked to drink milk and that milk intolerance was not a problem among them.
126 Malay children from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their developmental performance was compared to that of Denver children. Generally, Malaysian and Denver children appear to be similar in their development during the first six years of life except for some minor differences in the personal-social, language and gross motor sectors. Malaysians appear to be slower in self-care but more advanced in "helping around the house", "playing interactive games" and in "separating from mother". They were slightly slower in gross motor function during the first year of life but more advanced during the second year of life. However, they were slightly more advanced in language development. The differences in development between the two groups of children are discussed and it is concluded that the differences can partly be explained by differences in socio-economic or cultural differences between the two groups of children. However, the influence of genetic factors cannot be dismissed.
Over the past hundred years in industrialised countries and recently in some developing countries, children have been getting larger and growing to maturity more rapidly. This paper compares the growth of Malaysian children with similar socioeconomic backgrounds but born about twelve years apart. Data were obtained from records of 227 children born between 1968 and 1973 and 238 children born between 1980 and 1985. The children were followed-up regularly at the University Hospital Child Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur for a variable period from birth to five years of age. Measurements for their weight, length and head circumference were taken at each visit. There is a directional indication that boys and girls of the 1980-1985 cohort are taller, heavier and have bigger head circumferences from birth to five years of age and the difference widens as the child grows older. This study clearly shows that a positive secular trend has taken place in the last decade, reflecting an improvement of living conditions with time. The factors involved in the positive secular trend are manifold and the most important is probably nutrition.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that growth velocity of head circumference is most rapid during the first few months of infancy and then decreases so that by the fifth year of life the increment is minimal. It also confirms the fact that boys have bigger head circumferences than girls. The paper also presents the head circumference distance and velocity percentile charts which can be used to monitor the head circumference of Malaysian children.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their physical growth, development, dietary and illness patterns were measured at each visit. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that boys are, on the average, heavier and taller than girls and that Asians are smaller in size with relatively shorter legs compared with children of European ancestry. These racial differences are due to a combination of genetic and environmental differences. Since there are genetic differences in the size and shape of children, standards applicable to the specific population should be used to obtain the best results when assessing the health of an individual child. The growth charts presented in this paper can be used as standards to monitor the growth of Asian infants and pre-school children.
The weights and heights of 3,312 Malaysian primary school boys and girls, aged 6 to 11 years, belonging to various ethnic groups in Malaysia were measured. On the whole, the Chinese children were taller and heavier than the Malay and the Indian children who were the least heavy among the three ethnic groups. Economically the Indians were the poorest among the three ethnic groups and they also had the largest family size. When the household incomes were taken into consideration it was found that the growth achievement of the higher income children was better than that of the poorer children, irrespective of their ethnic groups. It is interesting to note that, although the Indian children as a whole, were the least heavy of the three ethnic groups, yet the growth achievement of the higher income Indian children was similar to that of the higher income Chinese children. The differences in growth achievement of the various ethnic groups are probably due to environmental differences, rather than genetic differences. It seems likely that Malaysian children of different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) can attain similar statures if environmental conditions are similar.