Among their numerous physiological effects, heat shock proteins (Hsps) are potent immunomodulators, a characteristic reflecting their potential as therapeutic agents and which led to their application in combating infection. As an example, the up-regulation of endogenous Hsp70 in the branchiopod crustacean Artemia franciscana (Kellogg) is concurrent with shielding against bacterial infection. To better understand this protective mechanism, gnotobiotic Artemia were fed with Escherichia coli treated to over-produce different prokaryotic Hsps. This was shown to increase larval resistance to experimental Vibrio campbellii exposure. Immunoprobing of Western blots showed that the enhanced resistance to V. campbellii correlated with DnaK production in E coli. A definitive role for DnaK was then demonstrated by feeding Artemia larvae with transformed bacteria over-producing only this protein, although other Hsps such as DnaJ and grpE also provided tolerance against Vibrio infection. Feeding of bacteria synthesizing selected Hsps is therefore suggested as an alternative to antibiotic use as a means of enhancing resistance of Artemia larvae to bacterial infection, which may have potential applications in aquaculture.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE) using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.
The infant immunization coverage for triple antigen (DPT) from 1968 and trivalent oral polio vaccine (TOPV) from 1972 to 1985 for Peninsular Malaysia are presented. It shows that immunization coverage improved when the recommended age for first dose of DPT was changed from the fourth to the second month of life in 1972 and declined when the recommended age for the first dose of DPT and TOPV was revised again from the second to the third month of life in 1980. The advantages of immunizing children early in life are discussed.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their physical growth, development, dietary and illness patterns were measured at each visit. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that boys are, on the average, heavier and taller than girls and that Asians are smaller in size with relatively shorter legs compared with children of European ancestry. These racial differences are due to a combination of genetic and environmental differences. Since there are genetic differences in the size and shape of children, standards applicable to the specific population should be used to obtain the best results when assessing the health of an individual child. The growth charts presented in this paper can be used as standards to monitor the growth of Asian infants and pre-school children.
Over the past hundred years in industrialised countries and recently in some developing countries, children have been getting larger and growing to maturity more rapidly. This paper compares the growth of Malaysian children with similar socioeconomic backgrounds but born about twelve years apart. Data were obtained from records of 227 children born between 1968 and 1973 and 238 children born between 1980 and 1985. The children were followed-up regularly at the University Hospital Child Health Clinic in Kuala Lumpur for a variable period from birth to five years of age. Measurements for their weight, length and head circumference were taken at each visit. There is a directional indication that boys and girls of the 1980-1985 cohort are taller, heavier and have bigger head circumferences from birth to five years of age and the difference widens as the child grows older. This study clearly shows that a positive secular trend has taken place in the last decade, reflecting an improvement of living conditions with time. The factors involved in the positive secular trend are manifold and the most important is probably nutrition.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study shows that for boys and girls, there is a progressive increase in the left mid-upper arm circumference from birth to six years of age. However the rate of growth is not even, being most rapid during the first four month of infancy, then rapidly decreases during the middle third of infancy and thereafter it decreases slowly and by the second year of life, there is hardly any increase in the arm circumference. The left triceps skinfold thickness curves for boys and girls rise rapidly after birth to reach a peak at about three to five months before commencing to decline and then flatten off from the second year of life. The study also shows that on the whole, boys have slightly bigger arm circumference than girls during the first two years of life. From two years of age, girls on the average have more fat than boys. However this difference is statistically not significant at the ages tested. This paper also presents the left mid-upper arm circumference and left triceps skinfold percentile charts of Malaysian boys and girls from birth to six years of age.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that growth velocity of head circumference is most rapid during the first few months of infancy and then decreases so that by the fifth year of life the increment is minimal. It also confirms the fact that boys have bigger head circumferences than girls. The paper also presents the head circumference distance and velocity percentile charts which can be used to monitor the head circumference of Malaysian children.
From the start of the school milk feeding programme in February 1985 to October 1986, a total of 2,766 children aged six to nine years from 12 primary schools in Ulu Selangor were followed-up for about two years. The children's weight and height were monitored at the beginning, in the middle and at the end of the study. The study shows that there is a reduction in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition in terms of underweight (15.3% to 8.6%), stunting (16.3% to 8.3%) and wasting (2.6% to 1.7%) from the start of the school feeding programme to two years later. Associated with this there was an improvement in the attendance rate of the children during the same period. As there was no major developmental change in Ulu Selangor during that period, it is likely that the reduction in the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition and the improvement of the attendance rate among the children are due to the impact of the school milk feeding programme.
126 Malay children from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their developmental performance was compared to that of Denver children. Generally, Malaysian and Denver children appear to be similar in their development during the first six years of life except for some minor differences in the personal-social, language and gross motor sectors. Malaysians appear to be slower in self-care but more advanced in "helping around the house", "playing interactive games" and in "separating from mother". They were slightly slower in gross motor function during the first year of life but more advanced during the second year of life. However, they were slightly more advanced in language development. The differences in development between the two groups of children are discussed and it is concluded that the differences can partly be explained by differences in socio-economic or cultural differences between the two groups of children. However, the influence of genetic factors cannot be dismissed.
The weights and heights of 3,312 Malaysian primary school boys and girls, aged 6 to 11 years, belonging to various ethnic groups in Malaysia were measured. On the whole, the Chinese children were taller and heavier than the Malay and the Indian children who were the least heavy among the three ethnic groups. Economically the Indians were the poorest among the three ethnic groups and they also had the largest family size. When the household incomes were taken into consideration it was found that the growth achievement of the higher income children was better than that of the poorer children, irrespective of their ethnic groups. It is interesting to note that, although the Indian children as a whole, were the least heavy of the three ethnic groups, yet the growth achievement of the higher income Indian children was similar to that of the higher income Chinese children. The differences in growth achievement of the various ethnic groups are probably due to environmental differences, rather than genetic differences. It seems likely that Malaysian children of different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) can attain similar statures if environmental conditions are similar.
Pneumonia and diarrhoeas are an important cause of toddler mortality and morbidity in developing countries. Of the 147 children admitted to the University Hospital at Kuala Lumpur in 1971 for pneumonia and diarrhoeas 50 (34%) were found to be suffering from protein-calorie malnutrition of varying degrees of severity. The malnourished children tended to come from poorer homes, and to have a larger number of siblings born in rapid succession when compared with normal weight children. Anemia was more common among the malnourished children. The interaction of infection and malnutrition and the social implications of these diseases are important. It is vital that hospitals in developing countries promote health in addition to their traditional curative role.