Theory and research converge to suggest that authenticity predicts positive psychological adjustment. Given these benefits of authenticity, there is a surprising dearth of research on the factors that foster authenticity. Five studies help fill this gap by testing whether self-compassion promotes subjective authenticity. Study 1 found a positive association between trait self-compassion and authenticity. Study 2 demonstrated that on days when people felt more self-compassionate, they also felt more authentic. Study 3 discovered that people experimentally induced to be self-compassionate reported greater state authenticity relative to control participants. Studies 4 and 5 recruited samples from multiple cultures and used a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design, respectively, and found that self-compassion predicts greater authenticity through reduced fear of negative evaluation (Study 4) and heightened optimism (Study 5). Across studies, self-compassion's effects on authenticity could not be accounted for by self-esteem. Overall, the results suggest that self-compassion can help cultivate subjective authenticity.
Tembusu virus (TMUV, genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) was first isolated in 1955 from Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. In April 2010, duck TMUV was first identified as the causative agent of egg-drop syndrome, characterized by a substantial decrease in egg laying and depression, growth retardation and neurological signs or death in infected egg-laying and breeder ducks, in the People's Republic of China. Since 2010, duck TMUV has spread to most of the duck-producing regions in China, including many of the coastal provinces, neighbouring regions and certain Southeast Asia areas (i.e. Thailand and Malaysia). This review describes the current understanding of the genome characteristics, host range, transmission, epidemiology, phylogenetic and immune evasion of avian-origin TMUV and the innate immune response of the host.
The biodegradation characteristics of palm oil mill effluent (POME) and the related microbial community were studied in both actual sequential anaerobic ponds in Malaysia and enrichment cultures. The significant degradation of the POME was observed in the second pond, in which the temperature was 35-37 °C. In this pond, biodegradation of major long chain fatty acids (LCFA), such as palmitic acid (C16:0) and oleic acid (C18:1), was also confirmed. The enrichment culture experiment was conducted with different feeding substrates, i.e. POME, C16:0 and C18:1, at 35 °C. Good recovery of methane indicated biodegradation of feeds in the POME and C16:0 enrichments. The methane production rate of the C18:1 enrichment was slower than other substrates and inhibition of methanogenesis was frequently observed. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses indicated the existence of LCFA-degrading bacteria, such as the genus Syntrophus and Syntorophomonas, in all enrichment cultures operated at 35 °C. Anaerobic degradation of the POME under mesophilic conditions was stably processed as compared with thermophilic conditions.
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), which is similar to other mosquito-borne flaviviruses that replicate well in most mammalian cells, is an emerging pathogenic flavivirus that has caused epidemics in egg-laying and breeding waterfowl. Immune organ defects and neurological dysfunction are the main clinical symptoms of DTMUV infection. Preinfection with DTMUV makes the virus impervious to later interferon (IFN) treatment, revealing that DTMUV has evolved some strategies to defend against host IFN-dependent antiviral responses. Immune inhibition was further confirmed by screening for DTMUV-encoded proteins, which suggested that NS2A significantly inhibited IFN-β and IFN-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner and facilitated reinfection with duck plague virus (DPV). DTMUV NS2A was able to inhibit duck retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-I)-, and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5)-, mitochondrial-localized adaptor molecules (MAVS)-, stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-, and TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)-induced IFN-β transcription, but not duck TBK1- and interferon regulatory factor 7 (IRF7)-mediated effective phases of IFN response. Furthermore, we found that NS2A competed with duTBK1 in binding to duck STING (duSTING), impaired duSTING-duSTING binding, and reduced duTBK1 phosphorylation, leading to the subsequent inhibition of IFN production. Importantly, we first identified that the W164A, Y167A, and S361A mutations in duSTING significantly impaired the NS2A-duSTING interaction, which is important for NS2A-induced IFN-β inhibition. Hence, our data demonstrated that DTMUV NS2A disrupts duSTING-dependent antiviral cellular defenses by binding with duSTING, which provides a novel mechanism by which DTMUV subverts host innate immune responses. The potential interaction sites between NS2A and duSTING may be the targets of future novel antiviral therapies and vaccine development.IMPORTANCE Flavivirus infections are transmitted through mosquitos or ticks and lead to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide with a spectrum of manifestations. Infection with an emerging flavivirus, DTMUV, manifests with clinical symptoms that include lesions of the immune organs and neurological dysfunction, leading to heavy egg drop and causing serious harm to the duck industry in China, Thailand, Malaysia, and other Southeast Asian countries. Mosquito cells, bird cells, and mammalian cell lines are all susceptible to DTMUV infection. An in vivo study revealed that BALB/c mice and Kunming mice were susceptible to DTMUV after intracerebral inoculation. Moreover, there are no reports about DTMUV-related human disease, but antibodies against DTMUV and viral RNA were detected in serum samples of duck industry workers. This information implies that DTMUV has expanded its host range and may pose a threat to mammalian health. However, the pathogenesis of DTMUV is largely unclear. Our results show that NS2A strongly blocks the STING-induced signal transduction cascade by binding with STING, which subsequently blocks STING-STING binding and TBK1 phosphorylation. More importantly, the W164, Y167, or S361 residues in duSTING were identified as important interaction sites between STING and NS2A that are vital for NS2A-induced IFN production and effective phases of IFN response. Uncovering the mechanism by which DTMUV NS2A inhibits IFN in the cells of its natural hosts, ducks, will help us understand the role of NS2A in DTMUV pathogenicity.
Between 1976 and 1979, hand radiographs of 112 Malay children, 55 males and 57 females aged from 12 to 28 months, from higher socio-economic class families were obtained and studied by two radiologists. These children were part of a longitudinal study on growth and development. A total of 268 hand and wrist radiographs were taken, which the radiologists read independently of each other using the Greulich and Pyle Atlas. The bone age was then compared with the chronological age and the difference, if any, was noted and 'scored'. It was found that 83.4% of cases for males and 94.8% of cases for females matched within the +/- 6 months discrepancy range. For practical purposes therefore, our population may use the Greulich-Pyle Atlas with a good degree of confidence. Typical hand radiographs of male and female Malay children at 12, 18 and 24 months of age are also presented and these may be used as standards for Malaysian children at the respective age groups.
BACKGROUND: The evaluation for surgical resectability of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients is not only imaging-based but highly subjective. An objective method is urgently needed. We report on the clinical value of a phenotypic circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based blood test for a preoperative prognostic assessment of tumor metastasis and overall survival (OS) of PDAC patients.
METHODS: Venous blood samples from 46 pathologically confirmed PDAC patients were collected prospectively before surgery and immunoassayed using a specially designed TU-chip™. Captured CTCs were differentiated into epithelial (E), mesenchymal and hybrid (H) phenotypes. A further 45 non-neoplastic healthy donors provided blood for cell line validation study and CTC false positive quantification.
FINDINGS: A validated multivariable model consisting of disjunctively combined CTC phenotypes: "H-CTC≥15.0 CTCs/2ml OR E-CTC≥11.0 CTCs/2ml" generated an optimal prediction of metastasis with a sensitivity of 1.000 (95% CI 0.889-1.000) and specificity of 0.886 (95% CI 0.765-0.972). The adjusted Kaplan-Meier median OS constructed using Cox proportional-hazard models and stratified for E-CTC
We previously identified an expressed sequence tag clone, Der f 22, showing 41% amino acid identity to published Der f 2, and show that both genes are possible paralogues. The objective of this study was to characterize the genomic, proteomic and immunological functions Der f 22 and Der f 2. The full-length sequence of Der f 2 and Der f 22 coded for mature proteins of 129 and 135 amino acids respectively, both containing 6 cysteine residues. Phylogenetic analysis of known group 2 allergens and their homologues from our expressed sequence tag library showed that Der f 22 is a paralogue of Der f 2. Both Der f 2 and Der f 22 were single gene products with one intron. Both allergens showed specific IgE-binding to over 40% of the atopic patients, with limited of cross-reactivity. Both allergens were detected at the gut region of D. farinae by immunostaining. Der f 22 is an important allergen with significant IgE reactivity among the atopic population, and should be considered in the diagnostic panel and evaluated as future hypoallergen vaccine therapeutic target.
The weights and heights of 3,312 Malaysian primary school boys and girls, aged 6 to 11 years, belonging to various ethnic groups in Malaysia were measured. On the whole, the Chinese children were taller and heavier than the Malay and the Indian children who were the least heavy among the three ethnic groups. Economically the Indians were the poorest among the three ethnic groups and they also had the largest family size. When the household incomes were taken into consideration it was found that the growth achievement of the higher income children was better than that of the poorer children, irrespective of their ethnic groups. It is interesting to note that, although the Indian children as a whole, were the least heavy of the three ethnic groups, yet the growth achievement of the higher income Indian children was similar to that of the higher income Chinese children. The differences in growth achievement of the various ethnic groups are probably due to environmental differences, rather than genetic differences. It seems likely that Malaysian children of different ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian) can attain similar statures if environmental conditions are similar.
126 Malay children from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Their developmental performance was compared to that of Denver children. Generally, Malaysian and Denver children appear to be similar in their development during the first six years of life except for some minor differences in the personal-social, language and gross motor sectors. Malaysians appear to be slower in self-care but more advanced in "helping around the house", "playing interactive games" and in "separating from mother". They were slightly slower in gross motor function during the first year of life but more advanced during the second year of life. However, they were slightly more advanced in language development. The differences in development between the two groups of children are discussed and it is concluded that the differences can partly be explained by differences in socio-economic or cultural differences between the two groups of children. However, the influence of genetic factors cannot be dismissed.
The draw-a-man (DAM) and draw-a-woman (DAW) tests were given to 307 schoolchildren in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. The children were ethnically Malay, Chinese, or Indian (Tamil), and all came from lower socioeconomic groups. The standard scores of the Chinese children averaged 118 in the DAM and 112 in the DAW tests. These scores were significantly better than the American standards. Malay children scored significantly lower than Chinese, and Tamil children scored lower again. The nutritional status of the children had no influence on the scores. Chinese and Tamil children scored better in the DAM than the DAW, while in Malay boys the reverse was true. Malay children tended to emphasise clothing in the DAM, but Chinese and Tamil children scored better on items relating to facial features and body proportions. The Goodenough-Harris draw-a-person tests are obviously not culture-free, but the causes of ethnic differences have not been elucidated.
Here we examine the organ level toxicology of both carbon black (CB) and silver nanoparticles (AgNP). We aim to determine metal-specific effects to respiratory function, inflammation and potential interactions with lung lining fluid (LLF). C57Bl6/J male mice were intratracheally instilled with saline (control), low (0.05 μg/g) or high (0.5 μg/g) doses of either AgNP or CB 15 nm nanospheres. Lung histology, cytology, surfactant composition and function, inflammatory gene expression, and pulmonary function were measured at 1, 3, and 7 days post-exposure. Acutely, high dose CB resulted in an inflammatory response, increased neutrophilia and cytokine production, without alteration in surfactant composition or respiratory mechanics. Low dose CB had no effect. Neither low nor high dose AgNPs resulted in an acute inflammatory response, but there was an increase in work of breathing. Three days post-exposure with CB, a persistent neutrophilia was noted. High dose AgNP resulted in an elevated number of macrophages and invasion of lymphocytes. Additionally, AgNP treated mice displayed increased expression of IL1B, IL6, CCL2, and IL10. However, there were no significant changes in respiratory mechanics. At day 7, inflammation had resolved in AgNP-treated mice, but tissue stiffness and resistance were significantly decreased, which was accompanied by an increase in surfactant protein D (SP-D) content. These data demonstrate that the presence of metal alters the response of the lung to nanoparticle exposure. AgNP-surfactant interactions may alter respiratory function and result in a delayed immune response, potentially due to modified airway epithelial cell function.
Among their numerous physiological effects, heat shock proteins (Hsps) are potent immunomodulators, a characteristic reflecting their potential as therapeutic agents and which led to their application in combating infection. As an example, the up-regulation of endogenous Hsp70 in the branchiopod crustacean Artemia franciscana (Kellogg) is concurrent with shielding against bacterial infection. To better understand this protective mechanism, gnotobiotic Artemia were fed with Escherichia coli treated to over-produce different prokaryotic Hsps. This was shown to increase larval resistance to experimental Vibrio campbellii exposure. Immunoprobing of Western blots showed that the enhanced resistance to V. campbellii correlated with DnaK production in E coli. A definitive role for DnaK was then demonstrated by feeding Artemia larvae with transformed bacteria over-producing only this protein, although other Hsps such as DnaJ and grpE also provided tolerance against Vibrio infection. Feeding of bacteria synthesizing selected Hsps is therefore suggested as an alternative to antibiotic use as a means of enhancing resistance of Artemia larvae to bacterial infection, which may have potential applications in aquaculture.
During March 2007, a fruit rot disease was observed in several loquat (Eriobotrya japonica (Thunberg) Lindley) fields located in Taichung, Nantou, and Miaoli counties. Loquat is a valuable fruit crop grown predominantly in central Taiwan, and hence, even a minor yield loss by this new disease is economically significant. Symptoms on fruits initially appeared as small lesions (<1 mm) that later developed into light-to-dark brown, circular, larger (7 mm), sunken lesions, indicating invasion of a pathogen into the fruit. Pieces of rotted fruit tissue (1 × 1 × 1 mm) were immersed for 1 min in 3% commercial bleach, followed by 70% ethanol, cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA), and incubated under constant fluorescent light (185 ± 35 μE·m-2·s-1) at 24°C for 2 days. Three single conidial isolates (AS1 to AS3) were selected and used in morphological and pathogenicity studies. All three isolates were identified as an Alternaria sp. (1-3) and formed abundant, dark brown mycelium when cultured on PDA with light at 24°C. Conidiophores were 60 to 89 × 3 to 5 μm, densely fasciculate, cylindrical, simple or branched, and had distinct conidial scars. Conidia were 12 to 74 × 6 to 14 μm, golden brown, straight or curved, obclavate with beaks measuring half the length of the conidium, and observed in chains of 10 or more spores with four to seven transverse septa and several longitudinal septa. Pathogenicity tests were conducted twice by inoculating eight surface-sterilized wounded or unwounded fruits with each of the three isolates in each experiment. Two cuts (1 × 1 × 1 mm) were made on each fruit 3 cm apart with a sterile scalpel, and a 300-μl spore suspension (2 × 105 conidia per ml) was placed on each wound. Similarly, a 300-μl spore suspension was placed on unwounded fruits and air dried for 5 min. Control fruits were similarly treated with sterile water. Inoculated fruits were enclosed in a plastic bag and kept at 24 ± 1°C. Symptoms of soft rot were observed on 60% (unwounded) and 100% (wounded) of inoculated fruits 5 days after inoculation, while control fruits did not develop disease symptoms. Reisolation from the symptomatic fruits consistently yielded an Alternaria sp. This fungus previously has been reported as the causal agent of fruit rot or black spot of papaya, mango, kiwifruit, pear, and carambola from Australia, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and the United States (1-3). To our knowledge, this is the first report of fruit rot of loquat caused by an Alternaria sp. in Taiwan. To manage this disease, growers may resort to fungicidal sprays followed by bagging of fruits to reduce pre- and postharvest losses. References: (1) A. L. Jones and H. S. Aldwinckle. Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1990. (2) R. C. Ploetz. Diseases of Tropical Fruit Crops. CABI Publishing. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK, 2003. (3) R. C. Ploetz et al. Compendium of Tropical Fruit Diseases. The American Phytopathological Society. St. Paul, MN, 1994.
Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE) using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study shows that for boys and girls, there is a progressive increase in the left mid-upper arm circumference from birth to six years of age. However the rate of growth is not even, being most rapid during the first four month of infancy, then rapidly decreases during the middle third of infancy and thereafter it decreases slowly and by the second year of life, there is hardly any increase in the arm circumference. The left triceps skinfold thickness curves for boys and girls rise rapidly after birth to reach a peak at about three to five months before commencing to decline and then flatten off from the second year of life. The study also shows that on the whole, boys have slightly bigger arm circumference than girls during the first two years of life. From two years of age, girls on the average have more fat than boys. However this difference is statistically not significant at the ages tested. This paper also presents the left mid-upper arm circumference and left triceps skinfold percentile charts of Malaysian boys and girls from birth to six years of age.
126 Malaysian children, 65 boys and 61 girls from higher income families were followed-up regularly from birth to six years of age in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirms the observations of previous studies that growth velocity of head circumference is most rapid during the first few months of infancy and then decreases so that by the fifth year of life the increment is minimal. It also confirms the fact that boys have bigger head circumferences than girls. The paper also presents the head circumference distance and velocity percentile charts which can be used to monitor the head circumference of Malaysian children.