Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 225 in total

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  1. Amankwah EK, Lin HY, Tyrer JP, Lawrenson K, Dennis J, Chornokur G, et al.
    Genet. Epidemiol., 2015 Dec;39(8):689-97.
    PMID: 26399219 DOI: 10.1002/gepi.21921
    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process whereby epithelial cells assume mesenchymal characteristics to facilitate cancer metastasis. However, EMT also contributes to the initiation and development of primary tumors. Prior studies that explored the hypothesis that EMT gene variants contribute to epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) risk have been based on small sample sizes and none have sought replication in an independent population. We screened 15,816 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 296 genes in a discovery phase using data from a genome-wide association study of EOC among women of European ancestry (1,947 cases and 2,009 controls) and identified 793 variants in 278 EMT-related genes that were nominally (P < 0.05) associated with invasive EOC. These SNPs were then genotyped in a larger study of 14,525 invasive-cancer patients and 23,447 controls. A P-value <0.05 and a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.2 were considered statistically significant. In the larger dataset, GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 was associated with the endometrioid subtype among Caucasians (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.07-1.25, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.19), whereas F8 rs7053448 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), F8 rs7058826 (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.27-2.24, P = 0.0003, FDR = 0.12), and CAPN13 rs1983383 (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.69-0.90, P = 0.0005, FDR = 0.12) were associated with combined invasive EOC among Asians. In silico functional analyses revealed that GPC6/GPC5 rs17702471 coincided with DNA regulatory elements. These results suggest that EMT gene variants do not appear to play a significant role in the susceptibility to EOC.
  2. Anand L, Choudhury A, Bihari C, Sharma BC, Kumar M, Maiwall R, et al.
    Hepatology, 2019 Aug;70(2):587-596.
    PMID: 30113706 DOI: 10.1002/hep.30205
    Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is considered less common in the Asia Pacific region. Due to this, AIH flare as a cause of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF) is often overlooked and treatment delayed. We aimed at the defining clinical and histopathological spectrum and role of steroid therapy in AIH-ACLF. Patients with AIH-ACLF, prospectively recruited and followed between 2012 and 2017, were analyzed from the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver ACLF Research Consortium (AARC) data base. Diagnosis of AIH was confirmed using International Autoimmune Hepatitis Group score or simplified AIH score with histopathological evidence. Of 2,825 ACLF patients, 82 (2.9%) fulfilled criteria of AIH (age 42.1 ± 18.1 years, 70% female). At baseline, mean bilirubin was 18.6 ± 8.2 mg/dL, Child-Turcotte-Pugh score was 11.7 ± 1.4, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was 27.6 ± 6.5. Mean immunoglobulin G was 21.61 ± 7.32 g/dL, and this was elevated ≥1.1 times in 97% of cases; 49% were seronegative. Liver histology was available in 90%, with median histological activity index of 10 (interquartile range, 7-12); 90% with moderate to severe interface activity; 56% showing significant parenchymal necrosis (bridging and confluent necrosis); and cirrhosis in 42%. Twenty-eight (34%) patients received steroid therapy and showed shorter intensive care unit (ICU) stay (median 1.5 versus 4 days, P < 0.001) and improved 90-day survival (75% versus 48.1%, P = 0.02) with comparable incidence of sepsis (P = 0.32) compared to those who did not. Patients of advanced age, more severe liver disease (MELD >27; 83.3% sensitivity, 78.9% specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.86), presence of hepatic encephalopathy, and fibrosis grade ≥F3 had an unfavorable response to corticosteroid therapy. Conclusion: AIH presenting as ACLF is not uncommon in Asian patients; a low threshold for liver biopsy is needed to confirm the diagnosis as nearly half the patients are seronegative; early stratification to steroid therapy or liver transplantation (MELD >27, hepatic encephalopathy in ≥F3) would reduce ICU stay and improve outcomes.
  3. Anasdass JR, Kannaiyan P, Raghavachary R, Gopinath SCB, Chen Y
    PLoS ONE, 2018;13(2):e0193281.
    PMID: 29466453 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193281
    We present a biogenic method for the synthesis of palladium nanoparticle (PdNP)-modified by reducing graphene oxide sheets (rGO) in a one-pot strategy using Ficus carica fruit juice as the reducing agent. The synthesized material was well characterized by morphological and structural analyses, including, Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The results revealed that the PdNP modified GO are spherical in shape and estimated to be a dimension of ~0.16 nm. The PdNP/graphene exhibits a great catalytic activity in Suzuki cross-coupling reactions for the synthesis of biaryl compounds with various substrates under both aqueous and aerobic conditions. The catalyst can be recovered easily and is suitable for repeated use because it retains its original catalytic activity. The PdNP/rGO catalyst synthesized by an eco-friendly protocol was used for the Suzuki coupling reactions. The method offers a mild and effective substitute to the existing methods and may significantly contribute to green chemistry.
  4. Barber BE, William T, Grigg MJ, Piera KA, Chen Y, Wang H, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2016 11 15;214(10):1557-1564.
    PMID: 27630198 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiw427
    BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of severe Plasmodium vivax malaria is poorly understood. Endothelial dysfunction and reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability characterize severe falciparum malaria, but have not been assessed in severe vivax malaria.
    METHODS: In patients with severe vivax malaria (n = 9), patients with nonsevere vivax malaria (n = 58), and healthy controls (n = 79), we measured NO-dependent endothelial function by using reactive hyperemia-peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) and assessed associations with arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and hemolysis.
    RESULTS: The L-arginine level and the L-arginine to ADMA ratio (a measure of L-arginine bioavailability) were reduced in patients with severe vivax malaria and those with nonsevere vivax malaria, compared with healthy controls (median L-arginine level, 65, 66, and 98 µmol/mL, respectively [P = .0001]; median L-arginine to ADMA ratio, 115, 125, and 187, respectively [P = .0001]). Endothelial function was impaired in proportion to disease severity (median RH-PAT index, 1.49, 1.73, and 1.97 in patients with severe vivax malaria, those with nonsevere vivax malaria, and healthy controls, respectively; P = .018) and was associated with the L-arginine to ADMA ratio. While the posttreatment fall in hemoglobin level was greater in severe vivax malaria as compared to nonsevere vivax malaria (2.5 vs 1 g/dL; P = .0001), markers of intravascular hemolysis were not higher in severe disease.
    CONCLUSIONS: Endothelial function is impaired in nonsevere and severe vivax malaria, is associated with reduced L-arginine bioavailability, and may contribute to microvascular pathogenesis. Severe disease appears to be more associated with extravascular hemolysis than with intravascular hemolysis.
    Study site: Hospital Queen Elizabeth II, Sabah, Malaysia
  5. Burton D, Zeng XX, Chiu CH, Sun J, Sze NL, Chen Y, et al.
    J Community Health, 2010 Dec;35(6):579-85.
    PMID: 20186474 DOI: 10.1007/s10900-010-9244-7
    We sought to develop a smoking-cessation intervention for male Chinese restaurant workers in New York City that required no seeking out by participants; provided support over a relatively long period of time; and was responsive to participants' cultural backgrounds and daily lives. The resulting intervention consisted of a minimum of 9 proactive phone counseling sessions within a 6-month period for each participant recruited at his worksite. All activities were conducted in Chinese languages. The efficacy of this proactive phone-counseling intervention was assessed in a pretest/posttest design comparing baseline smoking with smoking 6 months after the intervention ended. Of 137 male employees recruited at their restaurants, 101 (median age 40.5) participated in the phone-counseling intervention in 2007-2008, with 75 completing the program with at least 9 counseling calls. We found a linear increase in smoking cessation from 0% at Call 1 to 50.7% at Call 9 for 75 men who completed the program, and we found for all 101 participants a 32.7% intent-to-treat cessation rate for 6 months post-end of program, adjusted to 30.8% by saliva cotinine assessments. The results indicate that combining field outreach with phone counseling over an extended period of time can facilitate smoking cessation for population groups whose environments do not support efforts to quit smoking.
  6. CMS Collaboration, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(9):3060.
    PMID: 25814914
    A measurement of the cross section for the production of top quark-antiquark pairs ([Formula: see text]) in association with a vector boson V (W or Z) in proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] is presented. The results are based on a dataset corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 fb[Formula: see text] recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC. The measurement is performed in three leptonic (e and [Formula: see text]) channels: a same-sign dilepton analysis targeting [Formula: see text] events, and trilepton and four-lepton analyses designed for [Formula: see text] events. In the same-sign dilepton channel, the [Formula: see text] cross section is measured as [Formula: see text], corresponding to a significance of 1.6 standard deviations over the background-only hypothesis. Combining the trilepton and four-lepton channels, a direct measurement of the [Formula: see text] cross section, [Formula: see text], is obtained with a significance of 3.1 standard deviations. The measured cross sections are compatible with standard model predictions within their experimental uncertainties. The inclusive [Formula: see text] process is observed with a significance of 3.7 standard deviations from the combination of all three leptonic channels.
  7. CMS Collaboration, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(9):3036.
    PMID: 25814912
    Searches for the direct electroweak production of supersymmetric charginos, neutralinos, and sleptons in a variety of signatures with leptons and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and Higgs bosons are presented. Results are based on a sample of proton-proton collision data collected at center-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] with the CMS detector in 2012, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.5 [Formula: see text]. The observed event rates are in agreement with expectations from the standard model. These results probe charginos and neutralinos with masses up to 720 [Formula: see text], and sleptons up to 260 [Formula: see text], depending on the model details.
  8. Cao L, Chen Y, Dong S, Hanson A, Huang B, Leadbitter D, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2017 01 17;114(3):435-442.
    PMID: 28096504 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1616583114
    China's 13th Five-Year Plan, launched in March 2016, provides a sound policy platform for the protection of marine ecosystems and the restoration of capture fisheries within China's exclusive economic zone. What distinguishes China among many other countries striving for marine fisheries reform is its size-accounting for almost one-fifth of global catch volume-and the unique cultural context of its economic and resource management. In this paper, we trace the history of Chinese government priorities, policies, and outcomes related to marine fisheries since the 1978 Economic Reform, and examine how the current leadership's agenda for "ecological civilization" could successfully transform marine resource management in the coming years. We show how China, like many other countries, has experienced a decline in the average trophic level of its capture fisheries during the past few decades, and how its policy design, implementation, and enforcement have influenced the status of its wild fish stocks. To reverse the trend in declining fish stocks, the government is introducing a series of new programs for sustainable fisheries and aquaculture, with greater traceability and accountability in marine resource management and area controls on coastal development. As impressive as these new plans are on paper, we conclude that serious institutional reforms will be needed to achieve a true paradigm shift in marine fisheries management in China. In particular, we recommend new institutions for science-based fisheries management, secure fishing access, policy consistency across provinces, educational programs for fisheries managers, and increasing public access to scientific data.
  9. Chang CY, Krishnan T, Wang H, Chen Y, Yin WF, Chong YM, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2014;4:7245.
    PMID: 25430794 DOI: 10.1038/srep07245
    N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-based quorum sensing (QS) is important for the regulation of proteobacterial virulence determinants. Thus, the inhibition of AHL synthases offers non-antibiotics-based therapeutic potentials against QS-mediated bacterial infections. In this work, functional AHL synthases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasI and RhlI were heterologously expressed in an AHL-negative Escherichia coli followed by assessments on their AHLs production using AHL biosensors and high resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS). These AHL-producing E. coli served as tools for screening AHL synthase inhibitors. Based on a campaign of screening synthetic molecules and natural products using our approach, three strongest inhibitors namely are salicylic acid, tannic acid and trans-cinnamaldehyde have been identified. LCMS analysis further confirmed tannic acid and trans-cinnemaldehyde efficiently inhibited AHL production by RhlI. We further demonstrated the application of trans-cinnemaldehyde inhibiting Rhl QS system regulated pyocyanin production in P. aeruginosa up to 42.06%. Molecular docking analysis suggested that trans-cinnemaldehyde binds to the LasI and EsaI with known structures mainly interacting with their substrate binding sites. Our data suggested a new class of QS-inhibiting agents from natural products targeting AHL synthase and provided a potential approach for facilitating the discovery of anti-QS signal synthesis as basis of novel anti-infective approach.
  10. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014 Apr 25;112(16):161802.
    PMID: 24815637
    Results are presented of a search for a "natural" supersymmetry scenario with gauge mediated symmetry breaking. It is assumed that only the supersymmetric partners of the top quark (the top squark) and the Higgs boson (Higgsino) are accessible. Events are examined in which there are two photons forming a Higgs boson candidate, and at least two b-quark jets. In 19.7  fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at s=8  TeV, recorded in the CMS experiment, no evidence of a signal is found and lower limits at the 95% confidence level are set, excluding the top squark mass below 360 to 410 GeV, depending on the Higgsino mass.
  11. Chatrchyan S, Khachatryan V, Sirunyan AM, Tumasyan A, Adam W, Bergauer T, et al.
    Eur Phys J C Part Fields, 2014;74(8):2980.
    PMID: 25814906
    A search for invisible decays of Higgs bosons is performed using the vector boson fusion and associated ZH production modes. In the ZH mode, the Z boson is required to decay to a pair of charged leptons or a [Formula: see text] quark pair. The searches use the 8 [Formula: see text] pp collision dataset collected by the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of up to 19.7 [Formula: see text]. Certain channels include data from 7 [Formula: see text] collisions corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.9 [Formula: see text]. The searches are sensitive to non-standard-model invisible decays of the recently observed Higgs boson, as well as additional Higgs bosons with similar production modes and large invisible branching fractions. In all channels, the observed data are consistent with the expected standard model backgrounds. Limits are set on the production cross section times invisible branching fraction, as a function of the Higgs boson mass, for the vector boson fusion and ZH production modes. By combining all channels, and assuming standard model Higgs boson cross sections and acceptances, the observed (expected) upper limit on the invisible branching fraction at [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text] is found to be 0.58 (0.44) at 95 % confidence level. We interpret this limit in terms of a Higgs-portal model of dark matter interactions.
  12. Chen Y, Chan CK, Kerishnan JP, Lau YL, Wong YL, Gopinath SC
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2015;15:49.
    PMID: 25656928 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-015-0786-2
    Plasmodium knowlesi was identified as the fifth major malaria parasite in humans. It presents severe clinical symptoms and leads to mortality as a result of hyperparasitemia in a short period of time. This study aimed to improve the current understanding of P. knowlesi and identify potential biomarkers for knowlesi malaria.
  13. Chen Y, Azman SN, Kerishnan JP, Zain RB, Chen YN, Wong YL, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e109012.
    PMID: 25272005 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0109012
    One of the most common cancers worldwide is oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is associated with a significant death rate and has been linked to several risk factors. Notably, failure to detect these neoplasms at an early stage represents a fundamental barrier to improving the survival and quality of life of OSCC patients. In the present study, serum samples from OSCC patients (n = 25) and healthy controls (n = 25) were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and silver staining in order to identify biomarkers that might allow early diagnosis. In this regard, 2-DE spots corresponding to various up- and down-regulated proteins were sequenced via high-resolution MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and analyzed using the MASCOT database. We identified the following differentially expressed host-specific proteins within sera from OSCC patients: leucine-rich α2-glycoprotein (LRG), alpha-1-B-glycoprotein (ABG), clusterin (CLU), PRO2044, haptoglobin (HAP), complement C3c (C3), proapolipoprotein A1 (proapo-A1), and retinol-binding protein 4 precursor (RBP4). Moreover, five non-host factors were detected, including bacterial antigens from Acinetobacter lwoffii, Burkholderia multivorans, Myxococcus xanthus, Laribacter hongkongensis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Subsequently, we analyzed the immunogenicity of these proteins using pooled sera from OSCC patients. In this regard, five of these candidate biomarkers were found to be immunoreactive: CLU, HAP, C3, proapo-A1 and RBP4. Taken together, our immunoproteomics approach has identified various serum biomarkers that could facilitate the development of early diagnostic tools for OSCC.
  14. Chen Y, Phang WM, Mu AK, Chan CK, Low BS, Sasidharan S, et al.
    Front Pharmacol, 2015;6:211.
    PMID: 26441666 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2015.00211
    Eurycoma longifolia is a Malaysian native herb that has been widely used as an aphrodisiac and a remedy for andropause. Although the physiological effects of the plant extract were predicted as a result of the alterations in protein expression, the key protein(s) involved in these alterations are still unclear. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of standardized E. longifolia extract on serum protein expression up to 28 days following oral administration in rats. Serum protein profiles were analyzed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis, and altered proteins were identified via mass spectrometry. We observed that alpha-2-HS glycoprotein (AHS) was significantly decreased in the serum of experimentally treated rats compared to pre-treated animals. Moreover, reduction in AHS was confirmed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. AHS expression is known to be associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. Our data indicated that serum AHS was reduced in rats treated with standardized E. longifolia extract, and therefore form a prelude for further investigation into the effects of this natural extract in animal models involving infertility and diabetes.
  15. Chen Y, Lim BK, Hashim OH
    J Hematol Oncol, 2009;2:37.
    PMID: 19709441 DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-2-37
    The general enhanced expression of alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), clusterin (CLU), alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), haptoglobin beta-chain (HAP), and leucine rich glycoprotein (LRG) in the sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOCa) was recently reported. In the present study, we compared the expression of the serum acute-phase proteins (APPs) in the patients according to their stages of cancer.
  16. Chen Y, Ge D, Zhang J, Chu R, Zheng J, Wu C, et al.
    Nanoscale, 2018 Sep 20;10(36):17378-17387.
    PMID: 30203824 DOI: 10.1039/c8nr01195h
    Tin-based materials have been intensively studied as attractive candidates for high-capacity and long-cycle-life anodes in Li-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their low cost and high energy density. However, they all suffer from severe structural decay during the lithium ion insertion/extraction process, which results in deterioration in the overall performance of the batteries. To mitigate this problem, we have synthesized a Mo-doped SnO2 nanostructure via a facile hydrothermal method, which then fragmented into ultrafine particles after dozens of cycles. The fracture-resistant size and ample contact with Super-P and Li2O greatly improved the electrochemical kinetics and cyclability to deliver a reversible capacity of 670 mA h g-1 after 700 cycles, which demonstrated the potential suitability of Mo-doped SnO2 nanoparticles as a long-cycle-life anode material. Then, the compounds were uniformly dispersed in carbon nanofibers and reduced in situ to prepare a free-standing anode via electrospinning and carbonization. When used directly as an anode in LIBs (without a polymeric binder or conductive agent, as well as a current collector), the nanofiber membrane anode delivered comparable cycling performance and capacity to that of a slurry-coated electrode.
  17. Chen Y, Huang J, Yeap ZQ, Zhang X, Wu S, Ng CH, et al.
    Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc, 2018 Jun 15;199:271-282.
    PMID: 29626818 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2018.03.061
    Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. (Orchidaceae) is a precious traditional Chinese medicinal herb and has been perennially used to treat various illness. However, there were unethical sellers who adulterated wild A. roxburghii with tissue cultured and cultivated ones. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an effective authentication method to differentiate between these different types of A. roxburghii. In this research, the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification approach including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Second derivative infrared spectra (SD-IR) and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectra (2D-IR) was used to develop a simple and rapid method to discriminate between wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant. Through this study, all three types of A. roxburghii plant were successfully identified and discriminated through the infrared spectroscopic tri-step identification method. Besides that, all the samples of wild, cultivated and tissue cultivated A. roxburghii plant were analysed with the Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) pattern recognition technique to test and verify the experimental results. The results showed that the three types of A. roxburghii can be discriminated clearly as the recognition rate was 100% for all three types and the rejection rate was more than 60%. 70% of the validated samples were also identified correctly by the SIMCA model. The SIMCA model was also validated by comparing 70 standard herbs to the model. As a result, it was demonstrated that the macroscopic IR fingerprint method and the classification analysis could discriminate not only between the A. roxburghi samples and the standard herbs, it could also distinguish between the three different types of A. roxburghi plant in a direct, rapid and holistic manner.
  18. Chen Y, Ahmad M
    Future Oncol, 2018 Jun;14(15):1487-1496.
    PMID: 29767550 DOI: 10.2217/fon-2017-0671
    Psychotherapies were offered to alleviate psychological and physical symptoms; however, most psychological interventions were only delivered after cancer treatment. Newly diagnosed cancer patients experienced psychological distress while waiting for treatments. This review paper focused on randomized control trial studies, aimed to investigate the effectiveness of psychological intervention among newly diagnosed cancer patients. Eight randomized control trial papers were found in recent 10 year period through electronic database. A moderate to large effect size was detected on the outcomes, ranging from 0.43 to 0.89. This indicated that psychological-based prehabilitation with standard care yielded better outcomes than standard care alone. Psychological-based prehabilitation provides evidence in its effectiveness to reduce psychological distress, functional impairment, recurrence of cancer, numbers of immune reactivity and sleeping quality; however, inconsistent with longer survival result among cancer patients. In conclusion, psychological-based prehabilitation before cancer treatment is necessary for better treatment outcome, and future research is needed to investigate more directly the outcome.
  19. Chen Y, Lim BK, Peh SC, Abdul-Rahman PS, Hashim OH
    Proteome Sci, 2008;6:20.
    PMID: 18637207 DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-6-20
    Acute-phase response involves the simultaneous altered expression of serum proteins in association to inflammation, infection, injury or malignancy. Studies of the acute-phase response usually involve determination of the levels of individual acute-phase serum proteins. In the present study, the acute-phase response of patients with epithelial (EOCa) and germ-line (GOCa) ovarian carcinoma was investigated using the gel-based proteomic approach, a technique which allowed the simultaneous assessment of the levels of the acute-phase serum high abundance proteins. Data obtained were validated using ELISA and immunostaining of biopsy samples.
  20. Chen Y, Tang WY, Tong X, Ji H
    Cancer Commun (Lond), 2019 Oct 01;39(1):53.
    PMID: 31570104 DOI: 10.1186/s40880-019-0402-8
    Despite the tremendous efforts for improving therapeutics of lung cancer patients, its prognosis remains disappointing. This can be largely attributed to the lack of comprehensive understanding of drug resistance leading to insufficient development of effective therapeutics in clinic. Based on the current progresses of lung cancer research, we classify drug resistance mechanisms into three different levels: molecular, cellular and pathological level. All these three levels have significantly contributed to the acquisition and evolution of drug resistance in clinic. Our understanding on drug resistance mechanisms has begun to change the way of clinical practice and improve patient prognosis. In this review, we focus on discussing the pathological changes linking to drug resistance as this has been largely overlooked in the past decades.
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