Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 239 in total

  1. Chen YP, Sudderuddin KI
    PMID: 749224
    Toxicity tests carried out on the larvae of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus showed the former to be more tolerant of all insecticides tested, the order of toxicity being temephos greater than DDT greater than DDVP greater than malathion greater than lindane greater than carbaryl; also the second instar larvae of A. aegypti were more susceptible than fourth instar larvae. Enzyme kinetic studies on the total non-specific esterases and CarEs of adults and larvae of both species showed the Km values for total esterases of adult A. aegypti to be 0.333 mM vs 0.233 mM for C. quinquefasciatus; for adult CarEs it was 0.250 mM vs 0.220 mM. For total larval esterases of A. aegypti it was 0.112 mM vs 0.175 mM for C. quinquefasciatus: and for larval CarES it was 0.159 mM vs 0.213 mM respectively. Although some correlation between in vivo toxicity (LD50 values) and in vitro esterase inhibition (I50 values) between species could be discerned, overall correlation could not be established.
  2. Liam CK, Chen YC, Yap SF, Srinivas P, Poi PJ
    Respirology, 1998 Jun;3(2):125-9.
    PMID: 9692522
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens of patients suspected of having active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) but who were sputum smear-negative. Patients undergoing investigation for suspected pulmonary TB at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, and who were sputum smear-negative underwent fibreoptic bronchoscopy and BAL. One portion of each lavage specimen was submitted for smear examination for acid-fast bacilli and mycobacterial culture and the other portion assayed by PCR for the presence of a 562-base pair DNA segment belonging to the insertion sequence IS986, unique to the M. tuberculosis complex. As controls, lavage specimens from patients with other lung lesions were also similarly tested. The PCR assay gave a positivity rate of 80.9% (55 of 68) compared with 8.8% of smear examination and 7.4% of culture for detecting M. tuberculosis in BAL specimens. The assay was positive in two of 45 BAL specimens from 35 control subjects. The PCR assay was more sensitive than smear and culture in detecting M. tuberculosis in BAL specimens of patients with sputum smear-negative pulmonary TB.
  3. Masaoka T, Hiraoka A, Okamoto S, Kodera Y, Cao LX, Lu DP, et al.
    Int. J. Hematol., 1999 Oct;70(3):190-2.
    PMID: 10561913
    The first cooperative study of the Asian Pacific bone marrow transplantation group included 75 patients with early leukemia who received human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling bone marrow transplants and were randomized into granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and control groups. The selected patients were registered from 10 centers in six countries and areas within Asia (Beijing, Taipei, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, and Malaysia). The incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-vs.-host disease was 22.2%, and the 2-year survival rate was 62.7%. The period of protective isolation (27.1-66.7 days), period of hospitalization (38.6-130.5 days), and medical costs for 4 months (US $10,300-US $80,803) varied considerably. Good cooperation, i.e., low rate of protocol violation or rapid and precise presentation of case reports, was obtained.
  4. Tsai IH, Chen YH, Wang YM, Liau MY, Lu PJ
    Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 2001 Mar 15;387(2):257-64.
    PMID: 11370849
    To investigate the geographic variations in venoms of two medically important pitvipers, we have purified and characterized the phospholipases A2 (PLA2s) from the pooled venoms of Calloselasma rhodostoma from Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Vietnam, as well as the individual venom of Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus collected from both North and South Taiwan. Enzymatic and pharmacological activities of the purified PLA2s were also investigated. The complete amino acid sequences of the purified PLA2s were determined by sequencing the corresponding cDNAs from the venom gland and shown to be consistent with their molecular weight data and the N-terminal sequences. All the geographic venom samples of C. rhodostoma contain a major noncatalytic basic PLA2-homolog and two or three acidic PLA2s in different proportions. These acidic PLA2s contain Glu6-substitutions and show distinct inhibiting specificities toward the platelets from human and rabbit. We also found that the T. mucrosquamatus venoms from North Taiwan but not those from South Taiwan contain an Arg6-PLA2 designated as TmPL-III. Its amino acid sequence is reported for the first time. This enzyme is structurally almost identical to the low- or nonexpressed Arg6-PLA2 from C. rhodostoma venom gland, and thus appears to be a regressing venom component in both of the Asian pitvipers.
  5. Chiang TY, Chiang YC, Chen YJ, Chou CH, Havanond S, Hong TN, et al.
    Mol. Ecol., 2001 Nov;10(11):2697-710.
    PMID: 11883883
    Vivipary with precocious seedlings in mangrove plants was thought to be a hindrance to long-range dispersal. To examine the extent of seedling dispersal across oceans, we investigated the phylogeny and genetic structure among East Asiatic populations of Kandelia candel based on organelle DNAs. In total, three, 28 and seven haplotypes of the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) atpB-rbcL spacer, cpDNA trnL-trnF spacer, and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) internal transcribed spacer (ITS) were identified, respectively, from 202 individuals. Three data sets suggested consistent phylogenies recovering two differentiated lineages corresponding to geographical regions, i.e. northern South-China-Sea + East-China-Sea region and southern South-China-Sea region (Sarawak). Phylogenetically, the Sarawak population was closely related to the Ranong population of western Peninsula Malaysia instead of other South-China-Sea populations, indicating its possible origin from the Indian Ocean Rim. No geographical subdivision was detected within the northern geographical region. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed low levels of genetic differentiation between and within mainland and island populations (phiCT = 0.015, phiSC = 0.037), indicating conspicuous long-distance seedling dispersal across oceans. Significant linkage disequilibrium excluded the possibility of recurrent homoplasious mutations as the major force causing phylogenetic discrepancy between mtDNA and the trnL-trnF spacer within the northern region. Instead, relative ages of alleles contributed to non-random chlorotype-mitotype associations and tree inconsistency. Widespread distribution and random associations (chi2 = 0.822, P = 0.189) of eight hypothetical ancestral cytotypes indicated the panmixis of populations of the northern geographical region as a whole. In contrast, rare and recently evolved alleles were restricted to marginal populations, revealing some preferential directional migration.
  6. Yap SF, Wong PW, Chen YC, Rosmawati M
    PMID: 12118437
    A retrospective study was carried out to determine the frequency of the pre-core stop codon mutant virus in a group of chronic hepatitis B carriers: 81 cases were considered [33 hepatits B e antigen (HBe) positive and 48 HBe negative]. All of the HBe positive cases had detectable viral DNA by hybridization analysis; in the case of the HBe negative cases, one third had detectable viral DNA by hybridization analysis and two thirds had HBV DNA detectable by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Pre-core stop codon mutant detection was carried out on all specimens using allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization following PCR amplification of the target sequence. The pre-core mutant was detected in 13/33 (39.4%) of HBe positive cases and in 32/48 (66.7%) of HBe negative cases. Sequence analysis was carried out on 8 of the 16 HBe negative specimens that did not carry the pre-core mutant virus to determine the molecular basis for the HBe minus phenotype in these cases: the 1762/1764 TA paired mutation in the second AT rich region of the core promoter was detected in five cases; a start codon mutation was detected in one case. The predominant mutation resulting in the HBe minus phenotype in our isolates was the 1896A pre-core ("pre-core stop codon") mutation; other mutations responsible for the phenotype included the core promoter paired mutation and pre-core start codon mutation. In view of the high frequency of the pre-core mutant virus, sequence analysis was performed to determine the virus genotype on the basis of the nucleotide sequence of codon 15. The sequences of 21 wild type virus (14 HBe positive and 7 HBe negative cases) were examined: 15 were found to be codon 15 CCT variants (71.4%); the frequency in the HBe positive group was 12/14 (85.7%), while that in the HBe negative group was 3/7 (42.9%). The high frequency of the codon 15 CCT variant in association with the frequent occurrence of the pre-core mutant in our isolates concurs with the results of other studies.
  7. Mohamed E, Abdul-Rahman PS, Doustjalali SR, Chen Y, Lim BK, Omar SZ, et al.
    Electrophoresis, 2008 Jun;29(12):2645-50.
    PMID: 18494030 DOI: 10.1002/elps.200700828
    A 35 kDa glycoprotein whose abundance was previously demonstrated to be enhanced in sera of patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma (n = 12), was isolated from pooled sera of three of the cancer patients using champedak galactose-binding lectin affinity chromatography in the present study. Subjecting it to 2-DE and MS/MS, the glycoprotein was identified as the O-glycosylated fragment of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4 (ITIH4). When compared to control sera (n = 17), expression of the 35 kDa ITIH4 cleavage fragment was demonstrated to be significantly enhanced in sera of patients with breast carcinoma (n = 10), epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n = 10), and germ cell ovarian carcinoma (n = 10) but not in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (n = 13) and osteosarcoma (n = 7). The lectin-based electrophoretic bioanalytical method adopted in the present study may be used to assess the physiological relevance of ITIH4 fragmentation and its correlation with different malignancies, their stages and progression.
  8. Chen Y, Lim BK, Peh SC, Abdul-Rahman PS, Hashim OH
    Proteome Sci, 2008;6:20.
    PMID: 18637207 DOI: 10.1186/1477-5956-6-20
    Acute-phase response involves the simultaneous altered expression of serum proteins in association to inflammation, infection, injury or malignancy. Studies of the acute-phase response usually involve determination of the levels of individual acute-phase serum proteins. In the present study, the acute-phase response of patients with epithelial (EOCa) and germ-line (GOCa) ovarian carcinoma was investigated using the gel-based proteomic approach, a technique which allowed the simultaneous assessment of the levels of the acute-phase serum high abundance proteins. Data obtained were validated using ELISA and immunostaining of biopsy samples.
  9. Chen Y, Lim BK, Hashim OH
    J Hematol Oncol, 2009;2:37.
    PMID: 19709441 DOI: 10.1186/1756-8722-2-37
    The general enhanced expression of alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT), clusterin (CLU), alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), haptoglobin beta-chain (HAP), and leucine rich glycoprotein (LRG) in the sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOCa) was recently reported. In the present study, we compared the expression of the serum acute-phase proteins (APPs) in the patients according to their stages of cancer.
  10. Goh KL, Chen Y, Chou SM, Listrat A, Bechet D, Wess TJ
    Animal, 2010 Sep;4(9):1613-7.
    PMID: 22444710 DOI: 10.1017/S1751731110000698
    The basic mechanism of reinforcement in tendons addresses the transfer of stress, generated by the deforming proteoglycan (PG)-rich matrix, to the collagen fibrils. Regulating this mechanism involves the interactions of PGs on the fibril with those in the surrounding matrix and between PGs on adjacent fibrils. This understanding is key to establishing new insights on the biomechanics of tendon in various research domains. However, the experimental designs in many studies often involved long sample preparation time. To minimise biological degradation the tendons are usually stored by freezing. Here, we have investigated the effects of commonly used frozen storage temperatures on the mechanical properties of tendons from the tail of a murine model (C57BL6 mouse). Fresh (unfrozen) and thawed samples, frozen at temperatures of -20°C and -80°C, respectively, were stretched to rupture. Freezing at -20°C revealed no effect on the maximum stress (σ), stiffness (E), the corresponding strain (ε) at σ and strain energy densities up to ε (u) and from ε until complete rupture (up). On the other hand, freezing at -80°C led to higher σ, E and u; ε and up were unaffected. The results implicate changes in the long-range order of radially packed collagen molecules in fibrils, resulting in fibril rupture at higher stresses, and changes to the composition of extrafibrillar matrix, resulting in an increase in the interaction energy between fibrils via collagen-bound PGs.
  11. Su LL, S K TC, Lim SL, Chen Y, Tan EA, Pai NN, et al.
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2010 Sep;39(9):675-5.
    PMID: 20957301
    Breast milk fatty acids play a major role in infant development. However, no data have compared the breast milk composition of different ethnic groups living in the same environment. We aimed to (i) investigate breast milk fatty acid composition of three ethnic groups in Singapore and (ii) determine dietary fatty acid patterns in these groups and any association with breast milk fatty acid composition.
  12. Lau YL, Meganathan P, Sonaimuthu P, Thiruvengadam G, Nissapatorn V, Chen Y
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 2010 Oct;48(10):3698-702.
    PMID: 20660217 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00462-10
    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a rapid nucleic acid amplification method, was developed for the clinical diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Three LAMP assays based on the SAG1, SAG2, and B1 genes of Toxoplasma gondii were developed. The sensitivities and specificities of the LAMP assays were evaluated by comparison with the results of conventional nested PCR. The LAMP assays were highly sensitive and had a detection limit of 0.1 tachyzoite, and no cross-reactivity with the DNA of other parasites was observed. Blood was collected from 105 individuals to test the LAMP assays: 40 patients with active toxoplasmosis, 40 negative controls, and 25 patients with other parasitic infections. The SAG2-based LAMP (SAG2-LAMP) had a greater sensitivity (87.5%) than the SAG1-LAMP (80%), B1-LAMP (80%), and nested PCR (62.5%). All the LAMP assays and nested PCR were 100% specific. This is the first report of a study which applied the LAMP method to diagnose toxoplasmosis from human blood samples. Due to its simplicity, sensitivity, and specificity, LAMP is suggested as an appropriate method for routine diagnosis of active toxoplasmosis in humans.
  13. Syahmi AR, Vijayarathna S, Sasidharan S, Latha LY, Kwan YP, Lau YL, et al.
    Molecules, 2010 Nov;15(11):8111-21.
    PMID: 21072022 DOI: 10.3390/molecules15118111
    Elaeis guineensis (Arecaceae) is widely used in West African traditional medicine for treating various ailments. An evaluation on the toxicity of extracts of this plant is crucial to support the therapeutic claims. The acute oral toxicity and brine shrimp lethality of a methanolic extract of this plant was tested. Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5,000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that E. guineensis is nontoxic. Normal behavioral pattern, clinical signs and histology of vital organs confirm this evidence. The E. guineensis extracts screened for toxicity against brine shrimp had 50% lethal concentration (LC₅₀) values of more than 1.0 mg/mL (9.00 and 3.87 mg/mL, at 6 and 24 h, respectively), confirming that the extract was not toxic. Maximum mortalities occurred at 100 mg/mL concentration while the least mortalities happened to be at 0.195 mg/mL concentration. The results of both tests confirm that E. guineensis is nontoxic and hence safe for commercial utilization.
  14. Burton D, Zeng XX, Chiu CH, Sun J, Sze NL, Chen Y, et al.
    J Community Health, 2010 Dec;35(6):579-85.
    PMID: 20186474 DOI: 10.1007/s10900-010-9244-7
    We sought to develop a smoking-cessation intervention for male Chinese restaurant workers in New York City that required no seeking out by participants; provided support over a relatively long period of time; and was responsive to participants' cultural backgrounds and daily lives. The resulting intervention consisted of a minimum of 9 proactive phone counseling sessions within a 6-month period for each participant recruited at his worksite. All activities were conducted in Chinese languages. The efficacy of this proactive phone-counseling intervention was assessed in a pretest/posttest design comparing baseline smoking with smoking 6 months after the intervention ended. Of 137 male employees recruited at their restaurants, 101 (median age 40.5) participated in the phone-counseling intervention in 2007-2008, with 75 completing the program with at least 9 counseling calls. We found a linear increase in smoking cessation from 0% at Call 1 to 50.7% at Call 9 for 75 men who completed the program, and we found for all 101 participants a 32.7% intent-to-treat cessation rate for 6 months post-end of program, adjusted to 30.8% by saliva cotinine assessments. The results indicate that combining field outreach with phone counseling over an extended period of time can facilitate smoking cessation for population groups whose environments do not support efforts to quit smoking.
  15. Jothy SL, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Lau YL, Latha LY, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2011 Jun 23;16(6):5268-82.
    PMID: 21701437 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16065268
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cassia fistula is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various types of ailments. The evaluation of toxic properties of C. fistula is crucial when considering public health protection because exposure to plant extracts can result in undesirable effects on consumers. Hence, in this study the acute oral toxicity of C. fistula seeds extract was investigated in mice.

    RESULTS: Oral administration of crude extract at the highest dose of 5000 mg/kg resulted in no mortalities or evidence of adverse effects, implying that C. fistula in nontoxic. Throughout 14 days of the treatment no changes in behavioural pattern, clinical sign and body weight of mice in both control and treatment groups. Also there were no any significant elevations observed in the biochemical analysis of the blood serum. Further, histopathological examination revealed normal architecture and no significant adverse effects observed on the kidney, heart, liver, lung and spleen.

    CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the results suggest that, the oral administration of C. fistula methanolic seeds extract did not produce any significant toxic effect in mice. Hence, the extract can be utilized for pharmaceutical formulations.

  16. Jothy SL, Zakaria Z, Chen Y, Lau YL, Latha LY, Shin LN, et al.
    Molecules, 2011 Sep 05;16(9):7583-92.
    PMID: 21894090 DOI: 10.3390/molecules16097583
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cassia fistula L belongs to the family Leguminosae, and it is one of the most popular herbal products in tropical countries. C. fistula seeds have been used as a herbal medicine and have pharmacological activity which includes anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, and antioxidant properties. The goal of this study was to identify compounds from C. fistula seeds which are responsible for anti-Candida albicans activity using bioassay-directed isolation.

    RESULTS: The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant seed revealed the presence of anthraquinones, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and terpenoids. The isolation of active compounds was carried out in four steps: multiple extractions, fractionation using column chromatography and purification using preparative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The structure of separated compounds was determined on the basis of mass spectrometry data. One compound was identified is roseanone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The MS analysis on the active fraction from seed extract of C. fistula confirmed the presence of roseanone with antiyeast activity.

  17. Tan AA, Azman SN, Abdul Rani NR, Kua BC, Sasidharan S, Kiew LV, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Dec;28(3):620-9.
    PMID: 22433892 MyJurnal
    There is a great diversity of protein samples types and origins, therefore the optimal procedure for each sample type must be determined empirically. In order to obtain a reproducible and complete sample presentation which view as many proteins as possible on the desired 2DE gel, it is critical to perform additional sample preparation steps to improve the quality of the final results, yet without selectively losing the proteins. To address this, we developed a general method that is suitable for diverse sample types based on phenolchloroform extraction method (represented by TRI reagent). This method was found to yield good results when used to analyze human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7), Vibrio cholerae, Cryptocaryon irritans cyst and liver abscess fat tissue. These types represent cell line, bacteria, parasite cyst and pus respectively. For each type of samples, several attempts were made to methodically compare protein isolation methods using TRI-reagent Kit, EasyBlue Kit, PRO-PREP™ Protein Extraction Solution and lysis buffer. The most useful protocol allows the extraction and separation of a wide diversity of protein samples that is reproducible among repeated experiments. Our results demonstrated that the modified TRI-reagent Kit had the highest protein yield as well as the greatest number of total proteins spots count for all type of samples. Distinctive differences in spot patterns were also observed in the 2DE gel of different extraction methods used for each type of sample.
  18. Nithianantham K, Shyamala M, Chen Y, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Sasidharan S
    Molecules, 2011 Dec 06;16(12):10134-45.
    PMID: 22146374 DOI: 10.3390/molecules161210134
    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Clitoria ternatea, a medicinal herb native to tropical equatorial Asia, is commonly used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of C. ternatea against experimentally induced liver injury.

    METHODS: The antioxidant property of methanolic extract (ME) of C. ternatea leaf was investigated by employing an established in vitro antioxidant assay. The hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in mice of ME of C. ternatea leaf was also studied. Activity was measured by monitoring the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and billirubin along with histopathological analysis.

    RESULTS: The amount of total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated to be 358.99 ± 6.21 mg/g gallic acid equivalent and 123.75 ± 2.84 mg/g catechin equivalent, respectively. The antioxidant activity of C. ternatea leaf extract was 67.85% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL and was also concentration dependant, with an IC(50) value of 420.00 µg/mL. The results of the paracetamol-induced liver toxicity experiments showed that mice treated with the ME of C. ternatea leaf (200 mg/kg) showed a significant decrease in ALT, AST, and bilirubin levels, which were all elevated in the paracetamol group (p < 0.01). C. ternatea leaf extract therapy also protective effects against histopathological alterations. Histological studies supported the biochemical findings and a maximum improvement in the histoarchitecture was seen.

    CONCLUSIONS: The current study confirmed the hepatoprotective effect of C. ternatea leaf extract against the model hepatotoxicant paracetamol. The hepatoprotective action is likely related to its potent antioxidative activity.

  19. Sasidharan S, Chen Y, Saravanan D, Sundram KM, Yoga Latha L
    PMID: 22238476
    Natural products from medicinal plants, either as pure compounds or as standardized extracts, provide unlimited opportunities for new drug leads because of the unmatched availability of chemical diversity. Due to an increasing demand for chemical diversity in screening programs, seeking therapeutic drugs from natural products, interest particularly in edible plants has grown throughout the world. Botanicals and herbal preparations for medicinal usage contain various types of bioactive compounds. The focus of this paper is on the analytical methodologies, which include the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations. The common problems and key challenges in the extraction, isolation and characterization of active ingredients in botanicals and herbal preparations are discussed. As extraction is the most important step in the analysis of constituents present in botanicals and herbal preparations, the strengths and weaknesses of different extraction techniques are discussed. The analysis of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts involving the applications of common phytochemical screening assays, chromatographic techniques such as HPLC and, TLC as well as non-chromatographic techniques such as immunoassay and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) are discussed.
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