METHODS: A web-based survey was sent to clinicians involved in the management of SE, across all states and at all levels of healthcare services.
RESULTS: A total of 158 responses were received from 104 health facilities, including 23 tertiary government hospitals (95.8% of all government tertiary hospitals in Malaysia), 4 (80.0%) universities, 14 (6.7%) private, 15 (11.5%) district hospitals and 21 clinics. Intravenous (IV) diazepam was available in 14 (93.3%) district and 33 (80.5%) tertiary hospitals for prehospital management. Non-IV benzodiazepine (rectal diazepam and intramuscular midazolam) was not widely available in prehospital services (75.8% and 51.5%). Intramuscular midazolam was underutilised (60.0% in district and 65.9% in tertiary hospitals). IV sodium valproate and levetiracetam were only available in 66.7% and 53.3% of the district hospitals, respectively. Electroencephalogram (EEG) services were available in only 26.7% of the district hospitals. Non-pharmacological therapies such as ketogenic diet, electroconvulsive therapy, and therapeutic hypothermia were not available in most district and tertiary hospitals for refractory and super-refractory SE.
CONCLUSIONS: We identified several gaps in the current practice of SE management, including limited availability and underutilization of non-IV midazolam in prehospital services, underutilization of non-IV midazolam and other second-line ASMs, and lack of EEG monitoring in district hospitals and limited treatment options for refractory and super-refractory SE in tertiary hospitals.
METHODS: A population-based door-to-door survey was carried out throughout the country, using questionnaire for brief screening in ascertainment of epilepsy, using a questionnaire and its validated multilingual versions. Respondents who were screened positive underwent second-stage diagnostic phone interview by neurologists/ research assistants.
RESULTS: A total 16, 686 respondents participated in the survey and 646 (3.8 %) respondents were screened positive during the first stage interview. A total of 185 consented for second stage diagnostic interview and 118 (63.8 %) respondents were contacted successfully for the second stage diagnostic phone interview, of which 17 (14.4 %) respondents were diagnosed to have epilepsy. An additional 68 (57.6 %) respondents had febrile seizures only. After applying a weighting factor to each respondent to adjust for non-response and for the varying probabilities of selection, the adjusted lifetime epilepsy prevalence was 7.8 in 1000 population, and the adjusted prevalence for active epilepsy was 4.2 in 1000 population in Malaysia.
CONCLUSION: The prevalence of lifetime epilepsy in Malaysia is 7.8 per 1000 persons.