Hydrazine is an intermediate product of the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process where both ammonium and nitrite in wastewater are converted to nitrogen gas by bacteria. In this study the effect of external hydrazine addition (5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L) on the start-up period of the Anammox process was studied using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The SBR with an addition of 10 mg/L hydrazine took only 7 weeks to stabilize and achieve the maximum removal of ammonium and nitrite, whereas the SBR without the addition of hydrazine took 12 weeks. The amount of Heme C extracted from the biomass indicated that externally added hydrazine accelerated the growth of Anammox bacteria and reduced the release of nitrous oxide gas from the reactors.
The level of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) was estimated by radioimmunoassay in 153 normal healthy Malysians of different ethnic groups. The mean level was 7.5 In1/ml (SD 2.28InU/ml). Among 330 patients with malignant tumors, 11 had increased levels of AFP. The only patient who had hepatoma had a very high level of serum AFP. High levels were also found in three of four patients with dysgerminoma of the ovary, in the only two patients with carcinoma of the testis, and in one patient with secondary carcinoma of the humerus of unknown origin. Lower, but significantly increased levels were observed in one patient (of 48) with breast carcinoma, one patient (of 8) with basal cell carcinoma of the nose, one patient (0f 27) with carcinoma of the lung, and one patient (of 59) with nasopharynegeal carcinoma.
An abnormal, fast-moving 5'-nucleotide phosphodiesterase isozyme was found in 90.0% of 20 Malaysian patients with primary hepatoma and in 23.5% of 391 Malaysian patients with various malignant diseases; it was also discovered in 42.9% of 14 Malaysian and American patients with clinically active hepatitis B infection; in 16.7% of 18 healthy American blood bank donors who were positive for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg); in 13.9% of 287 healthy Malaysian blood bank donors, some positive for HBsAg; and in none of 160 healthy American donors who were negative for HBsAg. A correlation of this abnormal isozyme with hepatoma and with infectious hepatitis B is clearly evident.
Anammox bacteria can easily undergo starvation due to fluctuations in feed flowrate and concentration in wastewater treatment plants. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different types of storage conditions (presence of ammonium (Ra), nitrite (Rn), hydrazine (Rh), and no substrate (Rc)) in aiding the viability of anammox bacteria during starvation and recovery. After starvation, the bacteria were subjected to a 15-week recovery period. Anammox bacteria showed better results during starvation and recovery in Rh as compared to other conditions. Decay rate values obtained after starvation in Ra, Rn, Rh, and Rc were 0.032/day, 0.042/day, 0.019/day, and 0.037/day, respectively. Meanwhile, µmax values obtained in Rh, Ra, Rn, and Rc on the 15th week of recovery were 0.092, 0.075, 0.011, and 0.067 d-1, respectively. This indicated that the availability of hydrazine helps to reduce the mortality rate of anammox bacteria during starvation and enhances the recovery of anammox process.