METHODS: Reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction was employed to measure the expression of plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1), microRNAs (miRNAs), and SIRT3, and the dual-luciferase assay was used to determine their interaction. Electron microscopy observes autophagosomes, green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (GFP-LC3) staining, and immunoblot analysis with antibodies against LC3，beclin-1, and P62 were conducted to measure autophagy. Cellular senescence was determined using immunoblot analysis with anti-phosphorylated retinoblastoma and senescence-associated β-galactosidase staining.
RESULTS: Women with higher estrogen levels (during the 10-13th day of the menstrual cycle or premenopausal) exhibit markedly higher serum levels of PVT1 than women with lower estrogen levels (during the menstrual period or postmenopausal). The dual-luciferase assay showed that PVT1 acts as a sponge for miR-31, and miR-31 binds to its target gene, SIRT3. The 17β-E2 treatment increased the expression of PVT1 and SIRT3 and downregulated miR-31 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Consistently, PVT1 overexpression suppresses miR-31 expression, promotes 17β-E2-induced autophagy, and inhibits H2O2-induced senescence. miR-31 inhibitor increases SIRT3 expression and leads to activation of 17β-E2-induced autophagy and suppression of H2O2-induced senescence.
CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that 17β-E2 upregulates PVT1 gene expression and PVT1 functions as a sponge to inhibit miR-31, resulting in the upregulation of SIRT3 expression and activation of autophagy and subsequent inhibition of H2O2-induced senescence in HUVECs.
METHODS: The molecules were tested for anticonvulsive activity in Swiss albino mice via maximal electroshock seizure and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole assays. The most potent molecule among the class was further assayed for its effect on behavioral and CNS depressant activity. The effect of the most potent compounds was also analyzed on various indices of oxidative stress and inflammation in mice.
RESULTS: The designed compounds showed significant anticonvulsive activity in mice revealing 7h as the most potent anticonvulsive agent. The most potent anticonvulsant molecule 7h further showed no behavioral alteration and considerable CNS depressant activity. It also reduces the level of oxidative stress and inflammation in the mice.
CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated utility of pyrazole derivatives as anticonvulsants against epilepsy.
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