AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress.
SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days) in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage--that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings.
RESULTS: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed.
CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.
METHODS: Thirty nine eyes of 39 new keratoconus patients were selected and randomly fitted with two types of RGP contact lenses. Group 1 had 21 eyes with regular rigid gas-permeable (RRGP) contact lens and rest 18 eyes were in group 2 with specially designed rigid gas-permeable (SRGP) contact lens. Corneal cell morphology was evaluated using a slit scanning confocal microscope at no-lens wear and after 1y of contact lens wearing.
RESULTS: After 1y of contact lens wearing in group 1, the mean anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte density were significantly less (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively) compared to no-lens wear. The mean cell area of anterior and posterior stromal keratocyte were also significantly different (P=0.005 and P=0.001) from no-lens wear. The anterior and posterior stromal haze increased by 18.74% and 23.81%, respectively after 1y of contact lens wearing. Whereas in group 2, statistically significant changes were observed only in cell density & area of anterior stroma (P=0.001 and P=0.001, respectively) after 1y. While, level of anterior and posterior stromal haze increased by 16.67% and 11.11% after 1y of contact lens wearing. Polymegathism and pleomorphism also increased after 1y of contact lens wearing in both the contact lens groups.
CONCLUSION: Confocal microscopy observation shows the significant alterations in corneal cell morphology of keratoconic corneas wearing contact lenses especially in group 1. The type of contact lens must be carefully selected to minimize changes in corneal cell morphology.