OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons. Its repair is associated with donor-site morbidity and the degree of infection is inevitable when using alloplastic prosthesis with uncertain long-term durability. Thus, human adipose derived stem cells (HADSCs) can be an alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. This study aims to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of HADSCs cultured with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interaction of auricular chondrocytes with HADSCs for new cartilage generation.
METHODS: Multi-lineages differentiation features of HADSCs were monitored by Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red, and Oil Red O staining for chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity, respectively. Further, HADSCs alone were culture in medium added with TGF-β3; and human auricular chondrocytes were interacted indirectly in the culture with and without TGF-βs for up to 21 days, respectively. Cell morphology and chondrogenesis were monitored by inverted microscope. For cell viability, Alamar Blue assay was used to measure the cell viability and the changes in gene expression of auricular chondrocyte markers were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. For the induction of chondrogenic differentiation, HADSCs showed a feature of aggregation and formed a dense matrix of proteoglycans. Staining results from Alizirin Red and Oil Red O indicated the HADSCs also successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages after 21 days.
RESULTS: According to a previous study, HADSCs were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen. The results showed HADSCs test groups (cultured with TGF-β3) displayed chondrocytes-like cells morphology with typical lacunae structure compared to the control group without TGF-β3 after 2 weeks. Additionally, the HADSCs test groups increased in cell viability; an increase in expression of chondrocytes-specific genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, SOX 9 and elastin) compared to the control. This study found that human auricular chondrocytes cells and growth factor had a positive influence in inducing HADSCs chondrogenic effects, in terms of chondrogenic differentiate of feature, increase of cell viability, and up-regulated expression of chondrogenic genes.
STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross sectional observational study.
METHODS: Two sets of questionnaires were given to 126 parents or primary caregivers of the implantees. The first set of questionnaire contained questions to assess the children's usage of CI, their types of education placement, and their modes of communication. The second set of questionnaire was the Parent's Evaluation Of Aural/Oral Performance of Children (PEACH) to evaluate the children's auditory functionality.
RESULTS: Our study showed that among the implantees, 97.6% are still using their CI, 69.8% communicating orally, and 58.5% attending mainstream education. For implantees that use oral communication and attend mainstream education, their mean age of implantation is 38 months. This is significantly lower compared to the mean age of implantation of implantees that use non-oral communication and attend non-mainstream education. Simple logistic regression analysis shows age of implantation reliably predicts implantees (N = 126) would communicate using oral communication with odds ratio of 0.974, and also predict mainstream education (N = 118) with odds ratio of 0.967. The median score of PEACH rating scale is 87.5% in quiet, and this significantly correlates with an earlier age of implantation (r = -0.235 p = 0.048).
CONCLUSIONS: UKM Cochlear Implant Program has achieved reasonable success among the pediatric implantees, with better outcomes seen in those implanted at the age of less than 4 years old.
METHOD: A cross sectional study was carried out where caretakers of cleft lip and/or palate were asked to complete the translated Malay language version of Strength Difficulties Questionnaire. The hearing status of the children was analyzed based on recent pure tone audiometric and tympanogram results. The patients' age, gender, type of cleft pathology, age of palatal surgery and behavioural patterns were examined for their potential relationship with hearing status.
RESULTS: A total of 74 children (148 ears) aged between 7 and 17 years with cleft lip and/or palate were recruited. The result showed 37 ears (25.0%) had hearing loss with majority suffered from mild conductive hearing loss. There were 16 ears (10.8%) that had persistent middle ear effusion. Hearing improvement occurred when palatal repair was performed at the age of less than 1 year old. (p = 0.015) There was no significant relationship between patients' gender, age, type of cleft and history of myringotomy with their hearing status. In terms of behavioural patterns, 16.3% were abnormal for total behavioural score, 39.2% for peer problem and 17.6% for conduct problem. For prosocial behaviour, 16.3% were rated low and very low. There was fair correlation between age and hyperactivity problems (r = 0.44). Patients' gender, type of cleft pathology, had been teased apart and hearing status was found not related to behavioural problems.
CONCLUSION: Cleft lip and/or palate patients have a good longterm hearing outcome. Majority had normal hearing and if there is hearing impairment, it is only a mild loss. Early palatal repair surgery before the age of 1 year can significantly reduce the risk of hearing loss. Cleft lip and/or palate patients experienced peer problems. There was no significant correlation between behavioural difficulty and hearing status among school-aged children with cleft lip and palate.
Design: This is a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study. The questionnaire consists of three sub-domains - interaction, emotional well-being and support for the hearing-impaired child and the overall QoL -- and two open-ended questions for participants to provide comments and suggestions to enhance their family's QoL. A total of 63 questionnaires were e-mailed or mailed to families who met the inclusion criteria.
Setting: The study was conducted under the Center for Rehabilitation & Special Needs, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur.
Participants: A total of 79 parents and 23 siblings from 44 families of children with CI participated in this study.
Main outcome measures: The mean score for each of the sub-domain and the overall QoL for both subject groups were computed. The answers for the open-ended questions were listed and organized into themes.
Results: There were significant correlations between the overall QoL score and each of the test domains for the parents' group (p
METHODS: Medical records of all paediatric patients presenting with symptom of stridor from January 2010 to February 2015 were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' demographic data, clinical notes, laryngoscope findings, diagnosis and management were retrieved and analysed.
RESULTS: Out of the total 137 patients referred for noisy breathing, 121 patients had stridor and were included in this study. There were 73 males and 48 females-most were of Malay ethnicity (77.7%). The age of presentation ranged from newborn to 10 years, with a mean of 4.9 months. Eighteen patients (14.9%) had associated congenital pathologies. The majority were congenital causes (90.9%), in which laryngomalacia was the commonest (78.5%), followed by subglottic stenosis (5.0%), vallecular cyst (2.5%) and congenital vocal fold paralysis (2.5%). Twelve patients (9.9%) had synchronous airway lesion. The majority of the patients were managed conservatively. Thirty-one patients (25.6%) required surgical intervention, of which only one needed tracheostomy.
CONCLUSION: Laryngomalacia was the commonest cause of stridor among paediatric patients. A synchronous airway lesion should be considered if the child has persistent or severe symptoms. The majority of the patients were managed conservatively.