MATERIALS AND METHODS: FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and CHN microanalysis were used to elucidate the structures of the trimers. Differential scanning calorimetry, polarizing optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to study the transitional and phase properties of the trimers, which were length and spacer parity dependent. Trimers with short spacer length in the cholesteryl arm, m = 4 showed an interesting phase sequence of BP/N*-TGBA*-SmA*.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The TGBA* phase was sensitive to spacer length as it was only observed in trimers with short ester linkage. For the long analogues, m = 9, characteristic visible reflection and a much simpler phase sequence with only N* and SmA* phases were observed.
CONCLUSION: The X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that layer periodicities of the SmA* phase were approximately half the estimated all-trans molecular length (d/L ≈ 0.44-0.52), thus suggesting that the molecules are either strongly intercalated or bent.
METHODS: A randomized trial was conducted in a University hospital in Malaysia. Nulliparous women at term who were about to start pushing were randomized to massage during pushing and warm compress to the perineum in between pushes or to standard "hands-off" care. Primary outcome was suturing for perineal injury (episiotomy or tear).
RESULTS: A total of 156 participants were analyzed based on intention to treat. Perineal repair rates were 53/79 (67%) for MassComp versus 70/77 (91%) for control (relative risk [RR] 0.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.98, number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome [NNTb ] 5, 95% CI 2.83-8.62, P