METHODS: We obtained viral hepatitis mortality data from the WHO Mortality Database for 7 East and Southeast Asian countries between 1987 and 2015.We produced choropleth maps of viral hepatitis mortality rates in 1987 and 2015 in East and Southeast Asia to illustrate geographic variations. We made predictions of mortality rates for each included country until the year 2030 using a series of joinpoint models.
RESULTS: Viral hepatitis mortality rates declined in China (the average annual percent change (AAPC)=-5.1%, 95% CI: -7.5, -2.6), Singapore (AAPC=-5.4%, 95% CI: -7.5, -3.2), and the Philippines (AAPC=-3.4%, 95% CI: -4.9, -1.8). In contrast, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Malaysia have experienced increasing trends in mortality rates, followed by decreasing trends. Our predictions indicate that all countries will experience slight to moderate downward trends until 2030.
CONCLUSION: Favorable decreasing trends have been noted in East and Southeast Asian countries, which may not only inform the control and management of viral hepatitis in this region but also guide the prevention of viral hepatitis deaths in another region with a similar viral hepatitis epidemic.
CASE PRESENTATIONS: We describe a series of pregnant (n = 4) and lactating mothers (n = 2) who developed anaphylactic reactions after consumption of maternal milk formula containing GOS. All six subjects had pre-existing atopy and a positive skin prick test to GOS and 5/5 of the subjects who were tested had positive basophil activation tests to GOS. All of the mothers and their babies had normal neonatal outcomes after the reactions.
CONCLUSIONS: The supplementation of GOS into milk and beverages in the Asian region should take into account the rare chance of allergenicity of GOS in the atopic population.