Fatty hydroxamic acid (FHA) immobilized in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been studied as a sensor element of an optical fibre chemical sensor for V(V). By using this instrument, V(V) in solution has been determined in the log concentration range of 0-2.5 (i.e. 1.0-300 mg/L). The detection limit was 1.0 mg/L. The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) of the method for the reproducibility study at V(V) concentration of 200 mg/L and 300 mg/L were calculated to be 2.9% and 2.0%, respectively. Interference from foreign ions was also studied at 1:1 mole ratio of V(V):foreign ions. It was found that, Fe(III) ion interfered most in the determination of vanadium(V). Excellent agreement with ICP-AES method was achieved when the proposed method was applied towards determination of V(V).
The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of 80% methanol extract of Lepidozia borneensis. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays while the effects of L. borneensis on the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line were evaluated by using MTT assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 12.42 ± 0.47 mg GAE/g and 9.36 ± 1.29 mg CE/g, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 35 compounds. The extract was found to induce cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value of 47.33 ± 7.37 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed that the extract induced significant arrest at G0/G1 at 24 hours of treatment. After 72 hours of treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and G2-M phases had decreased significantly as compared to their control. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased to 30.8% after 72 hours of treatment. No activation of caspase 3 was observed. These findings suggest that L. borneensis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.
Garcinia dulcis or locally known in Malaysia as "mundu" belongs to the family of Clusiaceae. The study was conducted to investigate the anticancer potential of different parts of G. dulcis fruit extracts and their possible mechanism of action in HepG2 liver cancer cell line. MTT assay showed that the peel, flesh, and seed extracts of G. dulcis induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell line with IC50 values of 46.33 ± 4.51, 38.33 ± 3.51, and 7.5 ± 2.52 µg/mL, respectively. The flesh extract of G. dulcis induced cell cycle arrest at sub-G1 (apoptosis) phase in a time-dependent manner. Staining with Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide showed that 41.2% of the cell population underwent apoptosis after 72 hours of exposure of the HepG2 cell line to G. dulcis flesh extract. Caspase-3 has been shown to be activated which finally leads to the death of HepG2 cell (apoptosis). GC-MS analysis showed that the highest percentage of compound identified in the extract of G. dulcis flesh was hydroxymethylfurfural and 3-methyl-2,5-furandione, together with xanthones and flavonoids (based on literature), could synergistically contribute to the observed effects. This finding suggested that the flesh extract of G. dulcis has its own potential as cancer chemotherapeutic agent against liver cancer cell.
Seaweed has tremendous potentials as an alternative source of high-quality food products that have attracted research in recent times, due to their abundance and diversity. In the present study, three selected seaweed species commonly found in the Malaysian Peninsular, Ulva intestinalis, Halimeda macroloba, and Sargassum ilicifolium, were subjected to preliminary chemical screening and evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and cytotoxic activities against five cancer cell lines. Chemical composition of U. intestinalis, H. macroloba, and S. ilicifolium methanolic extracts was evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Our results revealed the highest total carotenoids (162.00 μg g-1 DW), chlorophyll a (313.09 ± 2.53 μg g-1 DW), and chlorophyll b (292.52 ± 8.84 μg g-1 DW) concentrations in U. intestinalis. In the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, S. ilicifolium demonstrated the lowest efficacy with an IC50 value of 38.491 ppm compared to other species of seaweed. H. macroloba extract, on the other hand, was found to be the most cytotoxic toward MCF-7 and HT 29 cells with IC50 of 37.25 ± 0.58 and 21.32 ± 0.25 μg/mL, respectively, compared to other cell lines evaluated. Furthermore, H. macroloba extract was also found to be less toxic to normal cell (3T3) with IC50 of 48.80 ± 0.11 μg/mL. U. intestinalis extract exhibited the highest cytotoxicity toward Hep G2 cells with IC50 of 23.21 ± 0.11 μg/mL, whereas S. ilicifolium was less toxic to MDA- MB231 cell with IC50 of 25.23 ± 0.11 μg/mL. Subsequently, the GC-MS analysis of the methanolic extracts of these seaweed samples led to the identification of 27 metabolites in U. intestinalis, 22 metabolites in H. macroloba, and 24 metabolites in S. ilicifolium. Taken together, the results of this present study indicated that all the seaweed species evaluated are good seaweed candidates that exhibit potential for cultivation as functional food sources for human consumption and need to be promoted.
Recent increased interest in seaweed is motivated by attention generated in their bioactive components that have potential applications in the functional food and nutraceutical industries. In the present study, nutritional composition, metabolite profiles, phytochemical screening and physicochemical properties of freeze-dried brown seaweed, Sargassum polycystum were evaluated. Results showed that the S. polycystum had protein content of 8.65 ± 1.06%, lipid of 3.42 ± 0.01%, carbohydrate of 36.55 ± 1.09% and total dietary fibre content of 2.75 ± 0.58% on dry weight basis. The mineral content of S. polycystum including Na, K, Ca, Mg Fe, Se and Mn were 8876.45 ± 0.47, 1711.05 ± 0.07, 1079.75 ± 0.30, 213.85 ± 0.02, 277.6 ± 0.12, 4.70 ± 0.00 and 4.45 ± 0.00 mg 100/g DW, respectively. Total carotenoid, chlorophyll a and b content in S. polycystum were detected at 45.28 ± 1.77, 141.98 ± 1.18 and 111.29 µg/g respectively. The total amino acid content was 74.90 ± 1.45%. The study revealed various secondary metabolites and major constituents of S. polycystum fibre to include fucose, mannose, galactose, xylose and rhamnose. The metabolites extracted from the seaweeds comprised n-hexadecanoic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester, benzenepropanoic acid, 3,5-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-hydroxy- methyl ester, 1-dodecanol, 3,7,11-trimethyl-, which were the most abundant. The physicochemical properties of S. polycystum such as water-holding and swelling capacity were comparable to several commercial fibre-rich products. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that S. polycystum is a potential candidate as functional food sources for human consumption and its cultivation needs to be encouraged.