OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to assess knowledge and awareness regarding needle stick and sharp injury among dental personnel and compared the knowledge and awareness level about needle stick injuries between dental professionals and dental supporting staff working at the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2016 to March 2017. The total sample included 112 registered dental personnel including dental professionals (lecturers, dental officers, and postgraduate students) and dental supportive staff (including staff nurses and dental surgery assistant) who were selected from the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia at Kelantan District of Malaysia. Data were collected by a structured questionnaire.
RESULTS: In our study 60.7% respondents answered correctly for all the statements regarding knowledge and 51.8% of the respondents answered correctly for the statements regarding awareness on needle stick and sharp injury. No significant difference of knowledge level has been observed between the dental professionals and dental supportive staff (p
CASE DESCRIPTION: The first case, a man in his twenties, received a stock conformer immediately after surgery and started prosthetic therapy within 2 months. The second case, a man in his forties, started prosthetic therapy after 10 years. Definitive custom ocular prostheses were fabricated and relined according to conventional protocol.
RESULTS: On issue of the prosthesis, there was adequate retention, aesthetics and stability to extra-ocular movements and treatment was considered successful for both cases. However, follow-ups showed noticeable prosthetic eye movements for case 1 which, to some extent mimicked the physiologic movement of its fellow natural eye. Case 1 adjusted to his prosthesis better while case 2 was still adjusting with little to no physiologic movement.
CONCLUSION: Prosthetic rehabilitation should be started as early as possible to obtain optimum rehabilitative results.
Materials and methods: This is a retrospective study. 800 CBCT scan obtained for the measurement of condyle in anterior-posterior and medio-lateral aspect using OnDemand 3D software. Participants were Saudi nationals of age above 18 years. 395 Males and 405 Females with the mean age of 38.2 ± 10.5 years. Right and left anterior-posterior width and medio-lateral width of the condyle were measured. Condyles were not isolated on the CBCT for volume measurement.
Results: Mean right and anterior-posterior condyle width was 9.02 mm and 8.74 mm in males whereas in females it was 9.01 mm 8.69 mm respectively. For males mean medio-lateral width of the condyle in right and left side was 17.40 mm and 16.95 mm. For females, mean medio-lateral width of the condyle in right and left side was 17.14 mm and 16.93 mm. The prediction rate of gender was 57.2% for males and 53.3% for females. Statistically significant differences (p
PURPOSE: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the SR, tensile strength (TS), and percentage elongation (% E) of different SEs subjected to outdoor weathering in the Malaysian climate.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Type-II dumbbell-shaped specimens (N-120) (nonweathered=15, weathered=15) were made from 3 room-temperature vulcanized (A-2000, A-2006, and A-103) and 1 heat-temperature vulcanized (M-511) silicone (Factor II). For 6 months, weathered specimens were subjected to outdoor weathering inside a custom exposure rack. Simultaneously, the nonweathered specimens were kept in a dehumidifier. Subsequently, the SR was measured with a profilometer; TS and % E were measured by using a universal testing machine. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the means of the tested properties of the nonweathered and weathered specimens, and pairwise comparison was carried out between the silicones (α=.05).
RESULTS: After outdoor weathering, the SR, TS, and % E were adversely affected by weathering in the Malaysian environment. Among the silicone materials, A-2000 showed the least TS changes (2.51 MPa), while A-2006 demonstrated significant changes in percentage elongation after outdoor weathering (266.5%). M-511 exhibited the highest mean value (2.50 μm) for SR changes. In addition, A-103 SE showed statistically significant differences in most pairwise comparisons for all 3 dependent variables.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the evaluation of mechanical properties, A-103 can be suggested as a suitable silicone for maxillofacial prostheses fabricated for tropical climates. However, A-2000 can be a suitable alternative, although significant changes to surface roughness were detected after outdoor weathering.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this simulation study was to establish a reference percentage value that can be used to effectively reduce the size and polygons of the 3D mesh without drastically affecting the dimensions of the prosthesis itself.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen different maxillary palatal defects were simulated on a dental cast and scanned to create 3D casts. Digital bulbs were fabricated from the casts. Conventional bulbs for the defects were fabricated, scanned, and compared with the digital bulb to serve as a control. The polygon parameters of digital bulbs were then reduced by different percentages (75%, 50%, 25%, 10%, 5%, and 1% of the original mesh) which created a total of 105 meshes across 7 mesh groups. The reduced mesh files were compared individually with the original design in an open-source point cloud comparison software program. The parameters of comparison used in this study were Hausdorff distance (HD), Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), and volume.
RESULTS: The reduction in file size was directly proportional to the amount of mesh reduction. There were minute yet insignificant differences in volume (P>.05) across all mesh groups, with significant differences (P
PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the quality and outcome of studies into maxillary anterior tooth proportion and to determine whether dental proportion ratios based on different geographic regions are appropriate.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: An electronic search was conducted using PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases. English-language articles reporting with the specific combination of medical subject heading (MeSH) key words were analyzed by 2 investigators. The titles, full text, and abstracts were scanned by investigators independently to identify articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The general characteristics, outcomes, and quality of each study were reviewed and analyzed systematically.
RESULTS: The search plan resulted in a total of 73 articles until September 2020; of which, 16 articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. The geographic distribution of the selected article revealed 12 articles from Asia, 2 from Continental Europe, and 2 from the United Kingdom. Golden percentage values of 25%, 15%, and 10% for central, lateral incisor, and canine teeth were not found. The mean predicted dental percentage was either larger or smaller than the successive widths of maxillary natural anterior teeth.
CONCLUSIONS: The golden percentage could not be used to formulate a smile design. Rather, the dental ratios should be set on a racial and ethnic basis for a population.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this virtual analysis study was to compare the accuracy and precision of 3-dimensional (3D) ear models generated by scanning gypsum casts with a smartphone camera and a desktop laser scanner.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six ear casts were fabricated from green dental gypsum and scanned with a laser scanner. The resultant 3D models were exported as standard tessellation language (STL) files. A stereophotogrammetry system was fabricated by using a motorized turntable and an automated microcontroller photograph capturing interface. A total of 48 images were captured from 2 angles on the arc (20 degrees and 40 degrees from the base of the turntable) with an image overlap of 15 degrees, controlled by a stepper motor. Ear 1 was placed on the turntable and captured 5 times with smartphone 1 and tested for precision. Then, ears 1 to 6 were scanned once with a laser scanner and with smartphones 1 and 2. The images were converted into 3D casts and compared for accuracy against their laser scanned counterparts for surface area, volume, interpoint mismatches, and spatial overlap. Acceptability thresholds were set at <0.5 mm for interpoint mismatches and >0.70 for spatial overlap.
RESULTS: The test for smartphone precision in comparison with that of the laser scanner showed a difference in surface area of 774.22 ±295.27 mm2 (6.9% less area) and in volume of 4228.60 ±2276.89 mm3 (13.4% more volume). Both acceptability thresholds were also met. The test for accuracy among smartphones 1, 2, and the laser scanner showed no statistically significant differences (P>.05) in all 4 parameters among the groups while also meeting both acceptability thresholds.
CONCLUSIONS: Smartphone cameras used to capture 48 overlapping gypsum cast ear images in a controlled environment generated 3D models parametrically similar to those produced by standard laser scanners.
DESIGN: A digitally derived 3-dimensional maxillary model incorporating the palatal defect was generated from the patient's existing cone beam computerized tomography data and compared with the scanned cast from the conventional impression for linear dimensions, area, and volume. The digitally derived cast was 3-dimensionally printed and the obturator fabricated using traditional techniques. Similarly, an obturator was fabricated from the conventional cast and the fit of both final obturator bulbs were compared in vivo.
RESULTS: The digitally derived model produced more accurate volumes and surface areas within the defect. The defect margins and peripheries were overestimated which was reflected clinically.
CONCLUSION: The digitally derived model provided advantages in the fabrication of the palatal obturator; however, further clinical research is required to refine consistency.
Method: Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science (all databases) were searched by 2 reviewers until 29th October 2020. Articles were screened and narratively synthesized according to PRISMA-DTA guidelines based on predefined eligibility criteria. Articles that made direct reference test comparisons to human clinicians were evaluated using the MI-CLAIM checklist. The risk of bias was assessed by JBI-DTA critical appraisal, and certainty of the evidence was evaluated using the GRADE approach. Information regarding the quantification method of dental pain and disease, the conditional characteristics of both training and test data cohort in the machine learning, diagnostic outcomes, and diagnostic test comparisons with clinicians, where applicable, were extracted.
Results: 34 eligible articles were found for data synthesis, of which 8 articles made direct reference comparisons to human clinicians. 7 papers scored over 13 (out of the evaluated 15 points) in the MI-CLAIM approach with all papers scoring 5+ (out of 7) in JBI-DTA appraisals. GRADE approach revealed serious risks of bias and inconsistencies with most studies containing more positive cases than their true prevalence in order to facilitate machine learning. Patient-perceived symptoms and clinical history were generally found to be less reliable than radiographs or histology for training accurate machine learning models. A low agreement level between clinicians training the models was suggested to have a negative impact on the prediction accuracy. Reference comparisons found nonspecialized clinicians with less than 3 years of experience to be disadvantaged against trained models.
Conclusion: Machine learning in dental and orofacial healthcare has shown respectable results in diagnosing diseases with symptomatic pain and with improved future iterations and can be used as a diagnostic aid in the clinics. The current review did not internally analyze the machine learning models and their respective algorithms, nor consider the confounding variables and factors responsible for shaping the orofacial disorders responsible for eliciting pain.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: An auricular prosthesis, a complete denture, and anterior and posterior crowns were constructed using conventional methods and laser scanned to create computerized 3D meshes. The meshes were optimized independently by four computer-aided design software (Meshmixer, Meshlab, Blender, and SculptGL) to 100%, 90%, 75%, 50%, and 25% levels of original file size. Upon optimization, the following parameters were virtually evaluated and compared; mesh vertices, file size, mesh surface area (SA), mesh volume (V), interpoint discrepancies (geometric similarity based on virtual point overlapping), and spatial similarity (volumetric similarity based on shape overlapping). The influence of software and optimization on surface area and volume of each prosthesis was evaluated independently using multiple linear regression.
RESULTS: There were clear observable differences in vertices, file size, surface area, and volume. The choice of software significantly influenced the overall virtual parameters of auricular prosthesis [SA: F(4,15) = 12.93, R2 = 0.67, p < 0.001. V: F(4,15) = 9.33, R2 = 0.64, p < 0.001] and complete denture [SA: F(4,15) = 10.81, R2 = 0.67, p < 0.001. V: F(4,15) = 3.50, R2 = 0.34, p = 0.030] across optimization levels. Interpoint discrepancies were however limited to <0.1mm and volumetric similarity was >97%.
CONCLUSION: Open-source mesh optimization of smaller dental prostheses in this study produced minimal loss of geometric and volumetric details. SculptGL models were most influenced by the amount of optimization performed.
METHODS: Relevant articles written in English only, before January 15, 2017, were identified using an electronic search in the PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. Furthermore, a manual search of the related major journals was also conducted to identify more pertinent articles. The relevancy of the articles was verified by screening the title, abstract, and full text if they met the inclusion criteria. A total of 37 articles satisfied the criteria, from which data were extracted for qualitative synthesis.
RESULTS: Among the 37 included articles, 14 were without aging, 15 were natural or artificial accelerated aging, 7 were outdoor weathering, and 1 contained both artificial aging and outdoor weathering. Only 4 studies out of the 14 without aging had significant observations; whereas 9 articles with natural or artificial aging published significant results, and 3 out of 7 outdoor weathering articles showed significant changes in the evaluated silicone elastomers.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the varying research, it seems that the single "ideal" maxillofacial prosthetic material that can provide sufficient resistance against different aging conditions is yet to be identified. Therefore, it is imperative for standardization organizations, the scientific community, and academia to develop modified prosthetic silicones possessing improved physical properties and color stability, limiting the clinical problems regarding degradation of maxillofacial prostheses.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two reviewers independently searched two electronic databases, PubMed and Scopus. The search was complemented from references of included studies and published reviews. Studies published in the English language through January 2021 that had assessed and documented the clinical and radiographic failure of crown or FPD in vital permanent teeth due to pulpal or periapical pathology with a follow-up of at least 12 months were selected. Data screening, data collection and extraction of data was performed. Quality of studies involved was analyzed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. Meta-analysis was done using random effects model. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plots.
RESULTS: Electronic searches provided 10,075 records among which 20 studies were selected for systematic review and 7 studies were selected for meta-analysis. With respect to quality assessment, all the studies involved were considered as high quality as the score in scale ranged between 6 and 9 as per the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort studies. The meta-analyses showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the incidence of the loss of pulp vitality or pulp necrosis through clinical and radiographic examination with the follow up period of 5 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I2 = 77.84%; 10 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.88-0.95, I2 = 93.59%; 15 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.92-0.96, I2 = 94.83%; and 20 years: p < 0.001, 95% CI: 0.94-0.96, I2 = 95.01%.
CONCLUSIONS: The meta-analysis revealed clinical and radiographic success rate ranging between 92% to 98% at different follow up periods ranging between 5 years and 20 years. Future high-quality randomized clinical controlled trials with a larger population are required to confirm the evidence as only observational studies were considered in this paper.
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