METHODS: The phenolic compounds of PKC were obtained by solvent extraction and the product rich in phenolic compounds was labeled as phenolic-enriched fraction (PEF). This fraction was evaluated for its phenolic compounds composition. The antioxidant activity of PEF was determined by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, inhibition of ß-carotene bleaching, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances assays. The cytotoxicity assay and molecular biomarkers analyses were performed to evaluate the cytoprotective effects of PEF towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced cell damage.
RESULTS: The results showed that PEF contained gallic acid, pyrogallol, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, epicatechin, catechin and ferulic acid. The PEF exhibited free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, ß-carotene bleaching inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances inhibition. The PEF demonstrated cytoprotective effects in AFB1-treated chicken hepatocytes by reducing the cellular lipid peroxidation and enhancing antioxidant enzymes production. The viability of AFB1-treated hepatocytes was improved by PEF through up-regulation of oxidative stress tolerance genes and down-regulation of pro-inflammatory and apoptosis associated genes.
CONCLUSIONS: The present findings supported the proposition that the phenolic compounds present in PKC could be a potential cytoprotective agent towards AFB1 cytotoxicity.
RESULTS: The calibration curve showed a linear range between 0.01 fM to 0.01 nM with a limit of detection 0.05 fM. The results showed that the optimum concentration for DNA probe was 5 µM. The good performance of the proposed biosensor was achieved through hybridization of DNA probe-modified SPCE with extracted DNA from clinical samples.
CONCLUSIONS: According to the investigated results, this biosensor can be introduced as a proprietary, accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnostic method of HPV 18 in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of real samples.