Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 39 in total

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  1. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Aqeel T, Salman S, Ibrahim Q, Idrees J, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2015;15:1100.
    PMID: 26541976 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-015-2471-1
    Despite the efforts of national and international organizations, polio has not been eradicated from Pakistan. The prevalence of polio in Pakistan is exceptional in global context. Quetta and Peshawar divisions are amongst the most affected regions hit by polio in Pakistan. This study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards polio immunization among residents of Quetta and Peshawar divisions in Pakistan.
  2. Khan MU, Shah S, Ahmad A, Fatokun O
    BMC Public Health, 2014;14:1281.
    PMID: 25510239 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-1281
    With the increase in prevalence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk of acquiring and subsequently transmitting this lethal virus. In view of this, HCWs were evaluated for their knowledge of and attitude towards MERS in Saudi Arabia.
  3. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Fayyaz M, Ashraf N, Bhagavathula A
    BMC Res Notes, 2016;9(1):183.
    PMID: 27005815 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-016-1996-4
    The objective of this study was to assess the association of the constructs of theory of planned behaviour (behavioural beliefs, normative beliefs, control beliefs) and demographic variables with the intentions of pharmacy students to become pharmacy owner.
  4. Adeeb F, Ng WL, Khan MU, Devlin J, Stack AG, Fraser AD
    Eur J Rheumatol, 2017 Dec;4(4):254-259.
    PMID: 29308279 DOI: 10.5152/eurjrheum.2017.17046
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate prescription practices, treatment responses, and serious adverse events of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapies in Behçet's disease (BD).

    Material and Methods: Patients with BD satisfying the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease or the International Criteria for Behçet's Disease criteria were recruited from a regional rheumatology program. The choice of anti-TNF, treatment response, and adverse events were specified. Response to treatment was evaluated by the detection of new, worsening, or improving clinical features, and management was benchmarked against current The European League against Rheumatism recommendations published in 2008.

    Results: Out of the total of 22 patients, 18 (81.9%) received anti-TNF therapies, resulting in 14 (77.8%) complete and 4 (22.2%) partial remissions. Eleven (61.1%) patients switched to a second anti-TNF, seven patients (38.9%) required three different anti-TNFs, and one required a fourth anti-TNF to achieve remission. Two patients required retrials before their disease was controlled. Anti-TNF therapy included infliximab (IFX): n=15, 83.3%; adalimumab (ADA): n=9, 50%; golimumab: n=6, 33.3%; etanercept: n=5, 27.8%; and certolizumab pegol: n=2, 11.1%. Secondary failure was observed with IFX (4/15; 26.7%) and ADA (2/9; 22.2%), and these (100%) were manifested after at least 2 years of treatment. Five patients with potentially life-threatening laryngeal involvement received anti-TNFs successfully halting disease progression. Five allergic reactions were encountered, and five serious infections were documented involving three patients aged ≥ 50 years, all with the use of IFX.

    Conclusion: Anti-TNF therapy induced a clinical response in 100% patients and achieved complete remission in 78% patients. It provides an effective alternative option for first-line therapy in severe BD where many conventional immunosuppressive therapies fail. Patients with BD who do not respond to one or more anti-TNFs because of intolerance, ineffectiveness, or secondary failure might benefit from switching to another drug from this group or even a retrial of a previously administered anti-TNF because unsatisfactory results with one biologic is not predictive of response to another anti-TNF. For those with potentially life-threatening destructive laryngeal manifestation, anti-TNF as a first choice may be considered.

  5. Khan MU, Arief M, Ahmad A, Malik S, Gogoi LJ, Kalita M, et al.
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2017 Apr;39(2):473-477.
    PMID: 28260131 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-017-0443-5
    Background Shortage of qualified medical doctors and little or no access to basic medicines and medical facilities are the major rural health concerns in India. Expanding the role of pharmacists to provide prescribing services could improve rural health outcomes. Objective To assess the attitudes of rural population towards pharmacist prescribing and their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services. Setting Rural population of Assam, India. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional survey was conducted for a period of 2 months from March to April 2016 in the State of Assam, India. A multi-stage sampling was used to recruit (n = 410) eligible participants. Main outcome measure Rural population attitudes towards, and interests in using, pharmacist prescribing services. Results The attitudes of participants were generally positive towards pharmacist prescribing. A large proportion of participants (81.5%) agreed that pharmacists should have a prescribing role in rural India. Participants indicated their interest in using expanded pharmacist prescribing services, with greater interests in receiving medications in emergency situations (79.7%) and getting a treatment plan for their medical problem (75.6%). Participants with low income and tertiary education had better attitudes and showed more interest towards expanded pharmacist prescribing services (p 
  6. Adeeb F, Khan MU, Li X, Stack AG, Devlin J, Fraser AD
    Int J Inflam, 2017;2017:8608716.
    PMID: 28660088 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8608716
    Vitamin D plays a significant role in the immune system modulation and may confer a protective role in autoimmune diseases. We conducted a case-control study to compare 25(OH)D levels in patients with BD who were managed at a regional rheumatology programme in the midwest region of Ireland compared to matched controls. Healthy controls were selected from the Irish health system and matched in 1 : 5 ratio for age, sex, and the month of the year. 25(OH)D levels <20 nmol/L were classified as deficient while levels between 20 and 40 nmol/L were classified as insufficient. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney test and associations between cases and controls were expressed as odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Nineteen patients with BD were compared with 95 controls matched by age, sex, and month of blood draw. 25(OH)D levels were significantly higher in patients in BD than in matched controls (median values: 45 nmol/L versus 22 nmol/L, p < 0.005) and tended to be lower in patients with active disease than in those without (median values: 35 nmol/L (IQR: 22.75-47.25 nm/L) versus 50 nmol/L (IQR: 35-67 nmol/L), p = 0.11). Compared to controls, patients with BD were significantly less likely to have 25(OH)D deficiency or insufficiency (OR: 0.09, 95% CI: 0.03-0.28, p < 0.001). Our findings suggest a possible role for 25(OH)D in modifying the inflammatory response in BD and uncover a potential opportunity to assess whether correction of Vit D deficiency confers protective benefits.
  7. Khan MU, Jamshed SQ, Ahmad A, Bidin MA, Siddiqui MJ, Al-Shami AK
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2016 Feb;10(2):JE01-6.
    PMID: 27042482 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2016/15211.7169
    INTRODUCTION: One of the most important indications of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is in arthritis. The popularity of CAM in arthritis is consistently on the rise because of the potential side effects of the conventional therapy (Methotrexate) of arthritis. In view of this, it was important to summarize the information, for healthcare professionals and the patients, about the safety and effectiveness of various CAM use in arthritis.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This comprehensive review is based on the content derived through a thorough literature search using 5 electronic databases such as Science direct, Springer link, PubMed, Jet P and Google scholar. Equivalent terms in thesauruses or Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) browsers were used whenever possible. We included all the articles those are used CAM medications for the treatment of arthritis around the globe and searched for the required articles published in English in peer reviewed journals from January 1999 to February 2014. Reports were then arranged and analysed on the basis of country specific studies.
    RESULTS: Initially, a total of 156 articles were retrieved, after further screening, 27 articles were selected according to meet objectives of the study and those articles which did not qualify, were excluded. Seventeen appropriate studies were finally included in the review. Indeed most of the studies that fulfilled the objective of this review were carried out in US (n=8, 47%), then in India (n=2, 11.76%), UK (n=1, 5.88%), Canada (n=1, 5.88%), Australia (n=1, 5.88%), Korea (n=1, 5.88%), Thailand (n=1, 5.88%), Turkey (n=1, 5.88%) and Malaysia (n=1, 5.88%).
    CONCLUSION: The review revealed that family, friend, past experiences and lack of effectiveness of conventional therapy are the major factors that influenced patients' decision of initiating and persisting with CAM therapy. The review highlighted the need to conduct future studies by using some more specific health related outcome measures.
    KEYWORDS: CAM medications; CAM use; Osteoarthritis; Pharmacists
  8. Rafi MS, Naqvi SB, Khan MU, Fayyaz M, Ashraf N, Khan MA, et al.
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Jul;9(7):FC05-8.
    PMID: 26393139 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/13437.6207
    Limited resources of healthcare system and high use of antidepressants have raised some serious concerns regarding proper surveillance system of prescribed medicines. Not much literature is available from Pakistan regarding the potential drug-drug interactions (pDDIs) associated with antidepressants.
  9. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Srikanth AB, Patel I, Nagappa AN, Jamshed SQ
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Jun;9(6):FC01-6.
    PMID: 26266133 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/12921.6023
    The purpose of this study was to determine the level of workload among pharmacy academicians working in public and private sector universities in India. The study also aimed to assess the satisfaction of academicians towards their workload.
  10. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Haque I, Ivan R, Dasari R, Revanker M, et al.
    J Clin Diagn Res, 2015 Feb;9(2):FC10-3.
    PMID: 25859467 DOI: 10.7860/JCDR/2015/11264.5608
    Polypharmacy is considered as one of the major risk factors in precipitation of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Patient population at high risk include the elderly and patients with co morbidities as they are usually prescribed with more number of drugs. Critical evaluation of such prescriptions by pharmacist could result in identification and reduction of such problems.
  11. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Jamshed SQ, Kumar BD, Kumar GS, Reddy PG, et al.
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2016 Aug 02;10(7):747-54.
    PMID: 27482807 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.7578
    INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic to be a public health emergency of international concern. Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the highest risk of infection, as they may come into contact with patients' blood or fluids. This study was conducted to assess knowledge and attitudes of HCWs towards EVD in India.
    METHODOLOGY: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in a multispecialty public sector referral hospital of Telangana, India. Knowledge and attitude of HCWs were evaluated using a pre-validated questionnaire. A sample of 278 participants was selected to participate in this study. The Chi-squared test was used to assess the relationship between attitudes and demographic characteristics. Logistic regression was used examine the association between knowledge and study variables.
    RESULTS: Of 257 participants who responded (92.4% response rate), 157 (61.1%) were females. The majority of the respondents were physicians (n = 117, 45.5%). Radio and television were the major sources of information about EVD reported by participants (89%). Overall knowledge of HCWs was poor (mean knowledge score: 6.57 ± 2.57). Knowledge of physicians and experienced workers (≥ 10 years) was significantly higher than their respective groups. The overall attitude of the participants was positive (mean attitude score: 1.62 ± 0.57). Significant positive correlations between knowledge and attitude were observed.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that participants lack basic understanding of EVD. We recommend future studies be conducted across India to identify and subsequently bridge the knowledge gaps among HCWs.
  12. Patel I, Hussain R, Khan A, Ahmad A, Khan MU, Hassalai MAA
    PMID: 28878929 DOI: 10.1186/s40545-017-0118-6
  13. Jamshed SQ, Khan MU, Ahmad A, Elkalmi RM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 3 10;8(1):34-8.
    PMID: 26957866 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.171686
    BACKGROUND: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM.
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables.
    RESULTS: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive.
  14. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Malik S, Mohanta GP, Parimalakrishnan S, Patel I, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Oct-Dec;8(4):335-340.
    PMID: 28216959 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.199340
    BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis and respiratory illnesses are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in children under 5 years of age. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prescription pattern of antibiotic utilization during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients.

    METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted for 6 months in pediatric units of a tertiary care hospital in South India. Children under 5 years of age presenting with illness related to diarrhea and/or cough/cold were included in this study. Data were collected by reviewing patient files and then assessed for its appropriateness against the criteria developed in view of the Medication Appropriateness Index and Guidelines of the Indian Academy of Pediatrics. The results were expressed in frequencies and percentages. Chi-square test was used to analyze the data. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

    RESULTS: A total of 303 patients were studied during the study period. The mean age of the patients was 3.5 ± 0.6 years. The majority of children were admitted mainly due to chief complaint of fever (63%) and cough and cold (56.4%). The appropriateness of antibiotic prescriptions was higher in bloody and watery diarrhea (83.3% and 82.6%; P < 0.05). Cephalosporins (46.2%) and penicillins (39.9%) were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, though the generic prescriptions of these drugs were the lowest (13.5% and 10%, respectively). The seniority of prescriber was significantly associated with the appropriateness of prescriptions (P < 0.05). Antibiotics prescription was higher in cold/cough and diarrhea (93.5%) in comparison to cough/cold (85%) or diarrhea (75%) alone.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study observed high rates of antibiotic utilization in Chidambaram during the treatment of cough/cold and/or diarrhea in pediatric patients. The findings highlight the need for combined interventions using education and expert counseling, targeted to the clinical conditions and classes of antibiotic for which inappropriate usage is most common.
  15. Jamshed SQ, Wong PS, Yi HC, Yun GS, Khan MU, Ahmad A
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2016 Jul-Sep;8(3):217-22.
    PMID: 27413350 DOI: 10.4103/0975-7406.172662
    World Health Organization has defined self-medication as the selection and use of medications (including herbal and traditional product) by individuals to treat self-recognized illnesses or symptoms. The prevalence of self-medication is reported to be higher among female students.
  16. Abebe TB, Bhagavathula AS, Tefera YG, Ahmad A, Khan MU, Belachew SA, et al.
    J Public Health Afr, 2016 Dec 31;7(2):570.
    PMID: 28299161 DOI: 10.4081/jphia.2016.570
    A poor understanding of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) among Health Care Professionals (HCPs) may put our lives at risk. We aimed to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, perceptions, beliefs of HCPs towards Ebola at Gondar University Hospital (GUH) in Northwest Ethiopia. We conducted a hospital based, cross-sectional survey among 245 randomly selected HCPs working at GUH from August-October, 2015. A validated, self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. We calculated descriptive statistics with P<0.05 being statistically significant. Of the 245 participants, 211 (86.1%) completed the study. The majority had heard about EVD and used news media (62%) as a source of information. Still, many were afraid of getting EVD (56.4%; P=0.001). A significant number of HCPs thought EVD can cause paralysis like polio (45%) and can be treated with antibiotics (28.4%). In addition, 46.4% of the HCPs felt anger or fear towards Ebola infected patients (P=0.006). We identified poor knowledge and negative incorrect beliefs among doctors and allied health professionals. There is a need for intensive training for all HCPs reduce EVD risk.
  17. Elkalmi RM, Alkoudmani RM, Elsayed TM, Ahmad A, Khan MU
    J Relig Health, 2016 Dec;55(6):1869-75.
    PMID: 26429730 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-015-0136-0
    The Malaysian official Islamic authorities have issued a "fatwa" (Islamic ruling) regarding smoking practice which prohibits Muslims from smoking because of its potential harm to health. Since the prevalence of smoking among Malaysian students is high, this study was designed to explore the perceptions and opinions of Malaysian Muslim students towards smoking in International Islamic University of Malaysia. A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted among School of Science students in International Islamic University Malaysia. Convenience sampling approach was used to recruit 323 students based on sample size calculation. A content- and face-validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from the participants. Non-smokers highly supported the fatwa on smoking forbiddance than smokers (94 vs 64.3 %, p = 0.001). A significant proportion of non-smokers believed that Islam prohibits smoking because of its potential harm (94.9 vs 71.4 %, p = 0.001). Majority of smokers agreed that addiction is the main barrier towards smoking cessation (78.6 vs 61.5 %, p = 0.019). The results showed positive influences of Islamic beliefs on the non-smokers. Further studies are required to validate these findings by surveying other universities of Malaysia.
  18. Khan MU, Ahmad A, Salman S, Ayub M, Aqeel T, Haq NU, et al.
    J Relig Health, 2017 Apr;56(2):635-648.
    PMID: 27640195 DOI: 10.1007/s10943-016-0308-6
    Pakistan is one of the two countries where polio remains endemic. Among multiple reasons of polio prevalence, false religious beliefs are accounted as major barriers towards polio immunization in Pakistan. Within this context, religious scholars are now engaged in polio immunization campaigns to dismantle the myths and battle the resurgence of polio in Pakistan. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitudes and perceived barriers of Muslim scholars towards polio immunization in Pakistan. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of Muslim scholars was conducted in Quetta and Peshawar divisions of Pakistan. From October to December 2015, a convenience sample of 770 Muslim scholars was recruited from the local mosques and religious institutions to participate in this study. Knowledge, attitudes, and perceived barriers were assessed by using self-administered, anonymous and pretested questionnaire. Descriptive and regression analyses were used to express the results with p 
  19. Ahmad A, Khan MU, Patel I, Maharaj S, Pandey S, Dhingra S
    J Res Pharm Pract, 2015 Jan-Mar;4(1):37-41.
    PMID: 25710049 DOI: 10.4103/2279-042X.150057
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of B.Sc. Pharmacy students about usage and resistance of antibiotics in Trinidad and Tobago.
    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving B.Sc. Pharmacy students. The questionnaire was divided into five components including Demographics data, knowledge about antibiotic use, attitude toward antibiotic use and resistance, self-antibiotic usage and possible causes of antibiotic resistance. Data were analyzed by employing Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests using SPSS version 20.
    FINDINGS: The response rate was 83.07%. The results showed good knowledge of antibiotic use among students. The overall attitude of pharmacy students was poor. About 75% of participants rarely use antibiotics, whereas self-decision was the major reason of antibiotic use (40.7%) and main source of information was retail pharmacist (42.6%). Common cold and flu is a major problem for which antibiotics were mainly utilized by pharmacy students (35.2%).
    CONCLUSION: The study showed good knowledge of pharmacy students regarding antibiotic usage. However, students' attitude towards antibiotic use was poor. The study recommends future studies to be conducted with interventional design to improve knowledge and attitude of pharmacy students about antibiotic use and resistance.
    KEYWORDS: Antibiotics; Trinidad and Tobago; knowledge; pharmacy students; resistance
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