Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 57 in total

  1. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

  2. Yusof NA, Isha A, Ismail IS, Khatib A, Shaari K, Abas F, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2015 Sep;95(12):2533-43.
    PMID: 25371390 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.6987
    The metabolite changes in three germplasm accessions of Malaysia Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Nees, viz. 11265 (H), 11341 (P) and 11248 (T), due to their different harvesting ages and times were successfully evaluated by attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and translated through multivariate data analysis of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). This present study revealed the feasibility of ATR-FTIR in detecting the trend changes of the major metabolites - andrographolide and neoandrographolide - functional groups in A. paniculata leaves of different accessions. The harvesting parameter was set at three different ages of 120, 150 and 180 days after transplanting (DAT) and at two different time sessions of morning (7:30-10:30 am) and evening (2:30-5.30 pm).
  3. Yuliana ND, Tuarita MZ, Khatib A, Laila F, Sukarno S
    Food Sci. Biotechnol., 2020 Jun;29(6):825-835.
    PMID: 32523792 DOI: 10.1007/s10068-019-00725-2
    GC-MS metabolomics was used to discriminate the phytochemicals profile of Indonesian white, red, and black rice brans, and Japanese white rice brans. This technique was used for the first time to identify compounds in rice brans having cytotoxic activity against WiDr colon cancer cells. Orthogonal Projection to the Latent Structure (OPLS) analysis showed that protocatechuic acid (PA) was a discriminating factor found in black rice brans which strongly correlated with its cytotoxicity (IC50 8.53 ± 0.26 µM). Real time-PCR data demonstrated that PA cytotoxicity at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 25 and 50 µg/mL) was mediated through different pathways. Bcl-2 expression was downregulated at all tested concentrations indicating apoptosis stimulation. At 1-10 ppm concentration, PA activated both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways since the expression of p53, Bax, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were upregulated. At a higher dose (25 and 50 µg/mL), PA possibly involved in pyroptosis-mediated pro-inflammatory cell death by upregulating the expression of caspase-1 and caspase-7.
  4. Wan-Nadilah, W.A., Khatib, A., Khozirah, S., Hamid, A.A., Hamid, M.
    Plants constitute a major ingredient in traditional or folk medicine. The therapeutic claims made on the use of these traditional medicinal plants range from simple conditions such as fevers and migraines, to more complex diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. The aqueous ethanolic extracts of five medicinal plant species; Cosmos caudatus, Leucaena leucocephala, Momordica charantia, Pereskia bleo and Averrhoa bilimbi were assessed for glucose lowering effect via the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Their antioxidant potential, represented by their DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents were also measured. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was recorded for the leaf extract of C. caudatus with IC50 of 21.90 ± 3.60 μg/mL, followed by L. leucocephala with IC50 value of 30.80 ± 2.50 μg/mL. Momordica charantia, P. bleo and A. bilimbi did not show any significant inhibition of α-glucosidase. Meanwhile C. caudatus also gave the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 272.46 ± 8.98 μg/mL, and the highest total phenolic content with a value of 0.263 ± 0.02 g GAE/g DW. The present work provides a priority list of interesting plants for further study with respect to the treatment of diabetes.
  5. Wan-Nadilah WA, Akhtar MT, Shaari K, Khatib A, Hamid AA, Hamid M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 05;19(1):245.
    PMID: 31488132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9
    BACKGROUND: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

    METHODS: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

    RESULTS: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL- 1) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL- 1). Through an 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

    CONCLUSION: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.

  6. Soleimany F, Jinap S, Rahmani A, Khatib A
    PMID: 21337232 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2010.551547
    A new method for the simultaneous quantification of 12 mycotoxins was developed and optimized using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with a photodiode array (PDA) and fluorescence detector (FLD), a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection (PHRED) and post-column derivatization. The mycotoxins included aflatoxins (AFB(1), AFB(2), AFG(1), and AFG(2)), ochratoxin A (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisins (FB(1), FB(2), and FB(3)), T-2 and HT-2 toxins. A double sample extraction with a phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) and methanol was used for co-extraction of mycotoxins, and a multifunctional immunoaffinity column was used for cleanup. Optimum conditions for separation of the mycotoxins were obtained to separate 12 mycotoxins in FLD and PDA chromatograms with a high resolution. The method gave recoveries in the range 72-111% when applied to spiked corn samples. The limits of detection (LOD) were 0.025 ng/g for AFB(1) and AFG(1), 0.012 ng/g for AFB(2) and AFG(2), 0.2 ng/g for OTA, 1.5 ng/g for ZEA, 6.2 ng/g for FB(1), FB(3) and HT-2 toxin, 9.4 ng/g for FB(2) and T-2 toxin, and 18.7 ng/g for DON. In addition, the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.04 ng/g for AFB(2) and AFG(2) to 62 ng/g for DON. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these mycotoxins in 45 cereal samples obtained from the Malaysian market. The results indicated that the method can be applied for the multi-mycotoxin determination of cereals.
  7. Siddiqui MJ, Saleh MSM, Basharuddin SNBB, Zamri SHB, Mohd Najib MHB, Che Ibrahim MZB, et al.
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2018 12 21;10(4):173-180.
    PMID: 30568374 DOI: 10.4103/JPBS.JPBS_83_18
    Saffron, Crocus sativus (Iridaceae), is a perennial herb, which earned its popularity as both medicine and spice. It is an inhabitant of different mountainous regions of Asia Minor to Greece, Western Asia, Egypt, and India. The benefits of saffron as an antidepressant are well-documented. Almost 150 volatile and nonvolatile compounds are obtained from the chemical analysis of this plant. Fewer than 50 constituents elucidated and identified so far showed phytochemical characteristics. The major bioactive compounds identified are safranal, crocin, and picrocrocin, which are responsible for its aroma as well as its bitter taste. This review is an attempt to encompass the methods of analysis and pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of saffron followed by its efficacious and safe potential.
  8. Sharif KM, Rahman MM, Azmir J, Khatib A, Sabina E, Shamsudin SH, et al.
    Biomed. Chromatogr., 2015 Dec;29(12):1826-33.
    PMID: 26033701 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.3503
    Multivariate analysis of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) images was modeled to predict antioxidant activity of Pereskia bleo leaves and to identify the contributing compounds of the activity. TLC was developed in optimized mobile phase using the 'PRISMA' optimization method and the image was then converted to wavelet signals and imported for multivariate analysis. An orthogonal partial least square (OPLS) model was developed consisting of a wavelet-converted TLC image and 2,2-diphynyl-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of 24 different preparations of P. bleo as the x- and y-variables, respectively. The quality of the constructed OPLS model (1 + 1 + 0) with one predictive and one orthogonal component was evaluated by internal and external validity tests. The validated model was then used to identify the contributing spot from the TLC plate that was then analyzed by GC-MS after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Glycerol and amine compounds were mainly found to contribute to the antioxidant activity of the sample. An alternative method to predict the antioxidant activity of a new sample of P. bleo leaves has been developed.
  9. Shamsudin S, Selamat J, Sanny M, A R SB, Jambari NN, Khatib A
    Molecules, 2019 Oct 29;24(21).
    PMID: 31671885 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24213898
    Stingless bee honey produced by Heterotrigona itama from different botanical origins was characterised and discriminated. Three types of stingless bee honey collected from acacia, gelam, and starfruit nectars were analyzed and compared with Apis mellifera honey. The results showed that stingless bee honey samples from the three different botanical origins were significantly different in terms of their moisture content, pH, free acidity, total soluble solids, colour characteristics, sugar content, amino acid content and antioxidant properties. Stingless bee honey was significantly different from Apis mellifera honey in terms of physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The amino acid content was further used in the chemometrics analysis to evaluate the role of amino acid in discriminating honey according to botanical origin. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that the stingless bee honey was completely distinguishable from Apis mellifera honey. Notably, a clear distinction between the stingless bee honey types was also observed. The specific amino acids involved in the distinction of honey were cysteine for acacia and gelam, phenylalanine and 3-hydroxyproline for starfruit, and proline for Apismellifera honey. The results showed that all honey samples were successfully classified based on amino acid content.
  10. Shamloo, M., Bakar, J., Mat Hashim, D., Khatib, A.
    The amino-acid composition, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and peptide patterns of tilapia protein hydrolysates produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of Alcalase (AH), Flavourzyme (FH) and Protamex (PH) for 5h using pH-stat method were studied. The ratio of essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids increased after hydrolysis in all samples; however, no significant differences among them were observed. AH had a highest (P < 0.05) DPPH radical-scavenging activity, but no significant difference in the DPPH between FH and PH was observed. SDS-PAGE patterns for all the hydrolysates showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number and the intensity of the bands with increasing time of hydrolysis. Flavourzyme showed the lowest rate of hydrolytic activity towards the tilapia mince.
  11. Sepahpour S, Selamat J, Khatib A, Manap MYA, Abdull Razis AF, Hajeb P
    PMID: 29913103 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1488085
    Natural antioxidants in spices and herbs have attracted considerable attention as potential inhibitors against the formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in heat-processed meat. In this study, the inhibitory activity of four spices/herbs and their mixtures on HCAs formation in grilled beef were examined. A simplex centroid mixture design with four components comprising turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass in 19 different proportions were applied on beef samples before grilling at 240 ºC for 10 min. The HCAs were extracted from the samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) method and analysed using Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS. All spices/herbs in single or mixture forms were found to reduce total HCA concentrations in marinated grilled beef ranging from 21.2% for beef marinated with curry leaf to 94.7% for the combination of turmeric and lemon grass (50:50 w/w). At the optimum marinade formula (turmeric: lemon grass 52.4%: 47.6%), concentration of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), Harman, Norharman and AαC were 2.2, 1.4, 0.5, 2.8 and 1.2 ng/g, respectively. The results of the mutagenic activity demonstrated that this optimised marinade formula significantly (p 
  12. Sarian MN, Ahmed QU, Mat So'ad SZ, Alhassan AM, Murugesu S, Perumal V, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:8386065.
    PMID: 29318154 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8386065
    The best described pharmacological property of flavonoids is their capacity to act as potent antioxidant that has been reported to play an important role in the alleviation of diabetes mellitus. Flavonoids biochemical properties are structure dependent; however, they are yet to be thoroughly understood. Hence, the main aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of some structurally related flavonoids to identify key positions responsible, their correlation, and the effect of methylation and acetylation on the same properties. Antioxidant potential was evaluated through dot blot, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) assays. Antidiabetic effect was investigated through α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) assays. Results showed that the total number and the configuration of hydroxyl groups played an important role in regulating antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in scavenging DPPH radical, ABTS+ radical, and FRAP assays and improved both α-glucosidase and DPP-4 activities. Presence of C-2-C-3 double bond and C-4 ketonic group are two essential structural features in the bioactivity of flavonoids especially for antidiabetic property. Methylation and acetylation of hydroxyl groups were found to diminish the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the flavonoids.
  13. Saleh MSM, Siddiqui MJ, Mat So'ad SZ, Roheem FO, Saidi-Besbes S, Khatib A
    Molecules, 2018 06 13;23(6).
    PMID: 29899270 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061434
    Salak fruit (Salacca zalacca), commonly known as snake fruit, is used indigenously as food and for medicinal applications in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of salak fruit extracts in correlation to its Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprint, utilizing orthogonal partial least square. This calibration model was applied to develop a rapid analytical method tool for quality control of this fruit. A total of 36 extracts prepared with different solvent ratios of ethanol⁻water (100, 80, 60, 40.20, 0% v/v) and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities determined. The FT-IR spectra of ethanol⁻water extracts measured in the region of 400 and 4000 cm−1 at a resolution of 4 cm−1. Multivariate analysis with a combination of orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) algorithm was used to correlate the bioactivity of the samples with the FT-IR spectral data. The OPLS biplot model identified several functional groups (C⁻H, C=O, C⁻N, N⁻H, C⁻O, and C=C) which actively induced α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
  14. Saleh MSM, Bukhari DAM, Siddiqui MJA, Kasmuri AR, Murugesu S, Khatib A
    Nat. Prod. Res., 2020 May;34(9):1341-1344.
    PMID: 30678487 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2018.1560295
    Different extraction processes were employed to extract bioactive metabolites from Salacca zalacca flesh by a range of aqueous and organic solvents. The highest extraction yield was obtained by 50% ethanol extract of SE (73.18 ± 4.35%), whereas SFE_1 showed the lowest yield (0.42 ± 0.08%). All extracts were evaluated for in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, measured by their IC50 values in comparison to that of quercetin, the positive control (IC50 = 2.7 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The lowest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was indicated by water extract of SE (IC50 = 724.3 ± 42.9 μg/mL) and the highest activity was demonstrated by 60% ethanol extract by UAE (IC50 = 16.2 ± 2.4 μg/mL). All extracts were analysed by GC-MS and identified metabolites like carbohydrates, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, sterols and alkane-based compounds etcetera that may possess the potential as α-glucosidase inhibitor and may attribute to the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
  15. Razali MTA, Zainal ZA, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Zamri Z, Mohd Idrus MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 28;23(9).
    PMID: 30154302 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160
    The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
  16. Perumal, V., Khoo, W.C., Abdul-Hamid, A., Ismail, A., Saari, K., Murugesu, S., et al.
    Momordica charantia, also known as bitter melon or ‘peria katak’ in Malaysia, is a member of the family Cucurbitaceae. Bitter melon is an excellent source of vitamins and minerals that made it extensively nutritious. Moreover, the seed, fruit and leave of the plant contain bioactive compounds with a wide range of biological activities that have been used in traditional medicines in the treatment of several diseases, including inflammation, infections, obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in urinary metabolite profile of the normal, streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes and M. charantia treated diabetic rats using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) -based metabolomics profiling. Study had been carried out by inducing diabetes in the rats through injection of streptozotocin, which exhibited type 1 diabetes. M. charantia extract (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for one week. Blood glucose level after administration was measured to examine hypoglycemic effect of the extract. The results obtained indicated that M. charantia was effective in lowering blood glucose level of the diabetic rats. The loading plot of Partial Least Square (PLS) component 1 showed that diabetic rats had increased levels of lactate and glucose in urine whereas normal and the extract treated diabetic rats had higher levels of succinate, creatine, creatinine, urea and phenylacetylglycine in urine. While the loading plot of PLS component 2 showed a higher levels of succinate, citrate, creatine, creatinine, sugars, and hippurate in urine of normal rat compared to the extract treated diabetic rat. Administration of M. charantia extract was found to be able to regulate the altered metabolic processes. Thus, it could be potentially used to treat the diabetic patients.
  17. Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Azam A, Khatib A, Abas F, Shaari K, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2017 Feb 20;135:20-30.
    PMID: 27987392 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.12.010
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a popular medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine as a diuretic agent and for renal system disorders. This study employed 1H NMR based metabolomics approach to investigate the possible protective activity of OS in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity owing to its diuretic and antioxidant activities. Aqueous (OSAE) and 50% aqueous ethanolic (OSFE) extracts of OS leaves were orally administered at 400mg/kg BW doses to rats which were then intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin at 5mg/kg BW dose. The 1H NMR profile of the urine samples collected on day 5 after cisplatin administration were analyzed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, whereby 19 marker metabolites suggestive in the involvement of TCA cycle, disturbed energy metabolism, altered gut microflora and BCAA metabolism pathways were identified. It was observed that OSFE caused significant changes (p<0.05) in the levels of 8 markers namely leucine, acetate, hippurate, lysine, valine, 2-oxoglutarate, 3-HBT and acetoacetate resulting in a moderate ameliorative effect, however, it did not completely protect from nephrotoxicity. OSAE did not demonstrate significant down regulatory effects on any markers, albeit, it potentiated the cisplatin nephrotoxicity by inducing significant increase in glucose, glycine, creatinine, citrate, TMAO, acetate and creatine levels. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the 1H NMR spectra of OS extracts identified that OSFE had higher concentrations of the secondary metabolites such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and orthosiphol, among others. Whereas, OSAE was characterized by higher concentrations of acetate, lactate, succinic acid, valine and phosphatidylcholine. This research denotes the first comprehensive analysis to identify the effects of OS extracts on cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
  18. Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Che Man, Y.B., Shuhaimi, M., Rohman, A., Khatib, A., Amin, I.
    The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate butter from beef fat (BF) was investigated. The spectral bands associated with butter, BF, and their mixtures were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure butter and BF. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1500-1000 cm-1, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) are 0.999 and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with BF. Using 6 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 2.42% (v/v). These results proved that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration can be used for the detection and quantification of BF in butter formulation for authentication use.
  19. Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Arieff, S.R., Rohman, A., Amin, I., Shuhaimi, M., Khatib, A.
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is developed and used for detection of butter adulteration with lard. Butter has the similar characteristics to lard makes lard a desirable adulterant in butter. DSC provides unique thermal profiling for lard and butter. In the heating thermogram of the mixture, there was one major endothermic peak (peak A) with a smaller shoulder peak embedded in the major peak that gradually smoothed out to the major peak as the lard percent increased. In the cooling thermogram, there were one minor peak (peak B) and two major exothermic peaks, peak C which increased as lard percent increased and peak D which decreased in size as the lard percent increased. From Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) analysis, two independent variables were found to be able to predict lard percent adulteration in butter with R2 (adjusted) of 95.82. The SMLR equation of lard percent adulteration in butter is 293.1 - 11.36 (Te A) - 2.17 (Tr D); where Te A is the endset of peak A and Tr D is the range of thermal transition for peak D. These parameters can serve as a good measurement parameter in detecting lard adulteration in butter. DSC is a very useful means for halal screening technique to enhance the authenticity of Halal process.
  20. Murugesu, S., Khatib, A., Ibrahim, Z., Ahmed, Q. U., Uzir, B.F., Nik-Yusoff, N.I., et al.
    Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) is a local plant consumed as tisane in Indonesia and ‘ulam’ in Malaysia. This plant has been claimed for its ability to prevent many diseases including diabetes. However, the scientific proof on this claim is still lacking. Therefore, the present work study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential and antioxidant capacity of C. nutans leaves extracts using in vitro bioassay tests. The 80% methanolic crude extract of this plant was further partitioned using different polarity solvents namely hexane, hexane:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol. All the sub-fractions were analysed for antioxidant effect via 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) assays followed by antidiabetic evaluation via α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory assays and glucose uptake experiment. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a good antioxidant potential while the hexane fraction exhibited high α-glucosidase and DPP-IV enzyme inhibition. The hexane fraction also improved glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The present work thus provides an informative data on the potential of C. nutans to be developed as a functional food in preventing diabetes.
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