Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 54 in total

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  1. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Abu Bakar Sajak A, Mediani A, Maulidiani, Mohd Dom NS, Machap C, Hamid M, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2017 Dec 01;36:201-209.
    PMID: 29157816 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2017.10.011
    BACKGROUND: Ipomoea aquatica (locally known as "kangkung") has previously been reported to have hypoglycemic activities on glucose level in diabetes patients. However, the effect of I. aquatica ethanolic extract on the metabolites in the body has remained unknown.

    PURPOSE: This study provides new insights on the changes of endogenous metabolites caused by I. aquatica ethanolic extract and improves the understanding on the therapeutic efficacy and mechanism of I. aquatica ethanolic extract.

    METHODS: By using a combination of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with multivariate analysis (MVDA), the changes of metabolites due to I. aquatica ethanolic extract administration in obese diabetic-induced Sprague Dawley rats (OB+STZ+IA) were identified.

    RESULTS: The results suggested 19 potential biomarkers with variable importance projections (VIP) above 0.5, which include creatine/creatinine, glucose, creatinine, citrate, carnitine, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, hippurate, leucine, 1-methylnicotinamice (MNA), taurine, 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), tryptophan, lysine, trigonelline, allantoin, formiate, acetoacetate (AcAc) and dimethylamine. From the changes in the metabolites, the affected pathways and aspects of metabolism were identified.

    CONCLUSION: I. aquatica ethanolic extract increases metabolite levels such as creatinine/creatine, carnitine, MNA, trigonelline, leucine, lysine, 3-HB and decreases metabolite levels, including glucose and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates. This implies capabilities of I. aquatica ethanolic extract promoting glycolysis, gut microbiota and nicotinate/nicotinamide metabolism, improving the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and reducing the β-oxidation rate. However, the administration of I. aquatica ethanolic extract has several drawbacks, such as unimproved changes in amino acid metabolism, especially in reducing branched chain amino acid (BCAA) synthesis pathways and lipid metabolism.

  3. Murugesu, S., Khatib, A., Ibrahim, Z., Ahmed, Q. U., Uzir, B.F., Nik-Yusoff, N.I., et al.
    MyJurnal
    Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) is a local plant consumed as tisane in Indonesia and ‘ulam’ in Malaysia. This plant has been claimed for its ability to prevent many diseases including diabetes. However, the scientific proof on this claim is still lacking. Therefore, the present work study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential and antioxidant capacity of C. nutans leaves extracts using in vitro bioassay tests. The 80% methanolic crude extract of this plant was further partitioned using different polarity solvents namely hexane, hexane:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol. All the sub-fractions were analysed for antioxidant effect via 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) assays followed by antidiabetic evaluation via α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory assays and glucose uptake experiment. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a good antioxidant potential while the hexane fraction exhibited high α-glucosidase and DPP-IV enzyme inhibition. The hexane fraction also improved glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The present work thus provides an informative data on the potential of C. nutans to be developed as a functional food in preventing diabetes.
  4. Gooda Sahib Jambocus N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally MF, Abdul Hamid A
    J Diabetes Res, 2016;2016:2391592.
    PMID: 26798649 DOI: 10.1155/2016/2391592
    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.
  5. Gooda Sahib N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally F, Abdul Hamid A
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:436039.
    PMID: 22666121 DOI: 10.1100/2012/436039
    Obesity and obesity-related complications are on the increase both in the developed and developing world. Since existing pharmaceuticals fail to come up with long-term solutions to address this issue, there is an ever-pressing need to find and develop new drugs and alternatives. Natural products, particularly medicinal plants, are believed to harbor potential antiobesity agents that can act through various mechanisms either by preventing weight gain or promoting weight loss amongst others. The inhibition of key lipid and carbohydrate hydrolyzing and metabolizing enzymes, disruption of adipogenesis, and modulation of its factors or appetite suppression are some of the plethora of targeted approaches to probe the antiobesity potential of medicinal plants. A new technology such as metabolomics, which deals with the study of the whole metabolome, has been identified to be a promising technique to probe the progression of diseases, elucidate their pathologies, and assess the effects of natural health products on certain pathological conditions. This has been applied to drug research, bone health, and to a limited extent to obesity research. This paper thus endeavors to give an overview of those plants, which have been reported to have antiobesity effects and highlight the potential and relevance of metabolomics in obesity research.
  6. Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Che Man, Y.B., Shuhaimi, M., Rohman, A., Khatib, A., Amin, I.
    MyJurnal
    The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate butter from beef fat (BF) was investigated. The spectral bands associated with butter, BF, and their mixtures were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure butter and BF. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1500-1000 cm-1, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) are 0.999 and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with BF. Using 6 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 2.42% (v/v). These results proved that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration can be used for the detection and quantification of BF in butter formulation for authentication use.
  7. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Quzwain FMC, Che Mohamad CA, Wan Sulaiman WMA, Abdul Wahab R, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Apr 17;24(8).
    PMID: 30999617 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24081506
    A standard protocol to develop type 1 diabetes in zebrafish is still uncertain due to unpredictable factors. In this study, an optimized protocol was developed and used to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of Psychotria malayana leaf. The aims of this study were to develop a type 1 diabetic adult zebrafish model and to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of the plant extract on the developed model. The ability of streptozotocin and alloxan at a different dose to elevate the blood glucose levels in zebrafish was evaluated. While the anti-diabetic activity of P. malayana aqueous extract was evaluated through analysis of blood glucose and LC-MS analysis fingerprinting. The results indicated that a single intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg/kg alloxan was the optimal dose to elevate the fasting blood glucose in zebrafish. Furthermore, the plant extract at 1, 2, and 3 g/kg significantly reduced blood glucose levels in the diabetic zebrafish. In addition, LC-MS-based fingerprinting indicated that 3 g/kg plant extract more effective than other doses. Phytosterols, sugar alcohols, sugar acid, free fatty acids, cyclitols, phenolics, and alkaloid were detected in the extract using GC-MS. In conclusion, P. malayana leaf aqueous extract showed anti-diabetic activity on the developed type 1 diabetic zebrafish model.
  8. Benchoula K, Khatib A, Jaffar A, Ahmed QU, Sulaiman WMAW, Wahab RA, et al.
    Exp. Anim., 2019 May 21.
    PMID: 31118344 DOI: 10.1538/expanim.18-0168
    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster including hyperglycaemia, obesity, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridaemia as a result of biochemical and physiological alterations and can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Fundamental research on this disease requires validated animal models. One potential animal model that is rapidly gaining in popularity is zebrafish (Danio rerio). The use of zebrafish as an animal model conveys several advantages, including high human genetic homology, transparent embryos and larvae that allow easier visualization. This review discusses how zebrafish models contribute to the development of metabolic syndrome studies. Different diseases in the cluster of metabolic syndrome, such as hyperglycaemia, obesity, diabetes, and hypertriglyceridaemia, have been successfully studied using zebrafish; and the model is promising for hypertension and cardiovascular metabolic-related diseases due to its genetic similarity to mammals. Genetic mutation, chemical induction, and dietary alteration are among the tools used to improve zebrafish models. This field is expanding, and thus, more effective and efficient techniques are currently developed to fulfil the increasing demand for thorough investigations.
  9. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

  10. Sepahpour S, Selamat J, Khatib A, Manap MYA, Abdull Razis AF, Hajeb P
    PMID: 29913103 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2018.1488085
    Natural antioxidants in spices and herbs have attracted considerable attention as potential inhibitors against the formation of mutagenic heterocyclic amines (HCAs) in heat-processed meat. In this study, the inhibitory activity of four spices/herbs and their mixtures on HCAs formation in grilled beef were examined. A simplex centroid mixture design with four components comprising turmeric, curry leaf, torch ginger and lemon grass in 19 different proportions were applied on beef samples before grilling at 240 ºC for 10 min. The HCAs were extracted from the samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) method and analysed using Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry LC-MS/MS. All spices/herbs in single or mixture forms were found to reduce total HCA concentrations in marinated grilled beef ranging from 21.2% for beef marinated with curry leaf to 94.7% for the combination of turmeric and lemon grass (50:50 w/w). At the optimum marinade formula (turmeric: lemon grass 52.4%: 47.6%), concentration of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), Harman, Norharman and AαC were 2.2, 1.4, 0.5, 2.8 and 1.2 ng/g, respectively. The results of the mutagenic activity demonstrated that this optimised marinade formula significantly (p 
  11. Jambocus NGS, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally F, Saari N, Mumtaz MW, et al.
    Food Nutr Res, 2017;61(1):1338919.
    PMID: 28814950 DOI: 10.1080/16546628.2017.1338919
    Background: Morinda citrifolia L. is widely used as a folk medicinal food plant to manage a panoply of diseases, though no concrete reports on its potential anti-obesity activity. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of M. citrifolia leaf extracts (MLE60) in the prevention of weight gain in vivo and establish its phytochemical profile. Design: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups based on a normal diet (ND) or high fat diet (HFD), with or without MLE60 supplementation (150 and 350 mg/kg body weight) and assessed for any reduction in weight gain. Plasma leptin, insulin, adiponectin, and ghrelin of all groups were determined. (1)H NMR and LCMS methods were employed for phytochemical profiling of MLE60. Results: The supplementation of MLE60 did not affect food intake indicating that appetite suppression might not be the main anti-obesity mechanism involved. In the treated groups, MLE60 prevented weight gain, most likely through an inhibition of pancreatic and lipoprotein activity with a positive influence on the lipid profiles and a reduction in LDL levels . MLE60 also attenuated visceral fat deposition in treated subjects with improvement in the plasma levels of obesity-linked factors . (1)Spectral analysis showed the presence of several bioactive compounds with rutin being more predominant. Conclusion: MLE60 shows promise as an anti-obesity agents and warrants further research.
  12. Wan-Nadilah WA, Akhtar MT, Shaari K, Khatib A, Hamid AA, Hamid M
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Sep 05;19(1):245.
    PMID: 31488132 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2655-9
    BACKGROUND: Cosmos caudatus is an annual plant known for its medicinal value in treating several health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and diabetes mellitus. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the leaf aqueous ethanolic extracts of the plant at different growth stages (6, 8. 10, 12 and 14 weeks) were determined in an effort to ascertain the best time to harvest the plant for maximum medicinal quality with respect to its glucose-lowering effects.

    METHODS: The aqueous ethanolic leaf extracts of C. caudatus were characterized by NMR and LC-MS/MS. The total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity were evaluated by the Folin-Ciocalteu method and α-glucosidase inhibitory assay, respectively. The statistical significance of the results was evaluated using one-way ANOVA with Duncan's post hoc test, and correlation among the different activities was performed by Pearson's correlation test. NMR spectroscopy along with multivariate data analysis was used to identify the metabolites correlated with total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of the C. caudatus leaf extracts.

    RESULTS: It was found that the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and total phenolic content of the optimized ethanol:water (80:20) leaf extract of the plant increased significantly as the plant matured, reaching a maximum at the 10th week. The IC50 value for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (39.18 μg mL- 1) at the 10th week showed greater potency than the positive standard, quercetin (110.50 μg mL- 1). Through an 1H NMR-based metabolomics approach, the 10-week-old samples were shown to be correlated with a high total phenolic content and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. From the partial least squares biplot, rutin and flavonoid glycosides, consisting of quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, quercetin 3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and quercetin 3-O-xyloside, were identified as the major bioactive metabolites. The metabolites were identified by NMR spectroscopy (J-resolve, HSQC and HMBC experiments) and further supported by dereplication via LC-MS/MS.

    CONCLUSION: For high phytomedicinal quality, the 10th week is recommended as the best time to harvest C. caudatus leaves with respect to its glucose lowering potential.

  13. Wan-Nadilah, W.A., Khatib, A., Khozirah, S., Hamid, A.A., Hamid, M.
    MyJurnal
    Plants constitute a major ingredient in traditional or folk medicine. The therapeutic claims made on the use of these traditional medicinal plants range from simple conditions such as fevers and migraines, to more complex diseases such as cancer, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus. The aqueous ethanolic extracts of five medicinal plant species; Cosmos caudatus, Leucaena leucocephala, Momordica charantia, Pereskia bleo and Averrhoa bilimbi were assessed for glucose lowering effect via the in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition assay. Their antioxidant potential, represented by their DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic contents were also measured. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was recorded for the leaf extract of C. caudatus with IC50 of 21.90 ± 3.60 μg/mL, followed by L. leucocephala with IC50 value of 30.80 ± 2.50 μg/mL. Momordica charantia, P. bleo and A. bilimbi did not show any significant inhibition of α-glucosidase. Meanwhile C. caudatus also gave the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 272.46 ± 8.98 μg/mL, and the highest total phenolic content with a value of 0.263 ± 0.02 g GAE/g DW. The present work provides a priority list of interesting plants for further study with respect to the treatment of diabetes.
  14. Pariyani R, Ismail IS, Azam A, Khatib A, Abas F, Shaari K, et al.
    J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2017 Feb 20;135:20-30.
    PMID: 27987392 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpba.2016.12.010
    Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) is a popular medicinal herb used in traditional Chinese medicine as a diuretic agent and for renal system disorders. This study employed 1H NMR based metabolomics approach to investigate the possible protective activity of OS in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity owing to its diuretic and antioxidant activities. Aqueous (OSAE) and 50% aqueous ethanolic (OSFE) extracts of OS leaves were orally administered at 400mg/kg BW doses to rats which were then intraperitoneally injected with cisplatin at 5mg/kg BW dose. The 1H NMR profile of the urine samples collected on day 5 after cisplatin administration were analyzed by multivariate pattern recognition techniques, whereby 19 marker metabolites suggestive in the involvement of TCA cycle, disturbed energy metabolism, altered gut microflora and BCAA metabolism pathways were identified. It was observed that OSFE caused significant changes (p<0.05) in the levels of 8 markers namely leucine, acetate, hippurate, lysine, valine, 2-oxoglutarate, 3-HBT and acetoacetate resulting in a moderate ameliorative effect, however, it did not completely protect from nephrotoxicity. OSAE did not demonstrate significant down regulatory effects on any markers, albeit, it potentiated the cisplatin nephrotoxicity by inducing significant increase in glucose, glycine, creatinine, citrate, TMAO, acetate and creatine levels. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the 1H NMR spectra of OS extracts identified that OSFE had higher concentrations of the secondary metabolites such as caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid and orthosiphol, among others. Whereas, OSAE was characterized by higher concentrations of acetate, lactate, succinic acid, valine and phosphatidylcholine. This research denotes the first comprehensive analysis to identify the effects of OS extracts on cisplatin nephrotoxicity.
  15. Razali MTA, Zainal ZA, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Zamri Z, Mohd Idrus MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 28;23(9).
    PMID: 30154302 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160
    The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
  16. Lye, Y.L., Afsah-Hejri, L., Chang, W.S., Loo, Y.Y., Puspanadan, S., Kuan, C.H., et al.
    MyJurnal
    E. coli O157:H7 is associated with life threatening diseases such as hemorrhagic colitis (HC), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). Raw milk is considered a high risk food as it is highly nutritious and serves as an ideal medium for bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk samples. MPN-PCR method targeting the major virulence rfbE gene and fliCH7gene of E. coli O157:H7 was used. Total of 177 raw milk samples were collected from local dairy farms in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The highest prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was found in raw cow milk (18.75%). E. coli O157:H7 was detected in 7.32% and 3.57% of raw goat and buffalo milk, respectively. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in raw cow, goat and buffalo milk ranged from
  17. Javadi N, Abas F, Abd Hamid A, Simoh S, Shaari K, Ismail IS, et al.
    J. Food Sci., 2014 Jun;79(6):C1130-6.
    PMID: 24888400 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12491
    Cosmos caudatus, which is known as "Ulam Raja," is an herbal plant used in Malaysia to enhance vitality. This study focused on the evaluation of the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of different ethanolic extracts of C. caudatus. Six series of samples extracted with water, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% ethanol (EtOH) were employed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) analysis was used to correlate bioactivity of different extracts to different metabolite profiles of C. caudatus. The obtained OPLS scores indicated a distinct and remarkable separation into 6 clusters, which were indicative of the 6 different ethanol concentrations. GC-MS can be integrated with multivariate data analysis to identify compounds that inhibit α-glucosidase activity. In addition, catechin, α-linolenic acid, α-D-glucopyranoside, and vitamin E compounds were identified and indicate the potential α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of this herb.
  18. Mediani A, Abas F, Tan CP, Khatib A
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2014 May 07;3(2):358-70.
    PMID: 26784876 DOI: 10.3390/antiox3020358
    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
  19. Lim PK, Jinap S, Sanny M, Tan CP, Khatib A
    J. Food Sci., 2014 Jan;79(1):T115-21.
    PMID: 24344977 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12250
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected.
  20. Fadzlillah NA, Rohman A, Ismail A, Mustafa S, Khatib A
    J Oleo Sci, 2013;62(8):555-62.
    PMID: 23985484
    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.
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