AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was aimed to reveal three different PBs' aqueous extracts(viz. PB-A, PB-B, PB-C) chemical constituent's profile using GC-MS analysis, anticancer property on A375, HeLa and MCF7 cancer cells, toxicity profile on zebrafish embryo morphology, EC50, LC50 and teratogenicity index.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PBs' extracts characterization was performed through GC-MS analysis, in vitro anticancer effect was carried out on A375, HeLa and MCF7 cancer cell lines and finally and toxicity properties on three different PBs aqueous extracts (viz. PB-A, PB-B, PB-C) were determined using zebrafish embryo model.
RESULTS: The GC-MS analysis revealed 10 similar compounds in all PBs' extracts. Dilauryl thiodipropionate was found to be a major compound in all PBs' extracts followed by tetradecanoic acid. An in vitro anticancer study revealed PB extracts exerted median inhibition concentration (IC50) <50 μg/mL, on cancer cells viz. A375, HeLa and MCF7 with no significant toxicity on normal cells viz. NHDF cells. In vivo toxicity of PBs extracts found affecting tail detachment, hatching, craniofacial, brain morphology, soft tissues, edema, spinal, somites, notochord and cardiovascular system (brachycardia, disruption of blood circulation) deformities. The LC50 and EC50 demonstrated PB extracts effect as dose and time dependent with median concentration <150.0 μg/mL. Additionally, teratogenicity index (TI) viz. >1.0 revealed teratogenic property for PB extracts.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings revealed that all three PBs aqueous extracts possessed anticancer activity and exhibited significant toxicological effects on zebrafish embryos with high teratogenicity index. Hence, its use as an anticancer agent requires further investigation and medical attentions to determine its safe dose.
AIM OF THE STUDY: (1) To identify some of the medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith textbooks of the period 700-1500 AD; (2) to compare them with presently used traditional medicines; (3) to evaluate their value based on modern research; and (4) to investigate the contributions of Islamic scholars to the development of the scientific branches, particularly medicine.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was performed relating to 12 medicinal plants mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Ahadith using textbooks, Al-Azhar scholars, published articles, the plant list website (http://www.theplantlist.org/), the medicinal plant names services website (http://mpns.kew.org/mpns-portal/) and web databases (PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The Islamic Golden Age was a step towards modern medicine, with unique insights and multi-disciplinary aspects. Traditional Islamic Medicine has had a significant impact on the development of various medical, scientific and educational activities. Innumerable Muslim and non-Muslim physicians have built on the strong foundation of Traditional Islamic Medicine by translating the described natural remedies and effects. The influences of different ancient cultures on the traditional uses of natural products were also documented in Islamic Scriptures in the last part of the second millennium. The divine teachings of Islam combine natural and practical healing and incorporate inherited science and technology.
CONCLUSION: In this review, we discuss Traditional Islamic Medicine with reference to both medical recommendations mentioned in the Holy Qur'ân and Prophetic Traditional Medicine (al-Tibb al-Nabawi). Although the molecular mechanisms and functions of some of the listed medicinal plants and their derivatives have been intensively studied, some traditional remedies have yet to be translated into clinical applications.
METHODS: Four different solvent extracts of OS, namely aqueous, ethanolic, 50% aqueous ethanolic and methanolic, at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight (bw) were orally administered for 14 days to diabetic rats induced via intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg bw STZ. NMR metabolomics approach using pattern recognition combined with multivariate statistical analysis was applied in the rat urine to study the resulted metabolic perturbations.
RESULTS: OS aqueous extract (OSAE) caused a reversal of DM comparable to that of 10 mg/kg bw glibenclamide. A total of 15 urinary metabolites, which levels changed significantly upon treatment were identified as the biomarkers of OSAE in diabetes. A systematic metabolic pathways analysis identified that OSAE contributed to the antidiabetic activity mainly through regulating the tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, lipid and amino acid metabolism.
CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study validated the ethnopharmacological use of OS in diabetes and unveiled the biochemical and metabolic mechanisms involved.