Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 60 in total

  1. Shamsudin S, Selamat J, Sanny M, A R SB, Jambari NN, Khatib A
    Molecules, 2019 Oct 29;24(21).
    PMID: 31671885 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24213898
    Stingless bee honey produced by Heterotrigona itama from different botanical origins was characterised and discriminated. Three types of stingless bee honey collected from acacia, gelam, and starfruit nectars were analyzed and compared with Apis mellifera honey. The results showed that stingless bee honey samples from the three different botanical origins were significantly different in terms of their moisture content, pH, free acidity, total soluble solids, colour characteristics, sugar content, amino acid content and antioxidant properties. Stingless bee honey was significantly different from Apis mellifera honey in terms of physicochemical and antioxidant properties. The amino acid content was further used in the chemometrics analysis to evaluate the role of amino acid in discriminating honey according to botanical origin. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) revealed that the stingless bee honey was completely distinguishable from Apis mellifera honey. Notably, a clear distinction between the stingless bee honey types was also observed. The specific amino acids involved in the distinction of honey were cysteine for acacia and gelam, phenylalanine and 3-hydroxyproline for starfruit, and proline for Apismellifera honey. The results showed that all honey samples were successfully classified based on amino acid content.
  2. Nipun TS, Khatib A, Ahmed QU, Redzwan IE, Ibrahim Z, Khan AYF, et al.
    Molecules, 2020 Sep 11;25(18).
    PMID: 32932994 DOI: 10.3390/molecules25184161
    The plant Psychotria malayana Jack belongs to the Rubiaceae family and is known in Malaysia as "meroyan sakat/salung". A rapid analytical technique to facilitate the evaluation of the P. malayana leaves' quality has not been well-established yet. This work aimed therefore to develop a validated analytical technique in order to predict the alpha-glucosidase inhibitory action (AGI) of P. malayana leaves, applying a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprint and utilizing an orthogonal partial least square (OPLS). The dried leaf extracts were prepared by sonication of different ratios of methanol-water solvent (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% v/v) prior to the assessment of alpha-glucosidase inhibition (AGI) and the following infrared spectroscopy. The correlation between the biological activity and the spectral data was evaluated using multivariate data analysis (MVDA). The 100% methanol extract possessed the highest inhibitory activity against the alpha-glucosidase (IC50 2.83 ± 0.32 μg/mL). Different bioactive functional groups, including hydroxyl (O-H), alkenyl (C=C), methylene (C-H), carbonyl (C=O), and secondary amine (N-H) groups, were detected by the multivariate analysis. These functional groups actively induced the alpha-glucosidase inhibition effect. This finding demonstrated the spectrum profile of the FTIR for the natural herb P. malayana Jack, further confirming its medicinal value. The developed validated model can be used to predict the AGI of P. malayana, which will be useful as a tool in the plant's quality control.
  3. Zahra MH, Salem TAR, El-Aarag B, Yosri N, El-Ghlban S, Zaki K, et al.
    Molecules, 2019 Jul 08;24(13).
    PMID: 31288458 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24132495
    BACKGROUND/AIM: Plants play an important role in anti-cancer drug discovery, therefore, the current study aimed to evaluate the biological activity of Alpinia zerumbet (A. zerumbet) flowers.

    METHODS: The phytochemical and biological criteria of A. zerumbet were in vitro investigated as well as in mouse xenograft model.

    RESULTS: A. zerumbet extracts, specially CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts, exhibited the highest potent anti-tumor activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. The most active CH2Cl2 extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation leading to isolatation of the naturally occurring 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) which was characterized by IR, MS, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. A. zerumbet extracts, specially MeOH and CH2Cl2 extracts, exhibited significant inhibitory activity towards tumor volume (TV). Furthermore, A. zerumbet extracts declined the high level of malonaldehyde (MDA) as well as elevated the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in liver tissue homogenate. Moreover, DK showed anti-proliferative action on different human cancer cell lines. The recorded IC50 values against breast carcinoma (MCF-7), liver carcinoma (Hep-G2) and larynx carcinoma cells (HEP-2) were 3.08, 6.8, and 8.7 µg/mL, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings open the door for further investigations in order to explore the potential medicinal properties of A. zerumbet.

  4. Gooda Sahib Jambocus N, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally MF, Abdul Hamid A
    J Diabetes Res, 2016;2016:2391592.
    PMID: 26798649 DOI: 10.1155/2016/2391592
    The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, with high fat diet (HFD) as one of the main contributing factors. Obesity increases the predisposition to other diseases such as diabetes through various metabolic pathways. Limited availability of antiobesity drugs and the popularity of complementary medicine have encouraged research in finding phytochemical strategies to this multifaceted disease. HFD induced obese Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with an extract of Morinda citrifolia L. leaves (MLE 60). After 9 weeks of treatment, positive effects were observed on adiposity, fecal fat content, plasma lipids, and insulin and leptin levels. The inducement of obesity and treatment with MLE 60 on metabolic alterations were then further elucidated using a (1)H NMR based metabolomics approach. Discriminating metabolites involved were products of various metabolic pathways, including glucose metabolism and TCA cycle (lactate, 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, pyruvate, and acetate), amino acid metabolism (alanine, 2-hydroxybutyrate), choline metabolism (betaine), creatinine metabolism (creatinine), and gut microbiome metabolism (hippurate, phenylacetylglycine, dimethylamine, and trigonelline). Treatment with MLE 60 resulted in significant improvement in the metabolic perturbations caused obesity as demonstrated by the proximity of the treated group to the normal group in the OPLS-DA score plot and the change in trajectory movement of the diseased group towards the healthy group upon treatment.
  5. Khan AYF, Ahmed QU, Narayanamurthy V, Razali S, Asuhaimi FA, Saleh MSM, et al.
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2019 Jun;114:108841.
    PMID: 30981106 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.108841
    Porcupine bezoar (PB) is a calcified undigested material generally found in porcupine's (Hystrix brachyura) gastrointestinal tract. The bezoar is traditionally used in South East Asia and Europe for the treatment of cancer, poisoning, dengue, typhoid, etc. However, limited scientific studies have been performed to verify its anticancer potential to substantiate its traditional claims in the treatment of cancers. Hence, this study was aimed at investigating the in vitro and in vivo anticancer properties of two grassy PB aqueous extract (PB-A and PB-B) using A375 cancer cell line and zebrafish model, respectively. This paper presents the first report on in vitro A375 cell viability assay, apoptosis assay, cell cycle arrest assay, migration assay, invasion assay, qPCR experimental assay and in vivo anti-angiogenesis assay using the grassy PBs. Experimental findings revealed IC50 value are 26.59 ± 1.37 μg/mL and 30.12 ± 3.25 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B respectively. PBs showed anti-proliferative activity with no significant cytotoxic effect on normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF). PBs were also found to induce apoptosis via intrinsic pathway and arrest cell cycle at G2/M phase. Additionally, the findings indicated its ability to debilitate migration and invasion of A375 cells. Further evaluation using embryo zebrafish model revealed LC50 = 450.0 ± 2.50 μg/mL and 58.7 ± 5.0 μg/mL for PB-A and PB-B which also exerted anti-angiogenesis effect in zebrafish. Moreover, stearic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid and pregnenolone were identified as possible metabolites that might contribute to the anticancer effect of the both PBs. Overall, this study demonstrated that PB-A and PB-B possess potential in vitro and in vivo anticancer effects which are elicited through selective cytotoxic effect, induction of apoptosis, inhibition of migration and invasion and anti-angiogenesis. This study provides scientific evidence that the porcupine bezoar do possess anti-cancer efficacy and further justifies its traditional utility. However, more experiments with higher vertebrae models are still warranted to validate its traditional claims as an anticancer agent.
  6. Murugesu, S., Khatib, A., Ibrahim, Z., Ahmed, Q. U., Uzir, B.F., Nik-Yusoff, N.I., et al.
    Clinacanthus nutans (Acanthaceae) is a local plant consumed as tisane in Indonesia and ‘ulam’ in Malaysia. This plant has been claimed for its ability to prevent many diseases including diabetes. However, the scientific proof on this claim is still lacking. Therefore, the present work study was designed to evaluate the antidiabetic potential and antioxidant capacity of C. nutans leaves extracts using in vitro bioassay tests. The 80% methanolic crude extract of this plant was further partitioned using different polarity solvents namely hexane, hexane:ethyl acetate (1:1, v/v), ethyl acetate, ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1, v/v), and methanol. All the sub-fractions were analysed for antioxidant effect via 2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferric reducing power (FRAP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) assays followed by antidiabetic evaluation via α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory assays and glucose uptake experiment. The ethyl acetate fraction showed a good antioxidant potential while the hexane fraction exhibited high α-glucosidase and DPP-IV enzyme inhibition. The hexane fraction also improved glucose uptake in a dose-dependent manner. The present work thus provides an informative data on the potential of C. nutans to be developed as a functional food in preventing diabetes.
  7. Sarian MN, Ahmed QU, Mat So'ad SZ, Alhassan AM, Murugesu S, Perumal V, et al.
    Biomed Res Int, 2017;2017:8386065.
    PMID: 29318154 DOI: 10.1155/2017/8386065
    The best described pharmacological property of flavonoids is their capacity to act as potent antioxidant that has been reported to play an important role in the alleviation of diabetes mellitus. Flavonoids biochemical properties are structure dependent; however, they are yet to be thoroughly understood. Hence, the main aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of some structurally related flavonoids to identify key positions responsible, their correlation, and the effect of methylation and acetylation on the same properties. Antioxidant potential was evaluated through dot blot, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, ABTS+ radical scavenging, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) assays. Antidiabetic effect was investigated through α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) assays. Results showed that the total number and the configuration of hydroxyl groups played an important role in regulating antioxidant and antidiabetic properties in scavenging DPPH radical, ABTS+ radical, and FRAP assays and improved both α-glucosidase and DPP-4 activities. Presence of C-2-C-3 double bond and C-4 ketonic group are two essential structural features in the bioactivity of flavonoids especially for antidiabetic property. Methylation and acetylation of hydroxyl groups were found to diminish the in vitro antioxidant and antidiabetic properties of the flavonoids.
  8. Ahmed QU, Alhassan AM, Khatib A, Shah SAA, Hasan MM, Sarian MN
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2018 Oct 08;7(10).
    PMID: 30297618 DOI: 10.3390/antiox7100137
    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiradical and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Averrhoa bilimbi leaves. Hence, crude methanolic leaves extract and its resultant fractions, namely hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol were evaluated for 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. The active constituents were tentatively identified through LC-QTOF-MS/MS and molecular docking approaches. The n-butanol fraction of A. bilimbi crude methanolic leaves extract displayed significant DPPH radical scavenging effect with IC50 (4.14 ± 0.21 μg/mL) (p < 0.05), as well as xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 (64.84 ± 3.93 μg/mL) (p < 0.05). Afzelechin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranoside and cucumerin A were tentatively identified as possible metabolites that contribute to the antioxidant activity of the n-butanol fraction.
  9. Fadzlillah NA, Rohman A, Ismail A, Mustafa S, Khatib A
    J Oleo Sci, 2013;62(8):555-62.
    PMID: 23985484
    In dairy product sector, butter is one of the potential sources of fat soluble vitamins, namely vitamin A, D, E, K; consequently, butter is taken into account as high valuable price from other dairy products. This fact has attracted unscrupulous market players to blind butter with other animal fats to gain economic profit. Animal fats like mutton fat (MF) are potential to be mixed with butter due to the similarity in terms of fatty acid composition. This study focused on the application of FTIR-ATR spectroscopy in conjunction with chemometrics for classification and quantification of MF as adulterant in butter. The FTIR spectral region of 3910-710 cm⁻¹ was used for classification between butter and butter blended with MF at various concentrations with the aid of discriminant analysis (DA). DA is able to classify butter and adulterated butter without any mistakenly grouped. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the frequency regions of 3910-710 cm⁻¹. The equation obtained for the relationship between actual value of MF and FTIR predicted values of MF in PLS calibration model was y = 0.998x + 1.033, with the values of coefficient of determination (R²) and root mean square error of calibration are 0.998 and 0.046% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with MF. Using 9 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 1.68% (v/v). The results showed that FTIR spectroscopy can be used for the classification and quantification of MF in butter formulation for verification purposes.
  10. Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Che Man, Y.B., Shuhaimi, M., Rohman, A., Khatib, A., Amin, I.
    The use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques to differentiate butter from beef fat (BF) was investigated. The spectral bands associated with butter, BF, and their mixtures were scanned, interpreted, and identified by relating them to those spectroscopically representative to pure butter and BF. For quantitative analysis, partial least square (PLS) regression was used to develop a calibration model at the selected fingerprint regions of 1500-1000 cm-1, with the values of coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) are 0.999 and 0.89% (v/v), respectively. The PLS calibration model was subsequently used for the prediction of independent samples containing butter in the binary mixtures with BF. Using 6 principal components, root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) is 2.42% (v/v). These results proved that FTIR spectroscopy in combination with multivariate calibration can be used for the detection and quantification of BF in butter formulation for authentication use.
  11. Shamloo, M., Bakar, J., Mat Hashim, D., Khatib, A.
    The amino-acid composition, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity, and peptide patterns of tilapia protein hydrolysates produced by the enzymatic hydrolysis of Alcalase (AH), Flavourzyme (FH) and Protamex (PH) for 5h using pH-stat method were studied. The ratio of essential amino acids to non-essential amino acids increased after hydrolysis in all samples; however, no significant differences among them were observed. AH had a highest (P < 0.05) DPPH radical-scavenging activity, but no significant difference in the DPPH between FH and PH was observed. SDS-PAGE patterns for all the hydrolysates showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the number and the intensity of the bands with increasing time of hydrolysis. Flavourzyme showed the lowest rate of hydrolytic activity towards the tilapia mince.
  12. Lubbe, A., Khatib, A., Yuliana, N.D., Jinap, S., Verpoorte, R.
    The whole plant extract of plant Sceletium tortuosum, plant native to South Africa, has been known
    traditionally to have mood enhancing and stimulant properties. These properties have been confirmed before by proving serotonin-uptake inhibition activity. A further confirmation by using CB1 receptor binding assay has been performed in this study. The unfermented alkaloid extract was proved to posses a higher activity to bind CB1 receptor compared to that of the fermented one. GC-MS analysis confirmed that unfermented alkoloid extract contain more alkaloids than the fermented one. The ethanol extract was also more active than the fermented one, suggesting that non-alkaloid compounds in this extract could posses this activity. An additional test to check wether this extract can improve cognitive function and memory was performed by acetylcholinesterase inhibitory assay. Both fermented and unfermented alkaloid extracts could inhibit acetylcholinesterase with IC50 being 0.303 mg/ml and 0.330 mg/ml, respectively. However, the major alkaloid in the extract, mesembrine, did not show inhibition of the enzyme. A TLC based test proved that other alkaloids in the extract were responsible to the activity.
  13. Murugesu S, Ibrahim Z, Ahmed QU, Nik Yusoff NI, Uzir BF, Perumal V, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Sep 19;23(9).
    PMID: 30235889 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092402
    BACKGROUND: Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) is an Acanthaceae herbal shrub traditionally consumed to treat various diseases including diabetes in Malaysia. This study was designed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of C. nutans leaves extracts, and to identify the metabolites responsible for the bioactivity.

    METHODS: Crude extract obtained from the dried leaves using 80% methanolic solution was further partitioned using different polarity solvents. The resultant extracts were investigated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory potential followed by metabolites profiling using the gas chromatography tandem with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

    RESULTS: Multivariate data analysis was developed by correlating the bioactivity, and GC-MS data generated a suitable partial least square (PLS) model resulting in 11 bioactive compounds, namely, palmitic acid, phytol, hexadecanoic acid (methyl ester), 1-monopalmitin, stigmast-5-ene, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, 1-linolenoylglycerol, glycerol monostearate, alpha-tocospiro B, and stigmasterol. In-silico study via molecular docking was carried out using the crystal structure Saccharomyces cerevisiae isomaltase (PDB code: 3A4A). Interactions between the inhibitors and the protein were predicted involving residues, namely LYS156, THR310, PRO312, LEU313, GLU411, and ASN415 with hydrogen bond, while PHE314 and ARG315 with hydrophobic bonding.

    CONCLUSION: The study provides informative data on the potential α-glucosidase inhibitors identified in C. nutans leaves, indicating the plant's therapeutic effect to manage hyperglycemia.

  14. Razali MTA, Zainal ZA, Maulidiani M, Shaari K, Zamri Z, Mohd Idrus MZ, et al.
    Molecules, 2018 Aug 28;23(9).
    PMID: 30154302 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23092160
    The official standard for quality control of honey is currently based on physicochemical properties. However, this method is time-consuming, cost intensive, and does not lead to information on the originality of honey. This study aims to classify raw stingless bee honeys by bee species origins as a potential classifier using the NMR-LCMS-based metabolomics approach. Raw stingless bee honeys were analysed and classified by bee species origins using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS) in combination with chemometrics tools. The honey samples were able to be classified into three different groups based on the bee species origins of Heterotrigona itama, Geniotrigona thoracica, and Tetrigona apicalis. d-Fructofuranose (H. itama honey), β-d-Glucose, d-Xylose, α-d-Glucose (G. thoracica honey), and l-Lactic acid, Acetic acid, l-Alanine (T. apicalis honey) ident d-Fructofuranose identified via ¹H-NMR data and the diagnostic ions of UHPLC-QTOF MS were characterized as the discriminant metabolites or putative chemical markers. It could be suggested that the quality of honey in terms of originality and purity can be rapidly determined using the classification technique by bee species origins via the ¹H-NMR- and UHPLC-QTOF MS-based metabolomics approach.
  15. Alam A, Ferdosh S, Ghafoor K, Hakim A, Juraimi AS, Khatib A, et al.
    Asian Pac J Trop Med, 2016 Apr;9(4):402-409.
    PMID: 27086161 DOI: 10.1016/j.apjtm.2016.03.011
    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau is known as snake grass belonging to the Acanthaceae family. This plant has diverse and potential medicinal uses in traditional herbal medicine for treating skin rashes, insects and snake bites, lesions caused by herpes simplex virus, diabetes, and gout in Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and China. Phytochemical investigations documented the varied contents of bioactive compounds from this plant namely flavonoids, glycosides, glycoglycerolipids, cerebrosides and monoacylmonogalatosylglycerol. The pharmacological experiment proved that various types of extracts and pure compounds from this species exhibited a broad range of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, and anti-diabetic activities. The findings of toxicity study showed that extracts from this plant did not show any toxicity thus it can be used as strong therapeutic agents for specific diseased conditions. However, further experiments on chemical components and their mode of action showing biological activities are required to elucidate the complete phytochemical profile and assess to confirm their suitability for future drugs. This review summarizes the medicinal uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of this plant in order to explore its therapeutic potential and gaps necessitating for prospected research work.
  16. Lee SY, Mediani A, Maulidiani M, Khatib A, Ismail IS, Zawawi N, et al.
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2018 Jan;98(1):240-252.
    PMID: 28580581 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.8462
    BACKGROUND: Neptunia oleracea is a plant consumed as a vegetable and which has been used as a folk remedy for several diseases. Herein, two regression models (partial least squares, PLS; and random forest, RF) in a metabolomics approach were compared and applied to the evaluation of the relationship between phenolics and bioactivities of N. oleracea. In addition, the effects of different extraction conditions on the phenolic constituents were assessed by pattern recognition analysis.

    RESULTS: Comparison of the PLS and RF showed that RF exhibited poorer generalization and hence poorer predictive performance. Both the regression coefficient of PLS and the variable importance of RF revealed that quercetin and kaempferol derivatives, caffeic acid and vitexin-2-O-rhamnoside were significant towards the tested bioactivities. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) results showed that sonication and absolute ethanol are the preferable extraction method and ethanol ratio, respectively, to produce N. oleracea extracts with high phenolic levels and therefore high DPPH scavenging and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

    CONCLUSION: Both PLS and RF are useful regression models in metabolomics studies. This work provides insight into the performance of different multivariate data analysis tools and the effects of different extraction conditions on the extraction of desired phenolics from plants. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Saleh MSM, Siddiqui MJ, Mat So'ad SZ, Roheem FO, Saidi-Besbes S, Khatib A
    Molecules, 2018 06 13;23(6).
    PMID: 29899270 DOI: 10.3390/molecules23061434
    Salak fruit (Salacca zalacca), commonly known as snake fruit, is used indigenously as food and for medicinal applications in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of salak fruit extracts in correlation to its Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) fingerprint, utilizing orthogonal partial least square. This calibration model was applied to develop a rapid analytical method tool for quality control of this fruit. A total of 36 extracts prepared with different solvent ratios of ethanol⁻water (100, 80, 60, 40.20, 0% v/v) and their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities determined. The FT-IR spectra of ethanol⁻water extracts measured in the region of 400 and 4000 cm−1 at a resolution of 4 cm−1. Multivariate analysis with a combination of orthogonal partial least-squares (OPLS) algorithm was used to correlate the bioactivity of the samples with the FT-IR spectral data. The OPLS biplot model identified several functional groups (C⁻H, C=O, C⁻N, N⁻H, C⁻O, and C=C) which actively induced α-glucosidase inhibitory activity.
  18. Mediani A, Abas F, Khatib A, Tan CP
    Molecules, 2013 Aug 29;18(9):10452-64.
    PMID: 23994970 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910452
    The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oven thermal processing of Cosmos caudatus on the total polyphenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH) of two different solvent extracts (80% methanol, and 80% ethanol). Sonication was used to extract bioactive compounds from this herb. The results showed that the optimised conditions for the oven drying method for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 44.5 °C for 4 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.045 mg/mL and 43.12 °C for 4.05 h with an IC₅₀ of 0.055 mg/mL, respectively. The predicted values for TPC under the optimised conditions for 80% methanol and 80% ethanol were 16.5 and 15.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that Cosmos caudatus can be used as a potential source of antioxidants for food and medicinal applications.
  19. Fadzillah NA, Man Yb, Rohman A, Rosman AS, Ismail A, Mustafa S, et al.
    J Oleo Sci, 2015;64(7):697-703.
    PMID: 25994556 DOI: 10.5650/jos.ess14255
    The authentication of food products from the presence of non-allowed components for certain religion like lard is very important. In this study, we used proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy for the analysis of butter adulterated with lard by simultaneously quantification of all proton bearing compounds, and consequently all relevant sample classes. Since the spectra obtained were too complex to be analyzed visually by the naked eyes, the classification of spectra was carried out.The multivariate calibration of partial least square (PLS) regression was used for modelling the relationship between actual value of lard and predicted value. The model yielded a highest regression coefficient (R(2)) of 0.998 and the lowest root mean square error calibration (RMSEC) of 0.0091% and root mean square error prediction (RMSEP) of 0.0090, respectively. Cross validation testing evaluates the predictive power of the model. PLS model was shown as good models as the intercept of R(2)Y and Q(2)Y were 0.0853 and -0.309, respectively.
  20. Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Arieff, S.R., Rohman, A., Amin, I., Shuhaimi, M., Khatib, A.
    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is developed and used for detection of butter adulteration with lard. Butter has the similar characteristics to lard makes lard a desirable adulterant in butter. DSC provides unique thermal profiling for lard and butter. In the heating thermogram of the mixture, there was one major endothermic peak (peak A) with a smaller shoulder peak embedded in the major peak that gradually smoothed out to the major peak as the lard percent increased. In the cooling thermogram, there were one minor peak (peak B) and two major exothermic peaks, peak C which increased as lard percent increased and peak D which decreased in size as the lard percent increased. From Stepwise Multiple Linear Regression (SMLR) analysis, two independent variables were found to be able to predict lard percent adulteration in butter with R2 (adjusted) of 95.82. The SMLR equation of lard percent adulteration in butter is 293.1 - 11.36 (Te A) - 2.17 (Tr D); where Te A is the endset of peak A and Tr D is the range of thermal transition for peak D. These parameters can serve as a good measurement parameter in detecting lard adulteration in butter. DSC is a very useful means for halal screening technique to enhance the authenticity of Halal process.
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