Fibre-rich manure derived from grass-fed cattle showed significantly higher intrinsic sorption efficiency on Cr(VI) solution as compared to corncob, sawdust and cogon grass. This observation could be attributed to the ligneous nature and rough surface morphology of the cattle manure. Four-factor, three-level, face-centred composite design (FCCD) suggested the process was greatly affected by initial pH of the solution, contact time and sorbent dosage (p50% adsorption efficiency. It is predicted that both physisorption and chemisorption are involved in the sorption process.
The ability to detect the presence of transgenes in crop-derived foods depends on the quantity and quality of DNA obtained from a product to be analyzed. The efficiency of DNA extraction protocols differs due to the nature of each food product. In this paper, we described two main DNA extraction protocols and their modifications that have been applied and evaluated for DNA extraction from raw and processed food as well as animal feed. The yield and quality for five categories of food and feed samples namely, raw soybean, raw maize, animal feed, smooth tofu and soymilk are discussed. The statistical interaction analyses showed that the cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method was proven to be the best method to extract DNA from raw soybean, maize and animal feed samples which not only obtained high DNA yield of 32.7, 28.4 and 33.4 ng DNA/mg sample respectively, but also produced high quality DNA with the absorbance A260/A280 ratio of 1.9, 1.9 and 2.0, respectively. These DNA were suitable for PCR amplification which produced a 164 bp DNA fragment of the lectin gene from soybean, and a 277 bp DNA fragment of the zein gene from maize. In the processed food category, the Wizard isolation method was found to be the best for the extraction of DNA from smooth tofu and soymilk with the yield of 13.2 and 3.4 ng DNA/mg sample, and the quality of the DNA at the absorbance A260/A280 ratio ranged from 1.9 to 1.7. These DNA were successfully amplified using primers specific to the lectin gene of soybean.
Food labeling in accordance with Novel Food Regulation has been enforced in the European Community since 1997 with a series of updated legislations namely, EC/258/97, EC/1139/98, EC/49/2000, EC/50/2000 and EC/1829/2003. Guidelines and labeling regulations for the use of GMOs materials in food and feed products has also been introduced in Malaysia and Vietnam. Therefore, the demand for the establishment and development of a robust and rapid operation procedure for GMO detection has increased recently in both countries. The procedure of GMO detection emphasizes not only on detection tests but also on confirmation assays. This study employed PCR technology for detection and direct DNA sequencing for confirmation procedures respectively. The results demonstrated for the first time the presence of GM plants with glyphosate-resistant trait led by the control of P35S promoter and NOS terminator in either Malaysian or Vietnamese feed with high frequency (20 positive samples out of 24 analyzed samples). The P35S promoter, EPSPS gene and NOS terminator sequences obtained showed some mutations on single-stranded and double-stranded targeted sequences caused by single nucleotide insertion or single nucleotide changes. These results reinforce the need for development of detection procedures to comply with food/feed labeling system.
Red-fleshed pitaya fruit is a potential fruit for betacyanins extraction. However, there is lack of report on profiles and total contents of betacyanins in the peel and flesh. The objectives of this study were to determine colour, total betacyanins content and its separation in the peel and flesh of red-fleshed pitaya fruit harvested at 25, 30 and 35 days after flower anthesis (DAA) and to examine the usefulness of tristimulus colour measurement as predictors of pigment content in red-fleshed pitaya fruits. There were significant relationships between DAA and colour (L*, C* and h° values), and total betacyanins contents of peel and flesh of red-fleshed pitaya fruit. A total of three types betacyanins were separated from peel and flesh of pitaya fruit at 30 and 35 DAA while for 25 DAA, only one type of betacyanins was separated. The total concentration of betacyanins in the fruit peel of 25, 30 and 35 DAA was 0.24, 3.99 and 8.72 mg/mL, respectively. The fruit flesh contains 2.40, 7.93 and 11.70 mg/mL betacyanins at 25, 30 and 35 DAA, respectively, which was higher than peel. The tristimulus measurements can be adequately used to estimate the total betacyanins content of peel and flesh of red-fleshed pitaya fruit instead of tedious pigment extraction methods.
In the present work, the physicochemical properties namely fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), acylglycerol content and thermal profiles of palm-based diacylglycerol (PDAG) in blend with soybean oil (SBO) at different concentrations (0-100 wt %) were evaluated. The Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra were determined at mid-infrared region to assign the functional groups. SBO exhibited the same absorption bands as PDAG except at wavelength of 1711, 1450, 1359, 850 and 779 cm-1. This phenomenon indicated that the absorption frequency of the binary mixtures greatly depended on the composition of oil samples. IV of the oil blends was found to decrease from 131.09 ± 0.88 I2/100 g to 51.55 ± 0.60 I2/100 g with increasing PDAG concentrations due to the reduced degree of unsaturation. Generally, binary blends with an increasing PDAG concentration showed a decrease in linoleic acid (C18:2) as well as increase in oleic acid (C18:1) and palmitic acid (C16:0) contents. The DAG content for all the blends increased from 5.15 ± 1.40% to 87.80 ± 0.33% and TAG content decreased from 94.85 ± 1.40% to 12.20 ± 0.33% in tandem with increasing PDAG content. Incorporation of PDAG into SBO significantly affected the crystallisation and melting profiles of SBO.
Fruit industries require convenient peeling method, especially during puree processing to prevent deterioration of fruit quality and product loss. Therefore, manual, chemical (sodium hydroxide/NaOH) and enzymatic (Pectinex Ultra SP-L) peeling methods were compared to determine the peeling efficiencies of ‘Chok Anan’ mangoes. The effect of different peeling parameters (concentrations [chemical peeling: 1.6-7.3% of 0.4M-1.83M; enzymatic peeling: 0.005-0.095%], temperatures [chemical peeling: 80-95oC; enzymatic peeling: 25-40°C], and duration of soaking [chemical peeling: 5-10 min; enzymatic peeling: 30-120 min]) were evaluated for peeling yield, peeling time, absorption of chemical and enzyme solution, the penetration depth of NaOH and enzyme activities (reducing sugar analysis). The enzymatic peeling had significantly (p0.05) in peeling yield (>86%), but there was significant (p
The primary objectives of this study were to process corncob into corncob powder (CCP)
and to apply CCP in the formulation of instant cereal beverage (ICB) in order to produce
high fibre ICB, and to investigate the physicochemical and sensory properties of the
corncob-based instant cereal beverage. Corncobs were sourced and washed thoroughly
before drying and grinding into CCP. CCP was then imparted into ICB formulation in
three different ratios (10, 20 and 30% w/w) to partially substitute corn flour in the
formulation. All four ICB samples including the commercial counterpart were analysed
for their physicochemical and sensory properties. The incorporation of CCP has affected
the viscosity, colour and sensory attributes significantly of the produced ICB. Higher
contents of CCP in the formulation was found to be responsible for less viscous and
browner effect compared to the commercial ICB samples. Formulation of ICB
incorporated with 30% w/w CCP had the highest mean scores (6.00, p
Several binary and ternary medium- and long-chain triacylglycerol (MLCT)-enriched margarine formulations were examined for their solid fat content, heating profile, polymorphism and textural properties. MLCT feedstock was produced through enzymatic esterification of capric and stearic acids with glycerol. The binary formulations were produced by mixing MLCT feedstock blend (40%–90%) and palm olein (10%–60%) with 10% increments (w/w). Solid fat profiles of commercial margarines were used as a reference to determine the suitability of the formulations for margarine production. The solid fat content of the binary formulations of MO 82 and MO 91 (M, MLCT, O, palm olein) were similar to the commercial margarines at 25°C which met the basic requirement for efficient dough consistency. Ternary formulations using reduced MLCT feedstock blend proportion (from 80%–90% to 60%–70%) were also developed. The reduction of MLCT feedstock blend was
done as it had the highest production cost (3USD/kg) in comparison to palm olein (0.77USD/kg) and palm stearin (0.7USD/kg). The proportions of 5%–15% of palm stearin were substituted with palm olein in MO 64 and MO 73 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein) formulations with 5% increment (w/w). As a result, MOS 702010 and MOS 603010 (M, MLCT; O, palm olein; S, palm stearin) margarine formulations showed similar SFC % to the commercial margarines at 25ºC. These formulations were subsequently chosen to produce margarines. The onset melting and complete melting points of MLCT-enriched margarine formulations were high (51.04ºC –57.93ºC) due to the presence of a high amount of long chain saturated fatty acids. Most of the formulations showed β΄- crystals. MOS 702010 was selected as the best formulation due to values for textural parameters comparable (P
Solvent-extracted Moringa oleifera seed oil was transesterified using immobilized lipase (Lipozyme IM 60) (Novozymes Bagsvaerd Denmark) at 1% (w/w) concentration, shaken at 60oC and 200 rpm for up to 24h. After transesterification, the oil was fractionated with acetone at -18oC and without acetone at 10oC to obtain two fractions, stearin and olein fractions. Incubation of the transesterified oil at 10oC for 24 h resulted in the formation of fat crystals, which settled at the bottom of the flask in sample transesterified for 24 h, while the control (0 h) sample became rather viscous with fat crystals in suspension. Transesterification resulted in a change in the triacylglycerol (TAG) profile of the oil, which in turn affected its solid fat content (SFC) and thermal behavior. The SFC value at 0oC after 24 h of reaction was 10.35% and significantly (P