Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 21 in total

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  1. Toh GT, Kang P, Lee SS, Lee DS, Lee SY, Selamat S, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2008;3(4):e2024.
    PMID: 18431501 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0002024
    BACKGROUND: In Asia, breast cancer is characterised by an early age of onset: In Malaysia, approximately 50% of cases occur in women under the age of 50 years. A proportion of these cases may be attributable, at least in part, to genetic components, but to date, the contribution of genetic components to breast cancer in many of Malaysia's ethnic groups has not been well-characterised.
    METHODOLOGY: Given that hereditary breast carcinoma is primarily due to germline mutations in one of two breast cancer susceptibility genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2, we have characterised the spectrum of BRCA mutations in a cohort of 37 individuals with early-onset disease (
  2. Tang LP, Lee SS, Zeng NK, Cai Q, Zhang P, Yang ZL
    Mycologia, 2017 12 04;109(4):557-567.
    PMID: 29200380 DOI: 10.1080/00275514.2017.1394789
    Some Amanita specimens collected from Malaysia are critically investigated by morphological examination and molecular analysis of two gene fragments, the nuc rDNA partial 28S (28S) gene and the internal transcriber spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) regions. Six phylogenetic species of Amanita section Caesareae are recognized among the studied collections. One of them is described as new, A. malayensis. Four of the phylogenetic species correspond with existing morphology-based taxa: A. aporema, A. javanica, A. princeps, and A. similis. The remaining species is not described because of the paucity of material. Detailed descriptions and the distribution of these southeastern Asian species are provided, along with a key to the species of section Caesareae from Malaysia.
  3. Sun C, Molineros JE, Looger LL, Zhou XJ, Kim K, Okada Y, et al.
    Nat. Genet., 2016 Mar;48(3):323-30.
    PMID: 26808113 DOI: 10.1038/ng.3496
    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has a strong but incompletely understood genetic architecture. We conducted an association study with replication in 4,478 SLE cases and 12,656 controls from six East Asian cohorts to identify new SLE susceptibility loci and better localize known loci. We identified ten new loci and confirmed 20 known loci with genome-wide significance. Among the new loci, the most significant locus was GTF2IRD1-GTF2I at 7q11.23 (rs73366469, Pmeta = 3.75 × 10(-117), odds ratio (OR) = 2.38), followed by DEF6, IL12B, TCF7, TERT, CD226, PCNXL3, RASGRP1, SYNGR1 and SIGLEC6. We identified the most likely functional variants at each locus by analyzing epigenetic marks and gene expression data. Ten candidate variants are known to alter gene expression in cis or in trans. Enrichment analysis highlights the importance of these loci in B cell and T cell biology. The new loci, together with previously known loci, increase the explained heritability of SLE to 24%. The new loci share functional and ontological characteristics with previously reported loci and are possible drug targets for SLE therapeutics.
  4. Sharmini AT, Yin NY, Lee SS, Jackson AL, Stewart WC
    J Ocul Pharmacol Ther, 2009 Feb;25(1):71-5.
    PMID: 19232007 DOI: 10.1089/jop.2008.0061
    The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors for progression in chronic angle-closure glaucoma (CACG) patients.
  5. Pushparajah V, Fatima A, Chong CH, Gambule TZ, Chan CJ, Ng ST, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2016 07 27;6:30010.
    PMID: 27460640 DOI: 10.1038/srep30010
    Lignosus rhinocerotis (Tiger milk mushroom) is an important folk medicine for indigenous peoples in Southeast Asia. We previously reported its de novo assembled 34.3 Mb genome encoding a repertoire of proteins including a putative bioactive fungal immunomodulatory protein. Here we report the cDNA of this new member (FIP-Lrh) with a homology range of 54-64% to FIPs from other mushroom species, the closest is with FIP-glu (LZ-8) (64%) from Ganoderma lucidum. The FIP-Lrh of 112 amino acids (12.59 kDa) has a relatively hydrophobic N-terminal. Its predicted 3-dimensional model has identical folding patterns to FIP-fve and contains a partially conserved and more positively charged carbohydrates binding pocket. Docking predictions of FIP-Lrh on 14 glycans commonly found on cellular surfaces showed the best binding energy of -3.98 kcal/mol to N-acetylgalactosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Overexpression of a 14.9 kDa soluble 6xHisFIP-Lrh was achieved in pET-28a(+)/BL21 and the purified recombinant protein was sequence verified by LC-MS/MS (QTOF) analysis. The ability to haemagglutinate both mouse and human blood at concentration ≥0.34 μM, further demonstrated its lectin nature. In addition, the cytotoxic effect of 6xHisFIP-Lrh on MCF-7, HeLa and A549 cancer cell lines was detected at IC50 of 0.34 μM, 0.58 μM and 0.60 μM, respectively.
  6. Noordin NM, Merican MI, Rahman HA, Lee SS, Ramly R
    Lancet, 2008 Sep 27;372(9644):1149-50.
    PMID: 18926274 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61479-8
  7. Naftalin CM, Wong NS, Chan DP, Wong KH, Reidpath DD, Lee SS
    Int J STD AIDS, 2015 Oct;26(11):803-9.
    PMID: 25281539 DOI: 10.1177/0956462414553826
    To explore the heterogeneity of CD4 responses following highly active antiretroviral therapy, the patterns of CD4 recovery of HIV-1-infected Chinese patients who have been on their first antiretroviral regimen for ≥5 years were analysed. The CD4 trajectories were traced, smoothed and differentiated into three defined profiles. Half (56.3%) were 'satisfactory responders', with CD4 gain of >100 cells/μL and a peak of >350 cells/μL, plateauing before the end of Year 5. Thirty-three (24.4%) were 'continuing responders' whose CD4 rise persisted at Year 4-5. The remaining 26 (19.3%) were 'poor responders'. Presentation with AIDS before therapy was common not just among 'poor' but also paradoxically the 'continuing' responders. While a majority had responded well to antiretroviral therapy, older patients and those with AIDS diagnosis before initiation of therapy may never achieve a satisfactory level even with effective treatment. Categorization of HIV patients by their CD4 trajectory may support the prediction of immunological outcome over time, and ultimately inform treatment choices.
  8. Molineros JE, Looger LL, Kim K, Okada Y, Terao C, Sun C, et al.
    PLoS Genet., 2019 Apr;15(4):e1008092.
    PMID: 31022184 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1008092
    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is a key genetic factor conferring risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but precise independent localization of HLA effects is extremely challenging. As a result, the contribution of specific HLA alleles and amino-acid residues to the overall risk of SLE and to risk of specific autoantibodies are far from completely understood. Here, we dissected (a) overall SLE association signals across HLA, (b) HLA-peptide interaction, and (c) residue-autoantibody association. Classical alleles, SNPs, and amino-acid residues of eight HLA genes were imputed across 4,915 SLE cases and 13,513 controls from Eastern Asia. We performed association followed by conditional analysis across HLA, assessing both overall SLE risk and risk of autoantibody production. DR15 alleles HLA-DRB1*15:01 (P = 1.4x10-27, odds ratio (OR) = 1.57) and HLA-DQB1*06:02 (P = 7.4x10-23, OR = 1.55) formed the most significant haplotype (OR = 2.33). Conditioned protein-residue signals were stronger than allele signals and mapped predominantly to HLA-DRB1 residue 13 (P = 2.2x10-75) and its proxy position 11 (P = 1.1x10-67), followed by HLA-DRB1-37 (P = 4.5x10-24). After conditioning on HLA-DRB1, novel associations at HLA-A-70 (P = 1.4x10-8), HLA-DPB1-35 (P = 9.0x10-16), HLA-DQB1-37 (P = 2.7x10-14), and HLA-B-9 (P = 6.5x10-15) emerged. Together, these seven residues increased the proportion of explained heritability due to HLA to 2.6%. Risk residues for both overall disease and hallmark autoantibodies (i.e., nRNP: DRB1-11, P = 2.0x10-14; DRB1-13, P = 2.9x10-13; DRB1-30, P = 3.9x10-14) localized to the peptide-binding groove of HLA-DRB1. Enrichment for specific amino-acid characteristics in the peptide-binding groove correlated with overall SLE risk and with autoantibody presence. Risk residues were in primarily negatively charged side-chains, in contrast with rheumatoid arthritis. We identified novel SLE signals in HLA Class I loci (HLA-A, HLA-B), and localized primary Class II signals to five residues in HLA-DRB1, HLA-DPB1, and HLA-DQB1. These findings provide insights about the mechanisms by which the risk residues interact with each other to produce autoantibodies and are involved in SLE pathophysiology.
  9. Lee SS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2016 02;71(1):30-1.
    PMID: 27130742
    This is a case report of spontaneous pneumomediastinum that occurred in a 19-year-old army trainee during his 2.4km run. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare disorder. It is usually precipitated by activities related to Valsalva manoeuvres such as strenuous physical activities, retching and vomiting. Treatment is expectant and the disorder usually resolves spontaneously within a few days. However, one must be aware of the disorder so that additional advice such as avoiding activities that involve Valsalva manoeuvres can be given.
  10. Lee SS, Tan NH, Fung SY, Sim SM, Tan CS, Ng ST
    PMID: 25256382 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-359
    The sclerotium of Lignosus rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) is used as a traditional medicine to relieve cough, asthma and chronic hepatitis. The traditional uses of the sclerotium are presumably related to its anti-inflammatory effect. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the sclerotial powder of L. rhinocerotis (Cooke) Ryvarden (Tiger Milk mushroom) cultivar TM02.
  11. Lee SS, Enchang FK, Tan NH, Fung SY, Pailoor J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2013 May 2;147(1):157-63.
    PMID: 23458920 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.02.027
    Lignosus rhinocerus (Tiger Milk mushroom) is distributed in South China, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and Papua New Guinea. In Malaysia, it is the most popular medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities to relieve fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. In China, this mushroom is an expensive traditional medicine used to treat liver cancer, chronic hepatitis and gastric ulcers. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. This rare mushroom has recently been successfully cultivated making it possible to be fully exploited for its medicinal and functional benefits. The present study was carried out to evaluate the chronic toxicity of the sclerotial powder of Lignosus rhinocerus cultivar (termed TM02), its anti-fertility and teratogenic effects as well as genotoxicity.
  12. Lee SS, Tan NH, Fung SY, Pailoor J, Sim SM
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2011 Oct 31;138(1):192-200.
    PMID: 21930194 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.004
    Lignosus rhinocerus (known locally as 'Tiger Milk mushroom') is the most important medicinal mushroom used by the indigenous communities of Malaysia to treat fever, cough, asthma, cancer, food poisoning and as a general tonic. The sclerotium of the mushroom is the part with medicinal value. Lignosus rhinocerus was hitherto unexploited commercially because of limited supply. Recently, the mushroom was successfully cultivated.
  13. Lee SS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1990 Sep;45(3):239-43.
    PMID: 2152086
    Six of 16 patients presenting to the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur with unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis were treated with teflon injection of the paralysed vocal cord. The results are presented and the role of surgical therapy, in particular teflon injection is reviewed.
  14. Lee SS, Tan NH, Pailoor J, Fung SY
    Front Pharmacol, 2017;8:594.
    PMID: 28919858 DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2017.00594
    Twenty-eight days subacute toxicity studies performed in rats using sclerotial powder of Lignosus cameronensis cultivar was conducted to assess its safety for consumption prior to other scientific investigations on its medicinal benefits, nutraceutical or pharmaceutical application of the mushroom. The study was conducted at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar (n = 5 for each respective dose, on both male and female groups) while control groups received only distilled water. At the end of the study (29th day), the animals were sacrificed followed by blood and organs collection for analysis. Subacute toxicity studies done shows that sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar at 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg did not induce treatment related changes on behavioral patterns, gross physical appearance, growth pattern, body weight gain, values of hematological and clinical biochemical panels as well as histopathological findings on kidney, spleen, heart, lung and liver of the experimental rats. The no-observed-adverse-effect level dose for sclerotial powder of L. cameronensis cultivar in 28-days sub-acute toxicity study is determined to be 1000 mg/kg.
  15. Lee SS, Cheah YK
    J Immunol Res, 2019;2019:3046379.
    PMID: 30944831 DOI: 10.1155/2019/3046379
    Cellular components of the tumour microenvironment (TME) are recognized to regulate the hallmarks of cancers including tumour proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis, as well as chemotherapeutic resistance. The linkage between miRNA, TME, and the development of the hallmarks of cancer makes miRNA-mediated regulation of TME a potential therapeutic strategy to complement current cancer therapies. Despite significant advances in cancer therapy, lung cancer remains the deadliest form of cancer among males in the world and has overtaken breast cancer as the most fatal cancer among females in more developed countries. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for NSCLC, which is the most common type of lung cancer. Hence, this review will focus on current literature pertaining to antitumour or protumourigenic effects elicited by nonmalignant stromal cells of TME in NSCLC through miRNA regulation as well as current status and future prospects of miRNAs as therapeutic agents or targets to regulate TME in NSCLC.
  16. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
  17. Fung SY, Lee SS, Tan NH, Pailoor J
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2017 Jul 12;206:236-244.
    PMID: 28587826 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2017.05.037
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Ophiocordyceps sinensis (Berk.) G.H. Sung, J.M. Sung, Hywel-Jones & Spatafora is one of the most renowned traditional Chinese medicine used as tonic, renal, respiratory and reproductive health, promote longevity and overall improvement in quality of life. Natural production of O. sinensis is limited due to its extreme specificity in host range and confined geographic distribution. Therefore, cultivation of the fungus was developed to meet high demand for commercialization as nutraceutical. O. sinensis fruiting body has recently been successfully cultivated in large scale using rice based solid medium, providing wider source options for consumers and scientific researchers.

    AIMS OF THE STUDY: The present study aims to establish safety profile for the consumption of cultivated fruiting body of O. sinensis (FBOS) by 28-days sub-acute toxicity study in Sprague Dawley rats.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were orally administered with cultivated FBOS at three graded doses (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg), once daily for 28 consecutive days. Control group received distilled water. General observations (gross behavioral changes and toxic symptoms) and body weight of each animal were monitored daily. Haematological, serum biochemical and histopathological analysis were carried out at the end of the experiment (Day 29).

    RESULTS: No behavioral changes, toxic symptoms or death was observed in rats throughout the dosing period. Cultivated FBOS treatment up to 1000mg/kg did not cause any adverse effect on the growth of the animals. Results from haematology and serum biochemistry revealed no toxic effect following cultivated FBOS treatment at three graded doses for 28 days. In addition, no treatment related histopathological changes were noted in heart, spleen, kidney, lung and liver of the animals.

    CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that oral administration of cultivated FBOS for 28 days, at dosage up to 1000mg/kg did not pose toxicological concern in rats. Therefore, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) dose of cultivated FBOS in 28-days subacute toxicity study is higher than 1000mg/kg.

  18. Fung SY, Tan NH, Kong BH, Lee SS, Tan YS, Sabaratnam V
    Int J Med Mushrooms, 2017;19(12):1093-1099.
    PMID: 29431070 DOI: 10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2017024550
    Amauroderma rugosum is a wild medicinal mushroom also known as budak cendawan sawan. Members of the indigenous Malaysian Temuan community wear the fresh stipes as a necklace to prevent epileptic seizure and unremitting crying by babies. In our previous studies, A. rugosum exhibited significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to determine the toxicity (in the event that a stipe is accidentally bitten) and cytotoxicity of this mushroom on Sprague-Dawley rats and selected cell lines. A. rugosum was orally administered to test chemicals according to Organisation for Economic and Co-operation and Development guidelines (TG 425, adopted October 3, 2008). Blood samples were hematologically and biochemically analyzed and multiple tissue sections from each organ were examined using light microscopy. Cytotoxicity of various A. rugosum extracts was also determined against MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines. Our results showed that oral administration of a single dose of mycelial powder (2000 mg/kg) had no adverse effect on the growth rate or hematological and clinical biochemical parameters. Histological studies showed that the treatments did not induce any pathological changes in the organs of the tested animals. All the treated rats survived beyond the 14-day observation period. Methanol and cold and hot water extracts of the freeze-dried mycelial culture of A. rugosum exhibited no or little cytotoxic effect against the MCF-7 and A-549 cell lines.
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