The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.
To provide a theoretical basis for sustainable land resource utilization and a reference for areas with similar natural conditions, an evaluation index for land-based ecological security was constructed based on the Driving force-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model and the improved analytic hierarchy process (IAHP) and entropy methods, and the land-based ecological security status of Xingtai city from 2006 to 2017 was evaluated. Then, the obstacles to land-based ecological security were diagnosed. The results show that the values of the comprehensive evaluation index of land-based ecological security were 0.28-0.66 in the period from 2006 to 2017. The value of the index of land-based ecological security was low in the first seven years and gradually improved in the last five years of the study period. However, the overall situation was grave, and the ecological security conditions were poor. The main obstacles to land-based ecological security were the usage of pesticides, investment in environmental pollution treatments, the degree of machine cultivation, the rate of cultivation and the usage of fertilizer in Xingtai city. Based on the results of the land-based ecological security evaluation and the main obstacles identified in Xingtai city, this paper proposes management strategies and suggestions for improving land-based ecological security in Xingtai city. The specific proposals are as follows: vigorously develop green agriculture, increase investment in environmental pollution control, increase input in science and technology, and strengthen supervision and management of land use.
Objective: Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancer types in China. Recent genomic sequencing analysis indicated the over-activation of Hippo/YAP signaling might play important roles for the carcinogenic process and progression for ESCC patients. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that controls Hippo signaling activity in ESCC. Our previous studies indicated that PLCE1-an important risk factor for ESCC-linked to ESCC progression through snail signaling, during this period, we found PARK2 was an important downstream target of PLCE1-snail axis. PARK2 was decreased in ESCC human samples, and correlated with good prognosis in ESCC patients. Further research showed that PARK2 could inhibit YAP, which functions as key downstream effectors of the Hippo pathway. Here, we aim to reveal the molecular mechanisms of PARK2 modulated Hippo pathway in ESCC. Methods: To evaluate the function of PARK2 in ESCC, we used a tissue microarray (TMA) of 223 human ESCC patients and immunohistochemistry to analyze the correlation between PARK2 expression and clinicopathologic variables. Depletion of endogenous PARK2 and YAP from ESCC cells using CRISPR/Cas9 technologies. Flow cytometry and EdU cell proliferation assay were used to detect proliferation of ESCC cells. Nude mice subcutaneous injection and Ki-67 staining were used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo. Migration and invasion assays were performed. In addition, lung metastasis models in mice were used to validate the function of PARK2 in vivo. Identification of PARK2 involved in hippo pathway was achieved by expression microarray screening, double immunofluorescence staining and co-immunoprecipitation assays. The RNA-seq analysis results were validated through quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis. The protein half-life of YAP was analyzed by Cycloheximide assay, and the TEAD activity was detected by Luciferase reporter assays. Results: Clinical sample of ESCC revealed that low PARK2 expression correlated with late tumor stage (P < 0.001), poor differentiation (P < 0.04), lymph node (P < 0.001) and distant metastasis (P = 0.0087). Multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis further revealed that PARK2 expression (P = 0.032) is an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of ESCC patients. Besides, the immunohistochemistry results showed that PARK2 negatively correlated with YAP protein level (P < 0.001). PARK2 depletion promotes ESCC progression both through Hippo/YAP axis, while PARK2 overexpression suppresses ESCC tumor progression by Hippo signaling. Co-IP and ubiquitination assays revealed that PARK2 could interact with YAP in the cytosol and promotes YAP K48-linked ubiquitination at K90 sites. Conclusion: Clinical sample analysis and mechanistic study have validated PARK2 as a tumor suppressor for ESCC. Multivariate Cox proportional regression analysis further revealed that PARK2 is an independent prognostic factor for the overall survival of ESCC patients. Cellular and molecular mechanisms in this study showed that PARK2 associated with YAP protein in the cytosol, promoted YAP ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation in ESCC cells. Therefore, as a novel modulator for Hippo signaling, modulation of PARK2 activity or gene expression level could be an appealing strategy to treat esophageal.
Multi-layer structure of functional materials often involves the integration of different crystalline phases. The film growth orientation thus frequently exhibits a transformation, owing to multiple possibilities caused by incompatible in-plane structural symmetry. Nevertheless, the detailed mechanism of the transformation has not yet been fully explored. Here we thoroughly probe the heteroepitaxially grown hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) films on cubic (001)-magnesium oxide (MgO) substrates using advanced scanning transition electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and first principles calculations, revealing two distinct interface models of (001) ZnO/(001) MgO and (100) ZnO/(001) MgO. We have found that the structure alternatives are controlled thermodynamically by the nucleation, while kinetically by the enhanced Zn adsorption and O diffusion upon the phase transformation. This work not only provides a guideline for the interface fabrication with distinct crystalline phases but also shows how polar and non-polar hexagonal ZnO films might be manipulated on the same cubic substrate.
Atmospheric deposition nitrogen (ADN) increases the N content in soil and subsequently impacts microbial activity of soil. However, the effects of ADN on paddy soil microbial activity have not been well characterized. In this study, we studied how red paddy soil microbial activity responses to different contents of ADN through a 10-months ADN simulation on well managed pot experiments. Results showed that all tested contents of ADN fluxes (27, 55, and 82kgNha-1 when its ratio of NH4+/NO3--N (RN) was 2:1) enhanced the soil enzyme activity and microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen and 27kgNha-1 ADN had maximum effects while comparing with the fertilizer treatment. Generally, increasing of both ADN flux and RN (1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 with the ADN flux of 55kgNha-1) had similar reduced effects on microbial activity. Furthermore, both ADN flux and RN significantly reduced soil bacterial alpha diversity (p<0.05) and altered bacterial community structure (e.g., the relative abundances of genera Dyella and Rhodoblastus affiliated to Proteobacteria increased). Redundancy analysis demonstrated that ADN flux and RN were the main drivers in shaping paddy soil bacteria community. Overall, the results have indicated that increasing ADN flux and ammonium reduced soil microbial activity and changed the soil bacterial community. The finding highlights how paddy soil microbial community response to ADN and provides information for N management in paddy soil.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EcM) associations are critical for host-tree performance. However, how mycorrhizal associations correlate with the latitudinal tree beta-diversity remains untested. Using a global dataset of 45 forest plots representing 2,804,270 trees across 3840 species, we test how AM and EcM trees contribute to total beta-diversity and its components (turnover and nestedness) of all trees. We find AM rather than EcM trees predominantly contribute to decreasing total beta-diversity and turnover and increasing nestedness with increasing latitude, probably because wide distributions of EcM trees do not generate strong compositional differences among localities. Environmental variables, especially temperature and precipitation, are strongly correlated with beta-diversity patterns for both AM trees and all trees rather than EcM trees. Results support our hypotheses that latitudinal beta-diversity patterns and environmental effects on these patterns are highly dependent on mycorrhizal types. Our findings highlight the importance of AM-dominated forests for conserving global forest biodiversity.
The synthesis of a pentacyclic indole compound corresponding to the core structure of the misassigned indole alkaloid, tronoharine (1), is presented. The key reactions were a formal [3 + 3] cycloaddition of an indol-2-yl carbinol with an azadiene for the construction of the 6/5/6/6 tetracyclic system containing an all-carbon quaternary center and an intramolecular substitution reaction of an amine and a triflate for the creation of the bridged azepine ring. In addition, some other interesting transformations discovered during the synthetic studies are also discussed.
Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are a chronic condition that can significantly reduce patients' quality of life. Therefore, this paper will review the roles of a low fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polypols (FODMAP) diet in treating IBS, particularly in an Asian setting. About 20% of the general population is diagnosed with IBS. However, there are limited effective medical therapies available for treating IBS. Therefore, IBS presents a major challenge to the health-care providers. Recently, there is an increasing interest in the use of a diet low in FODMAP for the treatment of IBS. A low FODMAP diet can decrease the delivery of readily fermentable substrates to the small intestine and colon, thereby improving functional gastrointestinal symptoms.
The popularmedicinal mushroomGanodermalucidum was often cultivated by the natural-log. Generally the short log after cultivation were discarded and became pollutant. Rapid and less destructive method of analysis technical by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Two-dimension Infrared (2DIR) correlation spectroscopy were selected to determine the composition changes of the logs after G.lucidum cultivation after first year to fifth year. The FTIR accumulated spectra formed without processed baseline showed the samples relied upon a sequenced increase of higher level than spectrum control Q (Q = Quercus acuttisima) from L + Q-5 (L = Lingzhi), L + Q-3, L + Q-1 to L + Q-2. The spectrum L + Q-4 has the optimum highest peak at box B, C and E from this lumped spectral view. The split spectra pinpointed on the fingerprint region of a sample begins from peak 1737 cm-1. ascribed C = O stretching vibration on acetyl and carboxyl hemicellulose group bonding gradually faded from L + Q-1 to L + Q-4 but appeared again on L + Q-5, possibly due to the degradation of hemicellulose. The absorption of peak around 1626 cm-1,1318 cm-1 and 781 cm-1 could be the characteristic absorption peak of calcium oxalate monohydrate. The correlation table indicated, most of the original structure of the building block of the wooden part was deteriorated and marked the lowest correlation value of the 4th year sample with control Q. The sudden changing pattern of 2nd derivative spectrum L + Q-3 to more flatten pattern spectrum L + Q-4 ascribed the changing contents of cellulose and hemicellulose included the lignin within one year during the G. lucidum cultivation. The 2DIR spectrum of the raw material sample precisely showed that the active site with red color was clustered with the area around 1800-1700 cm-1, 1450-800 cm-1 and 750-400 cm-1. In between, the range 1450-800 cm-1 was the most active cluster. Each of the sample showed the different sequence of autopeak comparison. This study has examined the impact of G. lucidum on the degradation of Q. acuttisima in term of their ecosystem life chain. The components of healthy Q. acuttisima wood including lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and calcium oxalate monohydrate underwent changes after different years of G. lucidum cultivation.
Food production and waste recycling are the two major issues faced globally with rapidly increasing population. Recycling organic wastes to crop amendments could be a possible solution to these issues. Earthworms transfer organic waste to compost, which is used to grow crops and increase crop productivity. This study assessed the impact of vermicompost produced from the residues of six desert plant species, i.e., (Ziziphus mauritiana, Aerva javanica, Calligonum comosum, Sacchrum benghalens, Calligonum polygonoides and Prosopis cineraria) combined with farmyard manure (5 t ha-1) on growth, yield and photosynthetic activity of maize crop. Earthworm species Eisenia fetida (Savigny, 1826) was used to prepare vermicomposting of all tested plant species. The desert species were collected from natural habitats, chopped, dried, mixed with FYM and then earthworms were released to prepare the vermicompost. The earthworms were excluded twenty days after release and resultant was considered as compost and used in the experiment. Results revealed that application of P. cineraria vermicompost resulted in the highest plant height (75.33 cm), stem diameter (22.66 mm), cob length (17.66 cm), number of grains/cob (374.67), 1000-grain weight (260.41 g) and grains yield (3.20 t/ha). Application of P. cineraria vermicompost resulted in the highest uptake of macronutrients, i.e., N (91.01%), P (22.07%), K (80.41%), micronutrients, i.e., Fe (19.07 ppm), Zn (40.05 ppm), and phenolic contents (150). Application of P. cineraria vermicompost also resulted in the highest quantum photosynthetic yield (0.42 mole C/mole of photon), chlorophyll florescence (355.18 moles of photon m-2s-1) and electron transport rate (310.18 micro mole m-2s-1). It is concluded that vermicomposting has the potential to improve growth and yield of maize crop. Particularly, application of vermicompost obtained from P. cineraria can be used to improve the growth and yield of maize crop. Nonetheless, field trials are necessary for a wide scale recommendation.
Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) is an important constraint in successful production of mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) in many countries, including Pakistan. The MYMV spreads by insect vector whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gennadius). The use of resistant cultivars is the most effective management tactics for MYMV. Twenty mungbean varieties/lines were screened against insect vector of MYMV under field condition in the current study. Resistance levels for varieties/lines were assessed through visual scoring of typical disease symptoms. Furthermore, the impacts of two insecticides 'Imidacloprid' and 'Thiamethoxam' and two plant extracts, i.e., neem (Azadirachta indica), and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) were tested on the suppression of whitefly. Field screening indicated that none of the tested varieties/lines proved immune/highly resistant, while significant variations were recorded among varieties/lines for resistance level. All varieties/lines were systemically infected with MYMV. The varieties 'AARI-2006' and 'Mung-14043' were considered as resistant to MYMV based on visual symptoms and the lowest vector population. These varieties were followed by 'NM-2006' and 'NL-31', which proved as moderately resistant to MYMV. All remaining varieties/lines were grouped as moderately to highly susceptible to MYMV based on visual symptoms' scoring. These results revealed that existing mungbean germplasm do not possess high resistance level MYMV. However, the lines showing higher resistance in the current study must be exploited in breeding programs for the development of resistant mungbean varieties/lines against MYMV. Imidacloprid proved as the most effective insecticide at all concentrations to manage whitefly population. Therefore, use of the varieties with higher resistance level and spraying Imidacloprid could lower the incidence of MYMV.
The most recent version of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of localised colon cancer was published in 2020. It was decided by both the ESMO and the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) to convene a special virtual guidelines meeting in March 2021 to adapt the ESMO 2020 guidelines to take into account the ethnic differences associated with the treatment of localised colon cancer in Asian patients. These guidelines represent the consensus opinions reached by experts in the treatment of patients with localised colon cancer representing the oncological societies of Japan (JSMO), China (CSCO), India (ISMPO), Korea (KSMO), Malaysia (MOS), Singapore (SSO) and Taiwan (TOS). The voting was based on scientific evidence and was independent of the current treatment practices and drug availability and reimbursement situations in the different Asian countries.
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) hold great promise in cardiac fibrosis therapy, due to their potential ability of inhibiting cardiac myofibroblast differentiation (a hallmark of cardiac fibrosis). However, the mechanism involved in their effects remains elusive. To explore this, it is necessary to develop an in vitro cardiac fibrosis model that incorporates pore size and native tissue-mimicking matrix stiffness, which may regulate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. In the present study, collagen coated polyacrylamide hydrogel substrates were fabricated, in which the pore size was adjusted without altering the matrix stiffness. Stiffness is shown to regulate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation independently of pore size. Substrate at a stiffness of 30 kPa, which mimics the stiffness of native fibrotic cardiac tissue, was found to induce cardiac myofibroblast differentiation to create in vitro cardiac fibrosis model. Conditioned medium of hMSCs was applied to the model to determine its role and inhibitory mechanism on cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. It was found that hMSCs secrete hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to inhibit cardiac myofibroblast differentiation via downregulation of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and upregulation of Smad7. These findings would aid in establishment of the therapeutic use of hMSCs in cardiac fibrosis therapy in future.
Cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, as one of the most important cellular responses to heart injury, plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling and failure. While biochemical cues for this have been extensively investigated, the role of mechanical cues, e.g., extracellular matrix stiffness and mechanical strain, has also been found to mediate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. Cardiac fibroblasts in vivo are typically subjected to a specific spatiotemporally changed mechanical microenvironment. When exposed to abnormal mechanical conditions (e.g., increased extracellular matrix stiffness or strain), cardiac fibroblasts can undergo myofibroblast differentiation. To date, the impact of mechanical cues on cardiac myofibroblast differentiation has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Most of the related in vitro research into this has been mainly undertaken in two-dimensional cell culture systems, although a few three-dimensional studies that exist revealed an important role of dimensionality. However, despite remarkable advances, the comprehensive mechanisms for mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation remain elusive. In this review, we introduce important parameters for evaluating cardiac myofibroblast differentiation and then discuss the development of both in vitro (two and three dimensional) and in vivo studies on mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. An understanding of the development of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation in response to changing mechanical microenvironment will underlie potential targets for future therapy of cardiac fibrosis and failure.
We examined the anti-influenza virus activity of tricin, 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone, against five viruses: A/Solomon islands/3/2006 (H1N1), A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2), A/California/07/2009 (H1N1pdm), A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1pdm) and B/Malaysia/2506/2004 strains in vitro and against A/PR/8/34 virus in vivo.
Sonic hedgehog (SHH) is a vertebrate homologue of the secreted Drosophila protein hedgehog and is expressed by the notochord and floor plate in the developing spinal cord. Sonic hedgehog provides signals relevant for positional information, cell proliferation and possibly cell survival, depending on the time and location of expression. Although the role of SHH in providing positional information in the neural tube has been experimentally proven, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this study, in ovo electroporation was employed in the chicken spinal cord during chicken embryo development. Electroporation was conducted at stage 17 (E2.5), after electroporation the embryos were continued incubating to stage 28 (E6) for sampling, tissue fixation with 4% paraformaldehyde and frozen sectioning. Sonic hedgehog and related protein expressions were detected by in situ hybridization and fluorescence immunohistochemistry and the results were analysed after microphotography. Our results indicate that the ectopic expression of SHH leads to ventralization in the spinal cord during chicken embryonic development by inducing abnormalities in the structure of the motor column and motor neuron integration. In addition, ectopic SHH expression inhibits the expression of dorsal transcription factors and commissural axon projections. The correct location of SHH expression is vital to the formation of the motor column. Ectopic expression of SHH in the spinal cord not only affects the positioning of motor neurons, but also induces abnormalities in the structure of the motor column. It leads to ventralization in the spinal cord, resulting in the formation of more ventral neurons forming during neuronal formation.
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is a promising prospect for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the underlying mechanisms by which MSCs mediate positive effects are still unclear. We speculated that MSCs mediate microglial autophagy and enhance the clearance of Aβ. To test this hypothesis, we cultured BV2 microglial cells with umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (ucMSCs-CM) in the presence or absence of Aβ25-35 oligomers. We investigated BV2 cell proliferation, cell death, and Aβ25-35 phagocytosis as well as protein expression levels of LC3, Beclin-1, p62, insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), and neprilysin (Nep) with western blotting. The results showed that ucMSCs-CM inhibited the proliferation and decreased cell death of BV2 cells induced by Aβ25-35. ucMSCs-CM also promoted the phagocytosis of Aβ25-35 by BV2 cells and changed the expression of autophagy-related proteins LC3, Beclin-1, and p62. Treatment also upregulated the expression of Aβ-degrading enzymes IDE and Nep. Furthermore, the culture medium in BV2 cells with Aβ25-35 and ucMSCs-CM prevented neuronal cell SH-SY5Y from cell death compared to control medium without ucMSCs-CM. Altogether, these data suggested that ucMSCs-CM protect microglial and neuronal cells from Aβ25-35-induced cell death and promote Aβ phagocytosis by modulating autophagy and enhancing the expression of Aβ-degrading enzymes in microglia.
Legumes provide an essential service to ecosystems by capturing nitrogen from the atmosphere and delivering it to the soil, where it may then be available to other plants. However, this facilitation by legumes has not been widely studied in global tropical forests. Demographic data from 11 large forest plots (16-60 ha) ranging from 5.25° S to 29.25° N latitude show that within forests, leguminous trees have a larger effect on neighbor diversity than non-legumes. Where soil nitrogen is high, most legume species have higher neighbor diversity than non-legumes. Where soil nitrogen is low, most legumes have lower neighbor diversity than non-legumes. No facilitation effect on neighbor basal area was observed in either high or low soil N conditions. The legume-soil nitrogen positive feedback that promotes tree diversity has both theoretical implications for understanding species coexistence in diverse forests, and practical implications for the utilization of legumes in forest restoration.
The current outbreak of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) poses unprecedented challenges to global health1. The new coronavirus responsible for this outbreak-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-shares high sequence identity to SARS-CoV and a bat coronavirus, RaTG132. Although bats may be the reservoir host for a variety of coronaviruses3,4, it remains unknown whether SARS-CoV-2 has additional host species. Here we show that a coronavirus, which we name pangolin-CoV, isolated from a Malayan pangolin has 100%, 98.6%, 97.8% and 90.7% amino acid identity with SARS-CoV-2 in the E, M, N and S proteins, respectively. In particular, the receptor-binding domain of the S protein of pangolin-CoV is almost identical to that of SARS-CoV-2, with one difference in a noncritical amino acid. Our comparative genomic analysis suggests that SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in the recombination of a virus similar to pangolin-CoV with one similar to RaTG13. Pangolin-CoV was detected in 17 out of the 25 Malayan pangolins that we analysed. Infected pangolins showed clinical signs and histological changes, and circulating antibodies against pangolin-CoV reacted with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. The isolation of a coronavirus from pangolins that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that these animals have the potential to act as an intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2. This newly identified coronavirus from pangolins-the most-trafficked mammal in the illegal wildlife trade-could represent a future threat to public health if wildlife trade is not effectively controlled.