METHODS: In this study, we searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang from inception to 21 November 2018 for studies reporting TM infection in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Our meta-analysis included studies investigating the prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA. Reviews, duplicate studies, and animal studies were excluded. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled prevalence, and meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore potential factors for heterogeneity.
RESULTS: 159,064 patients with HIV infection in 33 eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA was 3.6%. Vietnam had the highest prevalence (6.4%), followed by Thailand (3.9%), China (3.3%), India (3.2%) and Malaysia (2.1%). In China, TM infection was most prevalent in South China (15.0%), while the burden in Southwest China was not very heavy (0.3%). CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/mm3 contributed to the increased risk of TM infection in PLWHA (OR 12.68, 95%CI: 9.58-16.77). However, access to ART did not significantly decrease the risk of TM infection in PLWHA.
CONCLUSIONS: The burden of TM infection in Asia is heavy, and varies from region to region. PLWHA in lower latitude areas are more likely to suffer from TM infection. Optimization of diagnostic tools and universal screening for TM in vulnerable people to ensure early case detection and prompt antifungal treatment should be considered.
DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study.
SETTING: We used administrative claims data from April 2014 to March 2017.
PARTICIPANTS: We included 18 347 residents of Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, who received home care during the period, and aged ≥75 years with certified care needs of at least level 3. Participants were categorised based on home care facility use (ie, general clinics, Home Care Support Clinics/Hospitals (HCSCs), enhanced HCSCs with beds and enhanced HCSCs without beds).
PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We used generalised linear models (GLMs) to estimate care utilisation and the incidence of medical institutional death, as well as the potential influence of sex, age, care needs level and Charlson comorbidity index as risk factors.
RESULTS: The results of GLMs showed the inpatient days were 54.3, 69.9, 64.7 and 75.0 for users of enhanced HCSCs with beds, enhanced HCSCs without beds, HCSCs and general clinics, respectively. Correspondingly, the numbers of home care days were 63.8, 51.0, 57.8 and 29.0. Our multivariable logistic regression model estimated medical institutional death rate among participants who died during the study period (n=9919) was 2.32 times higher (p<0.001) for general clinic users than enhanced HCSCs with beds users (relative risks=1.69, p<0.001).
CONCLUSIONS: Participants who used enhanced HCSCs with beds had a relatively low inpatient utilisation, medical institutional deaths, and a high utilisation of home care and home-based end-of-life care. Findings suggest enhanced HCSCs with beds could reduce hospitalisation days and medical institutional deaths. Our study warrants further investigations of home care as part of community-based integrated care.