Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 210 in total

  1. Harreld JH, Mohammed N, Goldsberry G, Li X, Li Y, Boop F, et al.
    AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2015 May;36(5):993-9.
    PMID: 25614472 DOI: 10.3174/ajnr.A4221
    Postoperative intraspinal subdural collections in children after posterior fossa tumor resection may temporarily hinder metastasis detection by MR imaging or CSF analysis, potentially impacting therapy. We investigated the incidence, imaging and clinical features, predisposing factors, and time course of these collections after posterior fossa tumor resection.
  2. Usman A, Fun HK, Li Y, Xu JH
    Acta Crystallogr C, 2003 Jun;59(Pt 6):o308-10.
    PMID: 12794347
    9,10-Diphenyl-9,10-epidioxyanthracene, C(26)H(18)O(2), (I), was accidentally used in a photooxygenation reaction that produced 9,10-dihydro-10,10-dimethoxy-9-phenylanthracen-9-ol, C(22)H(20)O(3), (II). In both compounds, the phenyl rings are approximately orthogonal to the anthracene moiety. The conformation of the anthracene moiety differs as a result of substitution. Intramolecular C-H.O interactions in (I) form two approximately planar S(5) rings in each of the two crystallographically independent molecules. The packing of (I) and (II) consists of molecular dimers stabilized by C-H.O interactions and of molecular chains stabilized by O-H.O interactions, respectively.
  3. Ling W, Liew G, Li Y, Hao Y, Pan H, Wang H, et al.
    Adv. Mater. Weinheim, 2018 Jun;30(23):e1800917.
    PMID: 29633379 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201800917
    The combination of novel materials with flexible electronic technology may yield new concepts of flexible electronic devices that effectively detect various biological chemicals to facilitate understanding of biological processes and conduct health monitoring. This paper demonstrates single- or multichannel implantable flexible sensors that are surface modified with conductive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) such as copper-MOF and cobalt-MOF with large surface area, high porosity, and tunable catalysis capability. The sensors can monitor important nutriments such as ascorbicacid, glycine, l-tryptophan (l-Trp), and glucose with detection resolutions of 14.97, 0.71, 4.14, and 54.60 × 10-6 m, respectively. In addition, they offer sensing capability even under extreme deformation and complex surrounding environment with continuous monitoring capability for 20 d due to minimized use of biological active chemicals. Experiments using live cells and animals indicate that the MOF-modified sensors are biologically safe to cells, and can detect l-Trp in blood and interstitial fluid. This work represents the first effort in integrating MOFs with flexible sensors to achieve highly specific and sensitive implantable electrochemical detection and may inspire appearance of more flexible electronic devices with enhanced capability in sensing, energy storage, and catalysis using various properties of MOFs.
  4. Jamal A, Babazono A, Li Y, Yoshida S, Fujita T, Kim SA
    Am J Med Qual, 2021 5 20;36(5):345-354.
    PMID: 34010165 DOI: 10.1097/01.JMQ.0000735484.44163.ce
    The authors examined variations in hemodialysis care and quantified the effect of these variations on all-cause mortality. Insurance claims data from April 1, 2017 to March 30, 2018 were reviewed. In total, 2895 hospital patients were identified, among whom 398 died from various causes. Controlling effects of the facility and secondary medical care areas, all-cause mortality was associated with older age, heart failure, malignancy, cerebral stroke, severe comorbidity, and the first and ninth centile of physician density. Multilevel analyses indicated a significant variation at facility level (σ22 0.27, 95% confidence interval: 0.09-0.49). Inclusion of all covariates in the final model significantly reduced facility-level variance. Physician density emerged as an important factor affecting survival outcome; thus, a review of workforce and resource allocation policies is needed. Better clinical management and standardized work processes are necessary to attenuate differences in hospital practice patterns.
  5. Yong KW, Li Y, Huang G, Lu TJ, Safwani WK, Pingguan-Murphy B, et al.
    Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol, 2015 Aug 15;309(4):H532-42.
    PMID: 26092987 DOI: 10.1152/ajpheart.00299.2015
    Cardiac myofibroblast differentiation, as one of the most important cellular responses to heart injury, plays a critical role in cardiac remodeling and failure. While biochemical cues for this have been extensively investigated, the role of mechanical cues, e.g., extracellular matrix stiffness and mechanical strain, has also been found to mediate cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. Cardiac fibroblasts in vivo are typically subjected to a specific spatiotemporally changed mechanical microenvironment. When exposed to abnormal mechanical conditions (e.g., increased extracellular matrix stiffness or strain), cardiac fibroblasts can undergo myofibroblast differentiation. To date, the impact of mechanical cues on cardiac myofibroblast differentiation has been studied both in vitro and in vivo. Most of the related in vitro research into this has been mainly undertaken in two-dimensional cell culture systems, although a few three-dimensional studies that exist revealed an important role of dimensionality. However, despite remarkable advances, the comprehensive mechanisms for mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation remain elusive. In this review, we introduce important parameters for evaluating cardiac myofibroblast differentiation and then discuss the development of both in vitro (two and three dimensional) and in vivo studies on mechanoregulation of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation. An understanding of the development of cardiac myofibroblast differentiation in response to changing mechanical microenvironment will underlie potential targets for future therapy of cardiac fibrosis and failure.
  6. Yoshino T, Argilés G, Oki E, Martinelli E, Taniguchi H, Arnold D, et al.
    Ann Oncol, 2021 Aug 16.
    PMID: 34411693 DOI: 10.1016/j.annonc.2021.08.1752
    The most recent version of the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Clinical Practice Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of localised colon cancer was published in 2020. It was decided by both the ESMO and the Japanese Society of Medical Oncology (JSMO) to convene a special virtual guidelines meeting in March 2021 to adapt the ESMO 2020 guidelines to take into account the ethnic differences associated with the treatment of localised colon cancer in Asian patients. These guidelines represent the consensus opinions reached by experts in the treatment of patients with localised colon cancer representing the oncological societies of Japan (JSMO), China (CSCO), India (ISMPO), Korea (KSMO), Malaysia (MOS), Singapore (SSO) and Taiwan (TOS). The voting was based on scientific evidence and was independent of the current treatment practices and drug availability and reimbursement situations in the different Asian countries.
  7. Yazawa K, Kurokawa M, Obuchi M, Li Y, Yamada R, Sadanari H, et al.
    Antivir. Chem. Chemother., 2011;22(1):1-11.
    PMID: 21860068 DOI: 10.3851/IMP1782
    We examined the anti-influenza virus activity of tricin, 4',5,7-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyflavone, against five viruses: A/Solomon islands/3/2006 (H1N1), A/Hiroshima/52/2005 (H3N2), A/California/07/2009 (H1N1pdm), A/Narita/1/2009 (H1N1pdm) and B/Malaysia/2506/2004 strains in vitro and against A/PR/8/34 virus in vivo.
  8. Li Y, Yu P, Qu C, Li P, Li Y, Ma Z, et al.
    Antiviral Res, 2020 04;176:104743.
    PMID: 32057771 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104743
    Enteric viruses including hepatitis E virus (HEV), human norovirus (HuNV), and rotavirus are causing global health issues. The host interferon (IFN) response constitutes the first-line defense against viral infections. Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is an important cytoplasmic receptor sensing viral infection to trigger IFN production, and on the other hand it is also an IFN-stimulated gene (ISG). In this study, we investigated the effects and mode-of-action of MDA5 on the infection of enteric viruses. We found that MDA5 potently inhibited HEV, HuNV and rotavirus replication in multiple cell models. Overexpression of MDA5 induced transcription of important antiviral ISGs through IFN-like response, without triggering of functional IFN production. Interestingly, MDA5 activates the expression and phosphorylation of STAT1, which is a central component of the JAK-STAT cascade and a hallmark of antiviral IFN response. However, genetic silencing of STAT1 or pharmacological inhibition of the JAK-STAT cascade only partially attenuated the induction of ISG transcription and the antiviral function of MDA5. Thus, we have demonstrated that MDA5 effectively inhibits HEV, HuNV and rotavirus replication through provoking a non-canonical IFN-like response, which is partially dependent on JAK-STAT cascade.
  9. Barathan M, Gopal K, Mohamed R, Ellegård R, Saeidi A, Vadivelu J, et al.
    Apoptosis, 2015 Apr;20(4):466-80.
    PMID: 25577277 DOI: 10.1007/s10495-014-1084-y
    Persistent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection appears to trigger the onset of immune exhaustion to potentially assist viral persistence in the host, eventually leading to hepatocellular carcinoma. The role of HCV on the spontaneous expression of markers suggestive of immune exhaustion and spontaneous apoptosis in immune cells of chronic HCV (CHC) disease largely remain elusive. We investigated the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of CHC patients to determine the spontaneous recruitment of cellular reactive oxygen species (cROS), immunoregulatory and exhaustion markers relative to healthy controls. Using a commercial QuantiGenePlex(®) 2.0 assay, we determined the spontaneous expression profile of 80 different pro- and anti-apoptotic genes in persistent HCV disease. Onset of spontaneous apoptosis significantly correlated with the up-regulation of cROS, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), cyclooxygenase-2/prostaglandin H synthase (COX-2/PGHS), Foxp3, Dtx1, Blimp1, Lag3 and Cd160. Besides, spontaneous differential surface protein expression suggestive of T cell inhibition viz., TRAIL, TIM-3, PD-1 and BTLA on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CTLA-4 on CD4+ T cells was also evident. Increased up-regulation of Tnf, Tp73, Casp14, Tnfrsf11b, Bik and Birc8 was observed, whereas FasLG, Fas, Ripk2, Casp3, Dapk1, Tnfrsf21, and Cflar were moderately up-regulated in HCV-infected subjects. Our observation suggests the spontaneous onset of apoptosis signaling and T cell exhaustion in chronic HCV disease.
  10. Li Y, Qin T, Ingle T, Yan J, He W, Yin JJ, et al.
    Arch Toxicol, 2017 Jan;91(1):509-519.
    PMID: 27180073 DOI: 10.1007/s00204-016-1730-y
    In spite of many reports on the toxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), the mechanisms underlying the toxicity are far from clear. A key question is whether the observed toxicity comes from the silver ions (Ag(+)) released from the AgNPs or from the nanoparticles themselves. In this study, we explored the genotoxicity and the genotoxicity mechanisms of Ag(+) and AgNPs. Human TK6 cells were treated with 5 nM AgNPs or silver nitrate (AgNO3) to evaluate their genotoxicity and induction of oxidative stress. AgNPs and AgNO3 induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in a similar range of concentrations (1.00-1.75 µg/ml) when evaluated using the micronucleus assay, and both induced oxidative stress by measuring the gene expression and reactive oxygen species in the treated cells. Addition of N-acetylcysteine (NAC, an Ag(+) chelator) to the treatments significantly decreased genotoxicity of Ag(+), but not AgNPs, while addition of Trolox (a free radical scavenger) to the treatment efficiently decreased the genotoxicity of both agents. In addition, the Ag(+) released from the highest concentration of AgNPs used for the treatment was measured. Only 0.5 % of the AgNPs were ionized in the culture medium and the released silver ions were neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic at this concentration. Further analysis using electron spin resonance demonstrated that AgNPs produced hydroxyl radicals directly, while AgNO3 did not. These results indicated that although both AgNPs and Ag(+) can cause genotoxicity via oxidative stress, the mechanisms are different, and the nanoparticles, but not the released ions, mainly contribute to the genotoxicity of AgNPs.
  11. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
  12. Klionsky DJ, Abdel-Aziz AK, Abdelfatah S, Abdellatif M, Abdoli A, Abel S, et al.
    Autophagy, 2021 Jan;17(1):1-382.
    PMID: 33634751 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280
    In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
  13. Qin Y, Huang X, Chen H, Liu X, Li Y, Hou J, et al.
    BMC Infect Dis, 2020 Jul 29;20(1):551.
    PMID: 32727383 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-020-05260-8
    BACKGROUND: Talaromyces marneffei (TM) is a dimorphic fungus mainly prevalent in Southeast Asian countries, which often causes disseminated life-threatening infection. TM infection often occurs in HIV/AIDS patients even in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. However, there has as yet, not been a systematic analysis of the prevalence of TM infection in HIV-infected populations in Asia.

    METHODS: In this study, we searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and WanFang from inception to 21 November 2018 for studies reporting TM infection in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Our meta-analysis included studies investigating the prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA. Reviews, duplicate studies, and animal studies were excluded. A random effects model was used to estimate pooled prevalence, and meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore potential factors for heterogeneity.

    RESULTS: 159,064 patients with HIV infection in 33 eligible studies were included in our meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of TM infection in PLWHA was 3.6%. Vietnam had the highest prevalence (6.4%), followed by Thailand (3.9%), China (3.3%), India (3.2%) and Malaysia (2.1%). In China, TM infection was most prevalent in South China (15.0%), while the burden in Southwest China was not very heavy (0.3%). CD4+ T-cell counts below 200 cells/mm3 contributed to the increased risk of TM infection in PLWHA (OR 12.68, 95%CI: 9.58-16.77). However, access to ART did not significantly decrease the risk of TM infection in PLWHA.

    CONCLUSIONS: The burden of TM infection in Asia is heavy, and varies from region to region. PLWHA in lower latitude areas are more likely to suffer from TM infection. Optimization of diagnostic tools and universal screening for TM in vulnerable people to ensure early case detection and prompt antifungal treatment should be considered.

  14. Kim SA, Babazono A, Jamal A, Li Y, Liu N
    BMJ Open, 2021 04 14;11(4):e041964.
    PMID: 33853793 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041964
    OBJECTIVES: We compared the care services use and medical institutional deaths among older adults across four home care facility types.

    DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study.

    SETTING: We used administrative claims data from April 2014 to March 2017.

    PARTICIPANTS: We included 18 347 residents of Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan, who received home care during the period, and aged ≥75 years with certified care needs of at least level 3. Participants were categorised based on home care facility use (ie, general clinics, Home Care Support Clinics/Hospitals (HCSCs), enhanced HCSCs with beds and enhanced HCSCs without beds).

    PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: We used generalised linear models (GLMs) to estimate care utilisation and the incidence of medical institutional death, as well as the potential influence of sex, age, care needs level and Charlson comorbidity index as risk factors.

    RESULTS: The results of GLMs showed the inpatient days were 54.3, 69.9, 64.7 and 75.0 for users of enhanced HCSCs with beds, enhanced HCSCs without beds, HCSCs and general clinics, respectively. Correspondingly, the numbers of home care days were 63.8, 51.0, 57.8 and 29.0. Our multivariable logistic regression model estimated medical institutional death rate among participants who died during the study period (n=9919) was 2.32 times higher (p<0.001) for general clinic users than enhanced HCSCs with beds users (relative risks=1.69, p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Participants who used enhanced HCSCs with beds had a relatively low inpatient utilisation, medical institutional deaths, and a high utilisation of home care and home-based end-of-life care. Findings suggest enhanced HCSCs with beds could reduce hospitalisation days and medical institutional deaths. Our study warrants further investigations of home care as part of community-based integrated care.

  15. Tan FHP, Liu G, Lau SA, Jaafar MH, Park YH, Azzam G, et al.
    Benef Microbes, 2020 Feb 19;11(1):79-89.
    PMID: 32066253 DOI: 10.3920/BM2019.0086
    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive disease and one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative disorders. Emerging evidence is supporting the use of various strategies that modulate gut microbiota to exert neurological and psychological changes. This includes the utilisation of probiotics as a natural and dietary intervention for brain health. Here, we showed the potential AD-reversal effects of Lactobacillus probiotics through feeding to our Drosophila melanogaster AD model. The administration of Lactobacillus strains was able to rescue the rough eye phenotype (REP) seen in AD-induced Drosophila, with a more prominent effect observed upon the administration of Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 (DR7). Furthermore, we analysed the gut microbiota of the AD-induced Drosophila and found elevated levels of Wolbachia. The administration of DR7 restored the gut microbiota diversity of AD-induced Drosophila with a significant reduction in Wolbachia's relative abundance, accompanied by an increase of Stenotrophomonas and Acetobacter. Through functional predictive analyses, Wolbachia was predicted to be positively correlated with neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's, Huntington's and Alzheimer's diseases, while Stenotrophomonas was negatively correlated with these neurodegenerative disorders. Altogether, our data exhibited DR7's ability to ameliorate the AD effects in our AD-induced Drosophila. Thus, we propose that Wolbachia be used as a potential biomarker for AD.
  16. Hu L, Yu W, Li Y, Prasad N, Tang Z
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:341291.
    PMID: 24719856 DOI: 10.1155/2014/341291
    The antioxidant activities and protective effects of total phenolic extracts (TPE) and their major components from okra seeds on oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rat hepatocyte cell line were investigated. The major phenolic compounds were identified as quercetin 3-O-glucosyl (1 → 6) glucoside (QDG) and quercetin 3-O-glucoside (QG). TPE, QG, and QDG from okra seeds exhibited excellent reducing power and free radical scavenging capabilities including α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide anions, and hydroxyl radical. Overall, DPPH radical scavenging activity and reducing power of QG and QDG were higher than those of TPE while superoxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities of QG and TPE were higher than those of QDG. Furthermore, TPE, QG, and QDG pretreatments significantly alleviated the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes, with attenuated lipid peroxidation, increased SOD and CAT activities, and decreased GPT and GOT activities. The protective effects of TPE and QG on rat hepatocytes were stronger than those of QDG. However, the cytotoxicity of CCl4 on rat hepatocytes was not affected by TPE, QG, and QDG posttreatments. It was suggested that the protective effects of TPE, QG, and QDG on rat hepatocyte against oxidative stress were related to the direct antioxidant capabilities and the induced antioxidant enzymes activities.
  17. Guo S, Li Y, Li R, Zhang P, Wang Y, Gopinath SCB, et al.
    Biotechnol Appl Biochem, 2020 May;67(3):383-388.
    PMID: 31876964 DOI: 10.1002/bab.1877
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a serious, life-threatening vascular disease that presents as an enlarged area of the aorta, which is the main artery that carries blood away from the heart. AAA may occur at any location in the aorta, but it is mainly found in the abdominal region. A ruptured AAA causes serious health issues, including death. Traditional imaging techniques, such as computed tomography angiogram, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound sonography, have been used to identify AAAs. Circulating biomarkers have recently become attractive for diagnosing AAAs due to their cost-effectiveness compared to imaging. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), a secreted hormone vital for human atherosclerotic plaque stability, has been found to be an efficient biomarker for AAA identification. In this report, immunosensing was performed by using an InterDigitated electrode (IDE) sensor to detect circulating levels of IGF-1. The detection limit of IGF-1 was found to be 100 fM with this sensor. Moreover, related protein controls (IGF-2 and IGFBP3) were not detected with the same antibody, indicating selective IGF-1 detection. Thus, immunosensing by using an IDE sensor may help to effectively diagnose AAAs and represents a basic platform for further development.
  18. Wang W, Zhou F, Chang Y, Cui J, He D, Du J, et al.
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2020 Mar;104(3):380-385.
    PMID: 31932904 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-020-02786-0
    In this study, three soil amendments (inorganic, liming, or organic-inorganic materials) were used in a Cd-contaminated purple field soil to investigate their impacts on soil Cd availability, enzyme (urease, catalase, sucrase, and acid phosphatase) activities, microbial biomass (carbon/nitrogen) and type (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) in mustard and corn trials. Results showed that soil amendments generally decreased soil exchangeable Cd, fungi and bacterial populations while increasing the activities of all the four soil enzymes tested, microbial biomass carbon and populations of actinomycetes (p  0.05) whereas stronger effects appeared in soil organic matter and available nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium; p 
  19. Hung TH, Li YH, Tseng CP, Lan YW, Hsu SC, Chen YH, et al.
    Cancer Gene Ther., 2015 May;22(5):262-70.
    PMID: 25908454 DOI: 10.1038/cgt.2015.15
    Inappropriate c-MET signaling in cancer can enhance tumor cell proliferation, survival, motility, and invasion. Inhibition of c-MET signaling induces apoptosis in a variety of cancers. It has also been recognized as a novel anticancer therapy approach. Furthermore, reports have also indicated that constitutive expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) is involved in the HGF/c-MET-related pathway of multidrug resistance ABCB1-positive human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. We previously reported that elevated expression levels of PKCδ and AP-1 downstream genes, and HGF receptor (c-MET) and ABCB1, in the drug-resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells. Moreover, leukemia cell lines overexpressing ABCB1 have also been shown to be more resistant to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate. These findings suggest that chemoresistant cancer cells may also develop a similar mechanism against chemotherapy agents. To circumvent clinical complications arising from drug resistance during cancer therapy, the present study was designed to investigate apoptosis induction in ABCB1-overexpressed cancer cells using c-MET-targeted RNA interference technology in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that cell viability decreased and apoptosis rate increased in c-MET shRNA-transfected HGF/c-MET pathway-positive MES-SA/Dx5 and MCF-7/ADR2 cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo reduction of tumor volume in mice harboring c-MET shRNA-knockdown MES-SA/Dx5 cells was clearly demonstrated. Our study demonstrated that downregulation of c-MET by shRNA-induced apoptosis in a multidrug resistance cell line.
  20. Huang D, Li Y, Cui F, Chen J, Sun J
    Carbohydr Polym, 2016 Feb 10;137:701-708.
    PMID: 26686182 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2015.10.102
    A novel polysaccharide-peptide complex CNP-1-2 with molecular weight of 9.17 × 10(4) Da was obtained from Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves by hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and purification with Superdex 200 and DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow column chromatography. CNP-1-2 exhibited the highest growth inhibitory effect on human gastric cancer cells SGC-7901 with inhibition ratio of 92.34% and stimulated activation of macrophages with NO secretion level of 47.53 μmol/L among the polysaccharide fractions. CNP-1-2 comprised approximately 87.25% carbohydrate and 9.37% protein. Monosaccharide analysis suggested that CNP-1-2 was composed of L-rhamnose, l-arabinose, D-mannose, D-glucose and D-galactose with a molar ratio of 1.30:1.00:2.56:4.95:5.09. Methylation analysis, FT-IR, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy analysis revealed that CNP-1-2 might have a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked Glcp, 1,3-linked Glcp, 1,3-linked Manp, 1,4-linked Galp, 1,2,6-linked Galp and 1,2,6-linked Galp. Its side chain might be composed of 1-linked Araf, 1,6-linked Galp and 1-linked Rhap residues. AFM (atomic force micrograph) analysis revealed that CNP-1-2 had the molecular aggregation along with branched and entangled structure.
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