FINDINGS: In this study, we collected and tested 253 rectal swabs from pet dogs; of which 64 samples (25.3%) tested positive for AstVs with diarrhea and 15 more samples (5.9%) also was identified as AstVs, however without any clinical signs. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 partial ORF1b sequences from these samples revealed that they are similar to AstVs, which can be subdivided into three lineages. Interestingly, out of the 39 isolates sequenced, 16 isolates are shown to be in the Mamastrovirus 5/canine astrovirus (CAstV) lineage and the remaining 23 isolates displayed higher similarities with known porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) 5 and 2. Further, analysis of 13 capsid sequences from these isolates showed that they are closely clustered with Chinese or Italy CAstV isolates.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that CAstVs commonly circulate in pet dogs, and our sequencing results have shown the genomic diversity of CAstVs leading to increasing number of clusters.
METHOD: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus and Web of sciences were investigated to identify relevant articles up to June 2019. The search strategy combined the Medical Subject Heading and Title and/or abstract keywords. The combined effect sizes were calculated as weight mean difference (WMD) using the random-effects model. Between study heterogeneity was evaluated by the Cochran's Q test and I2.
RESULTS: Four RCTs studies investigated Carnosine use versus any control for at least 2 weeks were identified and analyzed. Overall results from the random-effects model on included studies, with 184 participants, indicated that carnosine intervention reduced HbA1C levels in intervention vs control groups (WMD: -0.92 %, 95 % CI: -1.20, -0.63, I2:69 %). Four studies, including a total of 183 participants, reported TG changes as an outcome measure variable, but combined results did not show significant reduction in this outcome (WMD: -14.46 mg/dl, 95 % CI: -29.11, 0.19, I2:94 %). Furthermore, combined results did not show any significant change in HOMA-IR, Cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, or HDL-C.
CONCLUSION: Carnosine supplementation results in a decrease in HbA1C, but elicits no effect on HOMA-IR, Cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, TG and HDL-C. Future studies with a larger sample sizes, varied doses of carnosine, and population-specific sub-groups are warranted to confirm, and enhance, the veracity of our findings.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of sulfonylurea therapy in Chinese NDM patients during infancy before genetic testing results were available.
METHODS: The medical records of NDM patients with their follow-up details were reviewed and molecular genetic analysis was performed. Sulfonylurea transfer regimens were applied in patients diagnosed after May 2010, and glycemic status and side effects were evaluated in each patient.
RESULTS: There were 23 NDM patients from 22 unrelated families, 10 had KCNJ11 mutations, 3 harbored ABCC8 mutations, 1 had INS mutations, 4 had chromosome 6q24 abnormalities, 1 had a deletion at chromosome 1p36.23p36.12, and 4 had no genetic abnormality identified. Sixteen NDM infants were treated with glyburide at an average age of 49 days (range 14-120 days) before genetic confirmation. A total of 11 of 16 (69%) were able to successfully switch to glyburide with a more stable glucose profile. The responsive glyburide dose was 0.51 ± 0.16 mg/kg/d (0.3-0.8 mg/kg/d), while the maintenance dose was 0.30 ± 0.07 mg/kg/d (0.2-0.4 mg/kg/d). No serious adverse events were reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genetic diagnosis is recommended in all patients with NDM. However, if genetic testing results are delayed, sulfonylurea therapy should be considered before such results are received, even in infants with newly diagnosed NDM.
Methods: Characterization of the synthesized AuNPs was done by different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectrum absorption, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.
Results: All the results showed the successful green synthesis of AuNPs from Sx, which induced apoptosis of C666-1 cell line (NPC cell line). There was a decline in both cell viability and colony formation in C666-1 cells upon treatment with Sx-AuNPs. The cell death was proved to be caused by autophagy and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.
Conclusion: Thus, due to their anticancer potential, these nanoparticles coupled with Sx can be used for in vivo applications and clinical research in future.