Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 30 in total

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  1. Klionsky DJ, Abdelmohsen K, Abe A, Abedin MJ, Abeliovich H, Acevedo Arozena A, et al.
    Autophagy, 2016;12(1):1-222.
    PMID: 26799652 DOI: 10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
  2. Bosch J, Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bruns NC, Lanius V, Yuan F, et al.
    Can J Cardiol, 2017 08;33(8):1027-1035.
    PMID: 28754388 DOI: 10.1016/j.cjca.2017.06.001
    BACKGROUND: Long-term aspirin prevents vascular events but is only modestly effective. Rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin might be more effective than aspirin alone for vascular prevention in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or peripheral artery disease (PAD). Rivaroxaban as well as aspirin increase upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and this might be prevented by proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo.

    RESULTS: Between February 2013 and May 2016, we recruited 27,395 participants from 602 centres in 33 countries; 17,598 participants were included in the pantoprazole vs placebo comparison. At baseline, the mean age was 68.2 years, 22.0% were female, 90.6% had CAD, and 27.3% had PAD.

    CONCLUSIONS: COMPASS will provide information on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, alone or in combination with aspirin, in the long-term management of patients with stable CAD or PAD, and on the efficacy and safety of pantoprazole in preventing upper GI complications in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy.

  3. Liu L, Mi J, Wang Y, Zou Y, Ma B, Liao X, et al.
    Sci. Total Environ., 2018 Apr 01;619-620:1673-1681.
    PMID: 29056384 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.10.133
    Antibiotic residues in swine manure when entered the soil would most likely affect the complex composition and functions of the soil microbiome, which is also responsible for degrading these antibiotics. Three different methods of adding ciprofloxacin (CIP), a common antibiotic used in the swine industry, to the soil were used to investigate the effects of CIP on the soil microbiome and the degradation of CIP. Results of the study showed that the microbiome could promote the degradation of CIP in the soil when CIP was incorporated into the soil together with manure. However, the CIP degradation time was prolonged when adding the manure of swine fed with diet containing CIP in the soil. All treatments did not affect the copy number of the resistance genes, except for aac(6')-Ib-cr, as compared with the initial numbers of each treatment. MiSeq Illumina sequencing and Biolog-ECO microplates results showed that CIP had a significant effect on the abundance, structure, and function of the soil microbiome, but different addition methods resulted in distinct effects. Results of the present study demonstrated that the microbiome and fate of CIP responded differently to the different methods of adding CIP to the soil.
  4. Liu L, Chen J, Lim PE, Wei D
    Bioresour. Technol., 2018 May;255:140-148.
    PMID: 29414159 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.01.114
    The single cell oil (SCO) production by the mono and mixed culture of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and red yeast Rhodotorula glutinis was investigated using non-detoxified cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) as carbon source. The results suggested that the two strains were able to tolerate and even degrade some byproducts presented in the CBH, and the mixed culture approach enhanced the degradation of certain byproducts. Biomass (20.37 ± 0.38 g/L) and lipid yield (10.42 ± 1.21 g/L) of the mixed culture achieved in the batch culture were significantly higher than that of the mono-cultures (p L and 18.47 ± 3.25 g/L, respectively. The lipids mainly composed of oleic acid and palmitic acid, suggesting the potential applications such as biofuel feedstock, cosmetics, food additives and lubricant. This study provided new insights for the integration of the economical SCO production with agro-industrial waste disposal.
  5. Chen JH, Liu L, Lim PE, Wei D
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2019 Jul;42(7):1129-1142.
    PMID: 30919105 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-019-02110-z
    Microalgal lipid production by Chlorella protothecoides using sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate was investigated in this study. First, maximum glucose and reducing sugar concentrations of 15.2 and 27.0 g/L were obtained in sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (SCBH), and the effects of different percentages of glucose and xylose on algal cultivation were investigated. Afterwards, SCBH was used as a carbon source for the cultivation of C. protothecoides and higher biomass concentration of 10.7 g/L was achieved. Additionally, a large amount of fatty acids, accounting up to 16.8% of dry weight, were accumulated in C. protothecoides in the nitrogen-limited (0.1-1 mmol/L) culture. Although SCBH inhibited fatty acid accumulation to a certain degree and the inhibition was aggravated by nitrogen starvation, SCBH favored microalgal cell growth and fatty acid production. The present study is of significance for the integration of cost-effective feedstocks production for biodiesel with low-cost SCBH as well as environmentally friendly disposal of lignocellulosic wastes.
  6. Law ZK, Meretoja A, Engelter ST, Christensen H, Muresan EM, Glad SB, et al.
    Eur Stroke J, 2017 Mar;2(1):13-22.
    PMID: 31008298 DOI: 10.1177/2396987316676610
    Purpose: Haematoma expansion is a devastating complication of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) with no established treatment. Tranexamic acid had been an effective haemostatic agent in reducing post-operative and traumatic bleeding. We review current evidence examining the efficacy of tranexamic acid in improving clinical outcome after ICH.

    Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and clinical trial registers for studies using search strategies incorporating the terms 'intracerebral haemorrhage', 'tranexamic acid' and 'antifibrinolytic'. Authors of ongoing clinical trials were contacted for further details.

    Findings: We screened 268 publications and retrieved 17 articles after screening. Unpublished information from three ongoing clinical trials was obtained. We found five completed studies. Of these, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous tranexamic acid to placebo (n = 54) reported no significant difference in death or dependency. Three observational studies (n = 281) suggested less haematoma growth with rapid tranexamic acid infusion. There are six ongoing RCTs (n = 3089) with different clinical exclusions, imaging selection criteria (spot sign and haematoma volume), time window for recruitment and dosing of tranexamic acid.

    Discussion: Despite their heterogeneity, the ongoing trials will provide key evidence on the effects of tranexamic acid on ICH. There are uncertainties of whether patients with negative spot sign, large haematoma, intraventricular haemorrhage, or poor Glasgow Coma Scale should be recruited. The time window for optimal effect of haemostatic therapy in ICH is yet to be established.

    Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a promising haemostatic agent for ICH. We await the results of the trials before definite conclusions can be drawn.

  7. Wang HJ, Liu L, Li XF, Ye Q, Deng YQ, Qin ED, et al.
    J. Gen. Virol., 2016 07;97(7):1551-6.
    PMID: 27100268 DOI: 10.1099/jgv.0.000486
    Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV), a newly identified flavivirus, has rapidly spread to China, Malaysia and Thailand. The potential threats to public health have been well-highlighted; however its virulence and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, by using reverse genetics, a recombinant chimeric DTMUV based on Japanese encephalitis live vaccine strain SA14-14-2 was obtained by substituting the corresponding prM and E genes (named ChinDTMUV). In vitro characterization demonstrated that ChinDTMUV replicated efficiently in mammalian cells with small-plaque phenotype in comparison with its parental viruses. Mouse tests showed ChinDTMUV exhibited avirulent phenotype in terms of neuroinvasiveness, while it retained neurovirulence from its parental virus DTMUV. Furthermore, immunization with ChinDTMUV was evidenced to elicit robust IgG and neutralizing antibody responses in mice. Overall, we successfully developed a viable chimeric DTMUV, and these results provide a useful platform for further investigation of the pathogenesis of DTMUV and development of a live attenuated DTMUV vaccine candidate.
  8. Duong M, Islam S, Rangarajan S, Teo K, O'Byrne PM, Schünemann HJ, et al.
    Lancet Respir Med, 2013 Oct;1(8):599-609.
    PMID: 24461663 DOI: 10.1016/S2213-2600(13)70164-4
    BACKGROUND: Despite the rising burden of chronic respiratory diseases, global data for lung function are not available. We investigated global variation in lung function in healthy populations by region to establish whether regional factors contribute to lung function.

    METHODS: In an international, community-based prospective study, we enrolled individuals from communities in 17 countries between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2009 (except for in Karnataka, India, where enrolment began on Jan 1, 2003). Trained local staff obtained data from participants with interview-based questionnaires, measured weight and height, and recorded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC). We analysed data from participants 130-190 cm tall and aged 34-80 years who had a 5 pack-year smoking history or less, who were not affected by specified disorders and were not pregnant, and for whom we had at least two FEV₁ and FVC measurements that did not vary by more than 200 mL. We divided the countries into seven socioeconomic and geographical regions: south Asia (India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan), east Asia (China), southeast Asia (Malaysia), sub-Saharan Africa (South Africa and Zimbabwe), South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile), the Middle East (Iran, United Arab Emirates, and Turkey), and North America or Europe (Canada, Sweden, and Poland). Data were analysed with non-linear regression to model height, age, sex, and region.

    FINDINGS: 153,996 individuals were enrolled from 628 communities. Data from 38,517 asymptomatic, healthy non-smokers (25,614 women; 12,903 men) were analysed. For all regions, lung function increased with height non-linearly, decreased with age, and was proportionately higher in men than women. The quantitative effect of height, age, and sex on lung function differed by region. Compared with North America or Europe, FEV1 adjusted for height, age, and sex was 31·3% (95% CI 30·8-31·8%) lower in south Asia, 24·2% (23·5-24·9%) lower in southeast Asia, 12·8% (12·4-13·4%) lower in east Asia, 20·9% (19·9-22·0%) lower in sub-Saharan Africa, 5·7% (5·1-6·4%) lower in South America, and 11·2% (10·6-11·8%) lower in the Middle East. We recorded similar but larger differences in FVC. The differences were not accounted for by variation in weight, urban versus rural location, and education level between regions.

    INTERPRETATION: Lung function differs substantially between regions of the world. These large differences are not explained by factors investigated in this study; the contribution of socioeconomic, genetic, and environmental factors and their interactions with lung function and lung health need further clarification.

    FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).

  9. Yusuf S, Rangarajan S, Teo K, Islam S, Li W, Liu L, et al.
    N. Engl. J. Med., 2014 08 28;371(9):818-27.
    PMID: 25162888 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1311890
    BACKGROUND: More than 80% of deaths from cardiovascular disease are estimated to occur in low-income and middle-income countries, but the reasons are unknown.
    METHODS: We enrolled 156,424 persons from 628 urban and rural communities in 17 countries (3 high-income, 10 middle-income, and 4 low-income countries) and assessed their cardiovascular risk using the INTERHEART Risk Score, a validated score for quantifying risk-factor burden without the use of laboratory testing (with higher scores indicating greater risk-factor burden). Participants were followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death for a mean of 4.1 years.
    RESULTS: The mean INTERHEART Risk Score was highest in high-income countries, intermediate in middle-income countries, and lowest in low-income countries (P<0.001). However, the rates of major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure) were lower in high-income countries than in middle- and low-income countries (3.99 events per 1000 person-years vs. 5.38 and 6.43 events per 1000 person-years, respectively; P<0.001). Case fatality rates were also lowest in high-income countries (6.5%, 15.9%, and 17.3% in high-, middle-, and low-income countries, respectively; P=0.01). Urban communities had a higher risk-factor burden than rural communities but lower rates of cardiovascular events (4.83 vs. 6.25 events per 1000 person-years, P<0.001) and case fatality rates (13.52% vs. 17.25%, P<0.001). The use of preventive medications and revascularization procedures was significantly more common in high-income countries than in middle- or low-income countries (P<0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Although the risk-factor burden was lowest in low-income countries, the rates of major cardiovascular disease and death were substantially higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. The high burden of risk factors in high-income countries may have been mitigated by better control of risk factors and more frequent use of proven pharmacologic therapies and revascularization. (Funded by the Population Health Research Institute and others.).
    Note: Malaysia is a study site (Author: Yusoff K)
  10. Liu L, Han ZB, Wang SM, Yuan DQ, Ng SW
    Inorg Chem, 2015 Apr 20;54(8):3719-21.
    PMID: 25849722 DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b00185
    Herein, two stable lead(II) molecular-bowl-based metal-organic frameworks and their micro- and nanosized forms with open metal sites were presented. These materials could act as Lewis acid catalysts to cyanosilylation reaction. Moreover, the catalytic performances are size-dependent, with the catalyst with nanosized form being 1 order of magnitude more efficient than those with micro- and millisized forms.
  11. Zhang KJ, Liu L, Rong X, Zhang GH, Liu H, Liu YH
    Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal, 2016 11;27(6):4314-4315.
    PMID: 26462416
    We sequenced and annotated the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Bactrocera diaphora (Diptera: Tephtitidae), which is an economically important pest in the southwest area of China, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam and Malaysia. This mitogenome is 15 890 bp in length with an A + T content of 74.103%, and contains 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes that are arranged in the same order as that of the inferred ancestral insects. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with a typical ATN codon, except cox1 that begins with TCG. Ten PCGs stop with termination codon TAA or TAG, whereas cox1, nad1 and nad5 have single T-- as the incomplete stop codon. All of the transfer RNA genes present the typical clover leaf secondary structure except trnS1 (AGN) with a looping D-arm. The A + T-rich region is located between rrnS and trnI with a length of 946 bp, and contains a 20 bp poly-T stretch and 22 bp poly-A stretch. Except the control region, the longest intergenic spacer is located between trnR and trnN that is 94 bp long with an excessive high A + T content (95.74%) and a microsatellite-like region (TA)13.
  12. Li X, Xu A, Sheng H, Ting TH, Mao X, Huang X, et al.
    Pediatr Diabetes, 2018 03;19(2):251-258.
    PMID: 28791793 DOI: 10.1111/pedi.12560
    BACKGROUND: Sulfonylurea therapy can improve glycemic control and ameliorate neurodevelopmental outcomes in patients suffering from neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) with KCNJ11 or ABCC8 mutations. As genetic testing results are often delayed, it remains controversial whether sulfonylurea treatment should be attempted immediately at diagnosis or doctors should await genetic confirmation.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of sulfonylurea therapy in Chinese NDM patients during infancy before genetic testing results were available.

    METHODS: The medical records of NDM patients with their follow-up details were reviewed and molecular genetic analysis was performed. Sulfonylurea transfer regimens were applied in patients diagnosed after May 2010, and glycemic status and side effects were evaluated in each patient.

    RESULTS: There were 23 NDM patients from 22 unrelated families, 10 had KCNJ11 mutations, 3 harbored ABCC8 mutations, 1 had INS mutations, 4 had chromosome 6q24 abnormalities, 1 had a deletion at chromosome 1p36.23p36.12, and 4 had no genetic abnormality identified. Sixteen NDM infants were treated with glyburide at an average age of 49 days (range 14-120 days) before genetic confirmation. A total of 11 of 16 (69%) were able to successfully switch to glyburide with a more stable glucose profile. The responsive glyburide dose was 0.51 ± 0.16 mg/kg/d (0.3-0.8 mg/kg/d), while the maintenance dose was 0.30 ± 0.07 mg/kg/d (0.2-0.4 mg/kg/d). No serious adverse events were reported.

    CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genetic diagnosis is recommended in all patients with NDM. However, if genetic testing results are delayed, sulfonylurea therapy should be considered before such results are received, even in infants with newly diagnosed NDM.

  13. Li X, Ting TH, Sheng H, Liang CL, Shao Y, Jiang M, et al.
    BMC Pediatr, 2018 03 06;18(1):101.
    PMID: 29510678 DOI: 10.1186/s12887-018-1060-8
    BACKGROUND: There is scarcity of information on the clinical features and genetics of glucokinase-maturity-onset diabetes of the young (GCK-MODY) in China. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and molecular characteristics of Chinese children with GCK-MODY.

    METHODS: Eleven children with asymptomatic hyperglycemia and clinically suspected GCK-MODY were identified from the database of children with diabetes in the biggest children's hospital in South China. Clinical data were obtained from medical records. Blood was collected from the patients and their parents for glucokinase (GCK) gene analysis. Parents without diabetes were tested for fasting glucose and HbA1c. Clinical information and blood for GCK gene analysis were obtained from grandparents with diabetes. GCK gene mutational analysis was performed by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Patients without a GCK gene mutation were screened by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology for other MODY genes.

    RESULTS: Nine children tested positive for GCK gene mutations while two were negative. The nine GCK-MODY patients were from unrelated families, aged 1 month to 9 years and 1 month at first detection of hyperglycaemia. Fasting glucose was elevated (6.1-8.5 mmol/L), HbA1c 5.2-6.7% (33.3-49.7 mmol/mol), both remained stable on follow-up over 9 months to 5 years. Five detected mutations had been previously reported: p.Val182Met, c.679 + 1G > A, p.Gly295Ser, p.Arg191Gln and p.Met41Thr. Four mutations were novel: c.483 + 2 T > A, p.Ser151del, p.Met57GlyfsX29 and p.Val374_Ala377del. No mutations were identified in the other two patients, who were also tested by NGS.

    CONCLUSIONS: GCK gene mutations are detected in Chinese children and their family members with typical clinical features of GCK-MODY. Four novel mutations are detected.
  14. Chen L, Wang Z, Zhang B, Ge M, Ng H, Niu Y, et al.
    Carbohydr Polym, 2019 Feb 01;205:271-278.
    PMID: 30446105 DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.10.070
    Carbon and nitrogen sources in culture medium of Antrodia cinnamomea were optimized to eliminate the interference of exterior macromolecules on exopolysaccharide (EPS) yield by submerged fermentation. The results suggested that culture medium containing 50 g/L of glucose and 20 g/L of yeast extract as the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources could produce 1.03 g/L of exopolysaccharides. After purification, two heteropolysaccharides (AC-EPS1 and AC-EPS2) were obtained and characterized to provide the basic structure information. As the main component of the produced EPS, AC-EPS2 (accounting for 89.63%) was mainly composed of galactose (87.42%) with Mw (molecular weight) and R.M.S. (root-mean-square) radius of 1.18 × 105 g/mol and 25.3 nm, respectively. Furthermore, the spherical and flexible chain morphologies of EPS were observed in different solvents by TEM. The structural and morphological information of purified EPS were significant for further study on their structure-activity relationship and related applications.
  15. Cui X, Wang R, Bian P, Wu Q, Seshadri VDD, Liu L
    Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol, 2019 Dec;47(1):3391-3398.
    PMID: 31394949 DOI: 10.1080/21691401.2019.1649269
    Nimbolide, a triterpenoid isolated from flower of neem tree possess various therapeutic properties. The objective of the study was to assess the anti-arthritic activity of nimbolide in arthritis induced rats. Nimbolide (20 mg/kg per day) was given orally to arthritic rats induced with Complete Freund's Adjuvant and changes in paw volume, body weight, organ indices (thymus and spleen), arthritic score, biochemical parameters and proinflammatory cytokines levels were determined. Histopathological analysis was also performed. Western blot analysis was also performed. Rats treated with nimbolide displayed marked reduction in arthritic score, organ indices, volume of paw, edema formation, along with substantial enhancement in body weight. Histopathological findings showed significant reduction in destruction of joints and inflammation following nimbolide treatment. The protective action of arthritic rats treated with nimbolide was also substantiated by molecular and biochemical studies. The results of the study show that nimbolide treatment has markedly enhanced health and reduced inflammation via lessening the proinflammatory cytokines expression in arthritic rats. Hence, nimbolide may be used as a potent therapeutic drug in treating rheumatoid arthritis.
  16. Zhang P, Wang P, Yan L, Liu L
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2018;13:7047-7059.
    PMID: 30464458 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S180138
    Background: Nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is one of the subtypes of head and neck cancers. It occurs rarely, and its prevalence depends mainly on geographical location. Modern-day research is focused on coupling nanotechnology and traditional medicine for combating cancers. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized from Solanum xanthocarpum (Sx) leaf extract using reduction method.

    Methods: Characterization of the synthesized AuNPs was done by different techniques such as ultraviolet-visible spectrum absorption, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.

    Results: All the results showed the successful green synthesis of AuNPs from Sx, which induced apoptosis of C666-1 cell line (NPC cell line). There was a decline in both cell viability and colony formation in C666-1 cells upon treatment with Sx-AuNPs. The cell death was proved to be caused by autophagy and mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.

    Conclusion: Thus, due to their anticancer potential, these nanoparticles coupled with Sx can be used for in vivo applications and clinical research in future.

  17. Li H, Liu L, Dang M, Zhang W, Liu J
    Int. J. Neurosci., 2019 Sep 13.
    PMID: 31516045 DOI: 10.1080/00207454.2019.1667797
    The present study was designed to explore the relative susceptibility of in vitro fertilization (IVF)-conceived mice to global cerebral ischemic injury with the possible role of hydrogen sulfide and enzymes responsible for its production. IVF was carried to obtain pups, which were allowed to grow to the age of eight weeks. Thereafter, male mice were subjected to 20 minutes of global ischemia and 24 hours of reperfusion. The mice obtained from other groups including normal mating; superovulation, but normal mating and normal mating, but embryo implantation were also subjected to global ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. IVF-derived mice exhibited significant more injury in response to I/R injury in comparison to other groups assessed in terms of impairment in locomotor activity, development of motor in coordination, neurological severity score, cerebral infarction, apoptosis markers (caspase-3 activity and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, there was a relative decrease in the brain levels of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and its biosynthetic enzymes viz. cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase. Interestingly, the levels of H2S and cystathionine-γ-lyase were significantly low in IVF-derived mice in basal conditions also i.e. before subjecting to I/R injury and these biochemical alterations were associated with the behavioral deficits in mice, even before subjecting to I/R injury. It is concluded that in vitro fertilization-derived mice are more susceptible to global cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury, which may be possibly due to decreased levels of hydrogen sulfide and its biosynthetic enzymes viz., cystathionine-β-synthase and cystathionine-γ-lyase.
  18. Liu L, Mo Z, Liang Z, Zhang Y, Li R, Ong KC, et al.
    BMC Med, 2015;13:226.
    PMID: 26381232 DOI: 10.1186/s12916-015-0448-7
    To investigate the long-term effects on immunity of an inactivated enterovirus 71 (EV71) vaccine and its protective efficacy.
  19. Lee CH, Ko AM, Warnakulasuriya S, Ling TY, Sunarjo, Rajapakse PS, et al.
    Am J Public Health, 2012 Mar;102(3):e17-24.
    PMID: 22390524 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300521
    We investigated the population burden of betel quid abuse and its related impact on oral premalignant disorders (OPDs) in South, Southeast, and East Asia.
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