METHODS: Cardiovascular Outcomes for People Using Anticoagulation Strategies (COMPASS) is a double-blind superiority trial comparing rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily combined with aspirin 100 mg once daily or rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily vs aspirin 100 mg once daily for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, or cardiovascular death in patients with stable CAD or PAD. Patients not taking a proton pump inhibitor were also randomized, using a partial factorial design, to pantoprazole 40 mg once daily or placebo. The trial was designed to have at least 90% power to detect a 20% reduction in each of the rivaroxaban treatment arms compared with aspirin and to detect a 50% reduction in upper GI complications with pantoprazole compared with placebo.
RESULTS: Between February 2013 and May 2016, we recruited 27,395 participants from 602 centres in 33 countries; 17,598 participants were included in the pantoprazole vs placebo comparison. At baseline, the mean age was 68.2 years, 22.0% were female, 90.6% had CAD, and 27.3% had PAD.
CONCLUSIONS: COMPASS will provide information on the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban, alone or in combination with aspirin, in the long-term management of patients with stable CAD or PAD, and on the efficacy and safety of pantoprazole in preventing upper GI complications in patients receiving antithrombotic therapy.
METHODS: In an international, community-based prospective study, we enrolled individuals from communities in 17 countries between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 31, 2009 (except for in Karnataka, India, where enrolment began on Jan 1, 2003). Trained local staff obtained data from participants with interview-based questionnaires, measured weight and height, and recorded forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC). We analysed data from participants 130-190 cm tall and aged 34-80 years who had a 5 pack-year smoking history or less, who were not affected by specified disorders and were not pregnant, and for whom we had at least two FEV₁ and FVC measurements that did not vary by more than 200 mL. We divided the countries into seven socioeconomic and geographical regions: south Asia (India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan), east Asia (China), southeast Asia (Malaysia), sub-Saharan Africa (South Africa and Zimbabwe), South America (Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, and Chile), the Middle East (Iran, United Arab Emirates, and Turkey), and North America or Europe (Canada, Sweden, and Poland). Data were analysed with non-linear regression to model height, age, sex, and region.
FINDINGS: 153,996 individuals were enrolled from 628 communities. Data from 38,517 asymptomatic, healthy non-smokers (25,614 women; 12,903 men) were analysed. For all regions, lung function increased with height non-linearly, decreased with age, and was proportionately higher in men than women. The quantitative effect of height, age, and sex on lung function differed by region. Compared with North America or Europe, FEV1 adjusted for height, age, and sex was 31·3% (95% CI 30·8-31·8%) lower in south Asia, 24·2% (23·5-24·9%) lower in southeast Asia, 12·8% (12·4-13·4%) lower in east Asia, 20·9% (19·9-22·0%) lower in sub-Saharan Africa, 5·7% (5·1-6·4%) lower in South America, and 11·2% (10·6-11·8%) lower in the Middle East. We recorded similar but larger differences in FVC. The differences were not accounted for by variation in weight, urban versus rural location, and education level between regions.
INTERPRETATION: Lung function differs substantially between regions of the world. These large differences are not explained by factors investigated in this study; the contribution of socioeconomic, genetic, and environmental factors and their interactions with lung function and lung health need further clarification.
FUNDING: Full funding sources listed at end of the paper (see Acknowledgments).
FINDINGS: In this study, we collected and tested 253 rectal swabs from pet dogs; of which 64 samples (25.3%) tested positive for AstVs with diarrhea and 15 more samples (5.9%) also was identified as AstVs, however without any clinical signs. Phylogenetic analysis of 39 partial ORF1b sequences from these samples revealed that they are similar to AstVs, which can be subdivided into three lineages. Interestingly, out of the 39 isolates sequenced, 16 isolates are shown to be in the Mamastrovirus 5/canine astrovirus (CAstV) lineage and the remaining 23 isolates displayed higher similarities with known porcine astrovirus (PoAstV) 5 and 2. Further, analysis of 13 capsid sequences from these isolates showed that they are closely clustered with Chinese or Italy CAstV isolates.
CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that CAstVs commonly circulate in pet dogs, and our sequencing results have shown the genomic diversity of CAstVs leading to increasing number of clusters.
Method: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL and clinical trial registers for studies using search strategies incorporating the terms 'intracerebral haemorrhage', 'tranexamic acid' and 'antifibrinolytic'. Authors of ongoing clinical trials were contacted for further details.
Findings: We screened 268 publications and retrieved 17 articles after screening. Unpublished information from three ongoing clinical trials was obtained. We found five completed studies. Of these, two randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intravenous tranexamic acid to placebo (n = 54) reported no significant difference in death or dependency. Three observational studies (n = 281) suggested less haematoma growth with rapid tranexamic acid infusion. There are six ongoing RCTs (n = 3089) with different clinical exclusions, imaging selection criteria (spot sign and haematoma volume), time window for recruitment and dosing of tranexamic acid.
Discussion: Despite their heterogeneity, the ongoing trials will provide key evidence on the effects of tranexamic acid on ICH. There are uncertainties of whether patients with negative spot sign, large haematoma, intraventricular haemorrhage, or poor Glasgow Coma Scale should be recruited. The time window for optimal effect of haemostatic therapy in ICH is yet to be established.
Conclusion: Tranexamic acid is a promising haemostatic agent for ICH. We await the results of the trials before definite conclusions can be drawn.
METHODS: Genetic analysis was performed in 42 patients with MODY aged 1 month~18 years among a cohort of 759 patients with diabetes, identified with the following four clinical criteria: age of diagnosis ≤18 years; negative pancreatic autoantibodies; family history of diabetes; or persistently detectable C-peptide; or diabetes associated with extrapancreatic features. GCK gene mutations were first screened by Sanger sequencing. GCK mutation-negative patients were further analysed by WES.
RESULTS: Mutations were identified in 24 patients: 20 mutations in GCK, 1 in HNF4A, 1 in INS, 1 in ABCC8, and a 17q12 microdeletion. Four previously unpublished novel GCK mutations: c.1108G>C in exon 9, and c.1339C>T, c.1288_1290delCTG, and c.1340_1343delGGGGinsCTGGTCT in exon 10 were detected. WES identified a novel missense mutation c.311A>G in exon 3 in the INS gene, and copy number variation analysis detected a 1.4 Mb microdeletion in the long arm of the chromosome 17q12 region. Compared with mutation-negative subjects, the mutation-positive subjects had lower haemoglobin A1c and initial blood glucose levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Most MODY cases in this study were due to GCK mutations, which is in contrast to previous reports in Chinese patients. Diabetes associated with extrapancreatic features should be a clinical criterion for MODY genetic analysis. Mutational analysis by WES provided a precise diagnosis of MODY subtypes. Moreover, WES can be useful for detecting large deletions in coding regions in addition to point mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.